Ironclad Body Training System

Ironclad Body Training System

Cinderalla Solution Review

Cinderalla Solution Review

Sugar Crush Detox Review

Sugar Crush Detox Review

Vegan Master Plan Health Guide Review

Vegan Master Plan Health Guide Review

Hft2 Build 2wice the Muscle Review

Hft2 Build 2wice the Muscle Review

Melt Those Extra Pounds in Just 21 Days with The Smoothie Diet

Melt Those Extra Pounds in Just 21 Days with The Smoothie Diet

Inner Peace Formula Review

Inner Peace Formula Review

V3 Plant-based Fitness Review

V3 Plant-based Fitness Review

Neuro Slimmer System Gastric Surgery Hypnosis Review

Neuro Slimmer System Gastric Surgery Hypnosis Review

Eat Stop Eat Review

Eat Stop Eat Review

Customized Fat Loss Review

Customized Fat Loss Review

Power Juicing Review

Power Juicing Review


Oxidation of acetyl CoA THE citric acid CYCLE

Simple Krebs Cycle

The acetate of acetyl CoA undergoes a stepwise oxidation to carbon dioxide and water in a cyclic pathway, the citric acid cycle, shown in Figures 5.17 and 5.18. This pathway is sometimes known as the Krebs cycle, after its discoverer, Sir Hans Krebs. For each mole of acetyl CoA oxidized in this pathway, there is a yield of Figure 5.17 An overview of the citric acid cycle also known as the Krebs cycle or tricarboxylic acid cycle . Figure 5.17 An overview of the citric acid cycle also known as...

Metabolism Glucose Storage

Metabolism Glucose Muscles

The glucose stored in the liver as glyco-gen can be considered a reservoir for buffering blood glucose levels A . Since glucose is the essential energy source of the CNS, blood glucose levels are regulated within a tight margin through the interplay of glucagon and insulin. Muscle glycogen is not directly integrated into the blood glucose regulation system. Since muscles lack glucose-6-phosphatase, their cells are unable to convert glucose-6-phosphate formed during glycogen breakdown into...

Fatty Acids Metabolism

Palmitate Metabolism

Triglyceride triacylglycerol hydrolysis in adipocytes is subject to complex hormonal regulation A . Besides by glu-cagon, growth hormones, and others, hormone-sensitive lipase is activated, in particular, by catecholamines released during times of heightened energy need. Hormone-sensitive lipase is activated via a p-receptor and subsequent formation of the second messenger cAMP in the adenylate cyclase system. Hormone-sensitive lipase releases free fatty acids FFA from tri- and di-glycerides...

Hormonal control in the fed and fasting states

Hydrolysis Triacylglycerol

In the fed state see Figure 5.6 , when there is an ample supply of metabolic fuels from the gut, the main processes occurring are synthesis of reserves of triacylglycerol and glycogen glucose is in plentiful supply and is the main fuel for most tissues. By contrast, in the fasting state see Figure 5.7 the reserves of triacylglycerol and glycogen are mobilized for use, and glucose, which is now scarce, must be spared for use by the brain and red blood cells. As discussed in section 5.3, the...

Transfer of NADH from glycolysis into the mitochondria

Malate Aspartate Glycolysis

The mitochondrial inner membrane is impermeable to NAD, and therefore the NADH produced in the cytosol in glycolysis cannot enter the mitochondria for reoxidation. In order to transfer the reducing equivalents from cytosolic NADH into the mitochondria, two substrate shuttles are used The malate aspartate shuttle Figure 5.11 involves reduction of oxaloacetate in the cytosol to malate with the oxidation of cytosolic NADH to NAD . Malate enters the mitochondria and is reduced back to oxaloacetate,...

Risk Factors for Vitamin A Deficiency

Diagramme Uml Cas Utilisation

Vitamin A deficiency is more common among poor families in developing countries, and along with poverty are many associated risk factors such as low maternal and paternal education, lack of land, crowding, poor hygiene, increased infectious disease morbidity, geographic isolation, lack of a home garden, and inadequate intake of vitamin A. Infants, preschool, and primary school-aged children are at higher risk for vitamin A deficiency, Fig. 17. Risk factors for vitamin A deficiency. Fig. 17....

