Carbohydrates energy metabolism and wound healing

In general, calories are needed to supply the energy that is necessary for wound healing. Nutritional support generally includes some form of carbohydrates (parenteral dextrose, and enteral lactose, oligosaccharides, etc.). Glucose is a critical nutrient, especially in patients who have experienced significant trauma, such as a burn, as it is required for cellular growth, fibroblastic mobility, and leukocyte activity. As the metabolic rate increases, there is a concomitant increase in the...

Energy metabolismcaloric needs

It is generally recognized that energy needs rise with the increased demands for wound healing (18). Although energy needs increase, this increase may not be at a level as significant as initially thought. Studies have shown that energy needs are variable and are not necessarily related to burn wound size, although nitrogen balance is related to the size of the open burn wound (19,20). Hart demonstrated that body surface area (BSA) burned increased catabolism until 40 BSA was reached and then...

Pantothenic acid and wound healing

In a number of animal studies, oral pantothenic acid or topically applied panthenol was shown to accelerate the closure of skin wounds.28-31 Most of the mechanistic research done in this area involves looking at the impact pantothenic acid has on fibroblast function and concomitant wound closure and scar formation. Substantial amounts of work have also focused on how pantothenic acid enhances both collagen synthesis and collagen cross-linking and the role this vitamin plays in altering trace...

Macronutrients

Macronutrients provide the energy for all body functions as well as the major building blocks for all tissues and reparative processes (Table 1.2). As will be discussed in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3, carbohydrate and fat may both be used to support the energy needs of the organism, although certain cells may be obligate carbohydrate consumers. This is especially true in the healing wound, with a density of inflammatory cells and fibroblasts that use carbohydrate as an energy source.35 36 Studies...

Arginine and sepsis

Sepsis impairs the intestinal absorption of amino acids by affecting the transporters. Analysis of the transport kinetics suggests that the decreased transport capacity is caused by a reduction in the number or affinity of the transporter proteins. - Injury or stress Yes Allograft rejection Yes Number of T cells, mitogenic reactivity, and delayed-type Yesb hypersensitivity responses in immunocomprised host Antitumor cytotoxicity in vitro Yes bAthymic nude animals. cHIV infected.

Metabolism in the whole body

Glutamine Metabolism Bicarbonate

Glutamine Transports Ammonia in Blood Free ammonia is toxic to the central nervous system and must be transported in a nontoxic form to the liver, where it can enter the urea cycle and eventually be excreted in the urine. The catabolism of proteins in muscle produces nitrogen that is then incorporated to form glutamine, a nontoxic transport form of ammonia 1 . It is estimated that 30 to 35 of amino acid nitrogen is transported in the plasma in the form of glutamine 2 . The formation of...

Arginine metabolism

Metabolism Arginine Wounds

ODC ornithine decarboxylase OAT ornithine aminotransferase ODC ornithine decarboxylase OAT ornithine aminotransferase In such situations, arginine becomes indispensable for optimal growth and maintenance of positive nitrogen balance. The major synthesis pathway involves the intestinal-renal axis in which the small intestine releases citrulline into the blood circulation and is then extracted by the kidney for conversion into arginine. It is released into the bloodstream for uptake by tissues...

Riboflavin vitamin b

Riboflavin plays a critical role in protein metabolism and is a key component of the oxidative phosphorylation enzyme system that is intimately involved in the production of cellular energy. Its chemical structure is shown in Figure 7.2. Riboflavin is primarily absorbed in the proximal small intestine, and uptake is facilitated by bile salts. Transport in the blood is accomplished via attachment to protein complexes i.e., albumin . Very little riboflavin is stored in the body, and therefore,...

Riboflavin and wound healing

Riboflavin has an impact on wound healing through the general role it plays in hypermetabolic tissues with electron transport and protein amino acid metabolism as well as its more specific function in tissue repair, and so forth. Specific roles in this process have been established via small animal rat research. Research done in the laboratories of Lakshmi et al.11,12 has shown that riboflavin is involved in all of the phases of the wound repair process. In their initial studies,10 rat models...

Wound healing

Stages Wound Healing Proliferation

The process of wound healing may be best understood by dividing it into phases.1-4 These phases are somewhat arbitrary, as they overlap in time, physiology, and cell type, with each phase not entirely completed before the next begins. Our knowledge of these phases is constantly improving, resulting in additional revision of our understanding of how these different aspects of healing interact. In addition, not all wounds heal in precisely the same manner due to differences in the etiology of the...

Thiamine and wound healing

Although most of the research regarding thiamine deficiency has focused on the role it plays in the TCA cycle and ATP synthesis, some work has analyzed its role in wound healing. In a study done by Ostrovskii and Nikitin9 using hypovitaminotic white mice as experimental models, thiamine deficiency was induced by feeding a thiamine-deficient diet for 30 d or by supplying animals with a thiamine antagonist oxythiamine for the same period of time. When this type of deficiency was produced in mice...

Healing

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Nutrition and the metabolic response to injury

Cuthbertson Metabolic Response Injury

Cuthbertson described the metabolic response to injury as consisting of an ebb phase and a flow phase.2526 The ebb phase is the period of traumatic shock or hypometabolism during the first few hours or days after injury. This phase is soon replaced by the flow phase that is a period of hypermetabolism that may last for weeks or months depending on the nature of the injury and obstacles to recovery. In the case of minor injury, such as elective surgery, both of these phases may be relatively...

Contents

Chapter 1 Overview of Nutrition and Wound Chapter 2 Carbohydrates and Wound Carol Ireton-Jones and George U. Liepa Chapter 3 Fat and Wound Chapter 4 Protein and Wound Chapter 5 Glutamine and Wound Mark B. Schoemann, C. Dustin Bechtold, Shefali Agarwal, and Christopher W. Lentz Chapter 6 Arginine and Wound Vanita Ahuja, Majida Rizk, and Adrian Barbul Chapter 7 B Vitamins and Wound George U. Liepa, Carol Ireton-Jones, Hemendra Basu, and Charles R. Baxter Chapter 8 Vitamin C and Wound Hideharu...