Are We Born with All of the Fat Cells We Will Ever Have

We are not born with a full complement of fat cells as some scientists once thought. The number of fat cells in the body increases at various stages throughout growth, but by the time adulthood is reached the total number of these cells can become fixed. This means that if our body fat mass does not change, we probably would not produce new fat cells as adults. However, if we consume excessive calories, the number of fat cells can increase. In adipose tissue there is a small number of so-called...

Physical Examination Techniques

Scarlet Tongue Niacin Deficiency

Classic physical assessment involves inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation, generally performed in that order 174 . Vitamin mineral imbalance in dialysis patients affects tissue integrity of the mouth, skin, scalp, eyes, hair, hair follicles, and nails. Inspection and light palpation are techniques used most frequently. While presentation of vitamin and mineral lesions can be discrete, they are generally bilateral in the absence of injury. 5.4.1. Examination of the Mouth The lips...

The rhizosphere surrounds each root

Function The Casparian Strip Root

The narrow zone of soil surrounding a root is called the rhizosphere fig. 7.13 . The rhizosphere extends up to 5 millimeters from the root's surface and is a complex and ever-changing environment. Growth and metabolism of roots modify the rhizosphere in several ways. First, roots force their way through crevices and between soil particles. Later, when the roots die and decay, they leave open channels that help aerate the soil this aeration may improve the root growth of other plants. Roots also...

Patterns of food allergic responses Quickonset symptoms

Cow Milk Protein Allergy Mucosa

These often follow the ingestion of a single food, such as egg, peanut or sesame. Within minutes the sufferer may notice tingling of the tongue, and there may be the rapid development of skin rash, urticaria or wheezing. One localized variant, the oral allergy syndrome, is often seen in older pollen-sensitized individuals and is characterized by lip tingling and mouth swelling after ingestion of certain fruits and vegetables.24 More serious reactions, however, can occur at any age, and antigens...

Potential subtypes of cyclic vomiting syndrome and common associations

The vast majority (87 ) of patients with CVS have a migraine association either based most commonly on a family history of migraine or, less frequently, on the subsequent development of migraines in the affected child. Because these associated symptoms occurred less than half the time, we did not use headache, photophobia and phonophobia as specific criteria to determine who had migraine-associated CVS. When we examined the remainder with non-migraine-associated CVS (13 ), they appeared to have...

Lesions Lacunae And Crypts

Iris Closed Lesion

These are the iris signs that lower constitutional quality and represent acquired or inherited weaknesses in the body. They are recognized by their shapes. They vary in size and in degrees of darkness. An open lesion is one that has one end opened up, while the other end is usually closed. Being open indicates to the lesion, lacunae, crypt iridologist that this tissue is active in that nutrients, circulation and metabolic functions are flowing through the tissue, although at a reduced rate. THE...

The pentose phosphate pathway in red blood cells favism

Pathway Production Red Blood Cells

The pentose phosphate pathway is also important in the red blood cell, where NADPH is required to maintain an adequate pool of reduced glutathione, which is used to remove hydrogen peroxide. As shown in Figure 5.15, the tripeptide glutathione y-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine is the reducing agent for glutathione peroxidase, which reduces H2O2 to H2O and O2. Glutathione peroxidase is a selenium-dependent enzyme section , and this explains the antioxidant action of selenium. Oxidized...

Taurine and Immune Function

Taurine, along with sulphate, can be regarded as a biochemical end-product of cysteine metabolism. However, it is apparent that taurine also plays a role in immune function. It is the most abundant free nitrogenous compound often incorrectly classified as an amino acid in cells. It is a membrane stabilizer and regulates calcium flux, thereby controlling cell stability. It has been shown to possess antioxidant properties and to regulate the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in hamsters, rats...

The Digestive System Stomach Intestines

Iridology Underacid Stomach Iris

The digestive system is the hub of the body. Nutrients that sustain body tissues are obtained from it. Notice that the stomach is located in the middle of the iris immediately surrounding the pupil, in zone 1. Coming out toward the nerve wreath, you will see a round halo or circle that is light in coloration. This indicates an acidic condition in the stomach. There is an imbalance in the hydrochloric acid and digestive enzyme level. Protein digestion is being impaired. SMALL, TIGHT PUPIL...

Modern Trends In Strength Training

Anybody who's been involved in bodybuilding for a while should know about or at least heard of Charles Poliquin. Poliquin is the world renowned trainer of multiple Olympians , american football players and literally thousands of people fortunate enough to be able to afford his services. Poliquin now has a number of books out, including the Poliquin principles and others, but as this free ebook is about choosing the best from each catagory of author, we opted for this one as perhaps his best...

Renal Dietitians Dietetic Practice Group

In 1978, the Renal Practice Group RPG of the ADA was formed. This organization deals with the professional concerns of the renal dietitian, including salary surveys, employment, legislation, and patient education. The RPG publishes a quarterly newsletter that features articles on renal nutrition and patient education. The need for a uniform renal diet that could be used across the United States was identified as early as 1978, when the RPG was first formed. The project was not initiated at that...

Complete proteins and incomplete proteins

Another way to describe the quality of proteins is to say that they're either complete or incomplete. A complete protein is one that contains ample amounts of all essential amino acids an incomplete protein does not. A protein low in one specific amino acid is called a limiting protein because it can build only as much tissue as the smallest amount of the necessary amino acid. You can improve the protein quality in a food containing incomplete limiting proteins by eating it along with one that...

Food Pyramids Obesity And Diabetes

Diabetes Biology

An estimated 60 of Americans are overweight and 25 are obese. Obesity can be measured in several ways. One method states that if a person weighs more than 20 of the ideal weight according to the height weight chart, the person is obese. This method does not take into account an athlete who may weigh more than a nonathlete because of muscle, not fat. Another method of measuring obesity is to measure percentage of body fat. If a person's body fat is more than 25 for a man or 30 for a woman, that...

Tissue Specific Energy Metabolism

Energy Metabolism During Fasting

The brain depends almost exclusively on glucose for energy. Since it cannot store compounds for oxidation, it has to receive a constant supply of glucose. To make this possible, a minimum blood glucose level has to be maintained at all times A . The brain uses about 120 g of glucose per day during phases of prolonged fasting or starvation it can use ketone bodies instead, but only to a limited extent. Muscle tissue, on the contrary, possesses large glycogen stores. When broken down, it is...

Structure and Properties of the Macronutrients

Water H20 Plants

Nutrition may be defined simply as the utilization of foods by living organisms for normal growth, reproduction, and maintenance of health. The compounds that are classed as nutrients include water, carbohydrates, proteins or amino acids, lipids, vitamins, and minerals. These nutrients make up living tissues whether they be plant, animal, or microbial tissues. Thus, these nutrients are obtained by intake of food and are then used by the human body to build and maintain its own tissues. The...

Metabolism Distribution and Regulation

Triglyceride Metabolism

Once absorbed, carbohydrates are carried to the liver A . There, fructose and galactose are converted into glucose. Some of the absorbed glucose reaches the peripheral bloodstream, where it is recognized by pancreatic receptors. This triggers increased insulin secretion by the p-cells and reduces glucagon secretion. These hormonal changes provide a signal which affects the entire metabolism absorption of glucose into the liver, muscle cells, and fatty tissues is increased, and its conversion...

Ayurveda Traditional Oriental Medicine Macrobiotics

When people believed in the Earth is flat paradigm, every university taught its students that the Earth was flat. Every scientist and professor could prove to you that it was flat. Those scientists and professors were not lying to you - they just did not know. It took a few distinctions put forth by a few noble minds to dissolve away the basic assumptions of all those schools of thought. This is how knowledge moves forward - indeed, It is the only way that knowledge has ever moved forward. The...

Essential elements are required by plants for normal growth and reproduction

Mineral Nutrition Plants Experiment

More than 60 elements have been found in plant tissues. These elements range from those as common as carbon and hydrogen to those as exotic as platinum, uranium, and gold. Are all of these elements essential for growth If so, what functions do they perform Answering these questions has proven to be a formidable task. We must first define what we mean by essential. An element is essential if 1 it is required for normal growth and reproduction, 2 no other element can replace it and correct the...

The Chris Report Year on Steroids with onris Hart

Steroids Mick Hart Son Chris Hart

This report is quite amazing and testament to the faith that Mick Hart author of the Layman's Guides to steroids has in his knowledge of safe and effective steroid use. The Chris Report is the complete step by step diary of his own son's Chris one year on anabolic steroids preparing for his first bodybuilding show. You should take a look yourself to see the end results he went from virtually zero to British Championship qualifier in just under 12 months, an incredible feat more so when you...

Major Iris Signs And Markings

Lymphatic Rosary Brown Iris

There are many details to the features observed in the iris. The most obvious ones are mentioned here so that you can begin to understand the basic meanings, as this is an introductory booklet and not an in-depth commentary. Refer to the Science and Practice of Iridology by Dr. Bernard Jensen, for further studies. Major iris signs and markings are eye color and variations, lesions, lacunae, crypts, the scurf rim, radii solaris, lymphatic rosary, irritations, arcus senilis, nerve rings,...

Diagnosis with differential


For the diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease, the subject's history is very important. The crucial elements to obtain are the age of the appearance of symptoms whether the passage of meconium has been normal or delayed and whether the child presented with episodes of functional intestinal obstruction. In addition, a functional idiopathic megacolon must be ruled out. A clinical comparison between functional and congenital megacolon is shown in Table 17.1. When the history early onset of...

Basic Iris Topography

Autonomic Nerve Wreath

It's helpful for a newcomer to iridology to be able to recognize the major iris features. Iridology involves study of a very intricate tissue structure. There are over 90 known specific areas mapped on each iris, and they are both different. The right iris responds to the right side of the body and the left responds to the left side. Therefore, there are over 180 divisions to gather information from within the two irides, each smaller than a dime. Starting from the pupil outward, the first...

Fructose and Galactose

Fructose Galactose Metabolism

Fructose, which has no influence on the release of insulin, is metabolized in the liver A . Which metabolic pathway is used depends on the presence or absence of other monosaccharides. In case of simultaneous supply of glucose and fructose, fructose is transformed into intermediate products of the glycolytic pathway. Since only one phosphorylated product results from the splitting of fructose-1-phosphate, the remaining glyceraldehyde has to be processed via a different pathway first. Like...

Arnold De Vries The Fountain Of Youth

Why all this cooking when there is really not cook like old Sol Cooked food is dead food - and remember, the whiter the bread the sooner we are dead Every attempt to improve on natural food must prove a failure, and Nature will react at first acutely to any interference with her beneficent laws of health. And if we continue to disobey her laws by drugs or even surgery, the symptoms may disappear for a while only to reappear in chronic or fatal diseases Man is the only creature that cooks his...

Diagnosis and differential

Coliti Plesiomonas

Table 25.3 Differential diagnosis of colitis HIV and HIV-related opportunistic infections Other Ulcerative colitis Crohn's disease Henoch-Sch nlein purpura Hemolytic uremic syndrome Intestinal ischemia Intussusception Allergic colitis primarily in infancy Hirschsprung's enterocolitis primarily in infancy The diagnosis of ulcerative colitis is established by the information gathered from a detailed symptom and family history, physical examination, and a combination of laboratory, radiological,...

Liver Fire Flaming Upward Gan Huo Shang

Cephalgia headaches , migraine, hypertension high blood pressure , M ni re disease auditory vertigo , tinnitus, chronic conjunctivitis. Restlessness, insomnia, irritability, sudden loss of temper, vertigo dizziness , severe headaches, red eyes, intraocular pressure, dry mouth, bitter taste in mouth, nose bleeds, tinnitus. Tongue Dry, red, red edges, yellow fur Pulse Tight, rapid Sour-cool, sour-cold, bitter-cool, bitter-cold Reduce salt and meat, vegetarian diet for several days or weeks, no...

Iris Color And Variations

Iridology Chemical Deposit

There are only two eye colors in the world today blue and brown. The structure of the stroma is different in the two. The blue eye is less dense, has its trab cula in the open and reveals itself more clearly. Blue eyes are much easier to study. The brown eye is dense, not revealing the trab cula and is more difficult to analyze. There are variations between the true blue and true brown eyes. Sometimes people born of blue- and brown-eyed parents have a mixture of both. Genetically, blue eyes are...