Surviving World War III
Food aid has been a key to global agricultural development and trade policy since the end of World War II. Food aid creates agricultural development and income growth in poor nations, and thus creates future markets for donor countries, according to Christopher Barrett. However, food aid may be inflationary because it increases demand and costs for nonfood items in the recipient countries. World Food Programme. Fighting the Global War on Hunger from the Frontline. Available from
Starvation has been inflicted on many people, including people in developing countries suffering through famines, poverty-stricken people at the end of the month when they have no money for food, and victims of World War II concentration camps. Starvation is also common among exercisers who are intent on losing weight.
Government recommendations to enrich flour and bread products with the B vitamins thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin (as well as iron) were first made in the early 1940s. These recommendations came about because of the poor nutritional status of enlisted men during World War II, as well as the identification of specific vitamin-deficiency diseases related to poor dietary intake of B vitamins. Deficiency diseases such as pellagra (due to poor niacin intake) and beriberi (due to poor thiamin intake) are rarely seen in the United States today, largely eliminated by enrichment of cereal grains.
How did the nutrient recommendations originate Concerned with the need to provide proper nutrition for newly drafted World War II soldiers, many of whom were undernourished, the Department of Defense commissioned the first set of nutrient recommendations (called the Recommended Dietary Allowances) in 1941. Since then, nutrient recommendations
Regarding the rapid changes in the incidence of CHD in African Americans described above, it is imperative to stress that the rise in CHD even in white populations is also of relatively recent origin. This fact is insufficiently appreciated. As evidence from the U.K., the 1912 edition of Sir William Osler's Principles and Practice of Medicine described angina pectoris as a rare disease a case a year is about average, even in the large metropolitan hospitals. Prior to World War I, the
Positive feedback makes for humorous anecdotes. But the real world contains, sadly, many examples of positive feedback put in place by well-meaning politicians and businessmen who don't understand the consequences of crossing the wires between noble ends and expedient means. Consider the nuclear arms race. At the end of World War II, the United States and Britain realised they couldn't afford to match the Soviet army in Europe so they built nuclear bombs and threatened all-out destruction of the Soviet homeland in response to any aggression. The Soviets, faced with the ultimate threat, accelerated their own nuclear program in the belief that only by matching or surpassing the West could they deal on an equal basis. Once the Soviets tested their bomb, hysteria in the West was compounded now they faced an adversary armed with the Bomb as well as a huge army. The only way to deter the Soviets from using their bomb was to build mo' bigger bombs. And so on, as fear fed on fear,...
Government assigned the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences, a non -governmental, scientific body, to define the nutritional requirements for Americans. The Board's research led to the publication of a report known as the Recommended Dietary Allowances. The recommended allowances were not intended as definitive nutrient requirements, nor were they meant for any particular individual. The RDA's were intended as an informed guideline
Human Needs.6 The decades after World War II were marked by a progression of thinking among nutrition scientists and policymakers from problems of hunger and nutrient adequacy to the role of diet as a controllable risk factor in chronic degenerative conditions such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and cancer that are the leading causes of death in the U.S.7 The dietary goals report attributed these killer diseases to dietary and other life-style factors and established quantitative standards for what was considered to be a more optimum intake of total fat, saturated fatty acids, total carbohydrate, added sugars, cholesterol, sodium, and protein. The report generated much controversy among nutritionists and scientists about the proposed standards and goals.
Legislation was introduced in several countries during World War II which required the addition of iron and calcium, as well as of certain water-soluble vitamins, to bread and flour in order to combat nutritional deficiencies caused by food restrictions. The success of these measures in improving health led to the extension of the legislation into peacetime. Some countries, such as the UK, still require that bread and flour be fortified with calcium and iron (Statutory Instrument, 1984).
Change in diet, for example, those conducted on populations during the Second World War and studies of populations before and after the introduction of sugars into the diet. Such studies have shown clearly that changes in dental caries mirror changes in economic growth and increased consumption of free sugars. Sometimes changes in sugars consumption were accompanied by an increase in other refined carbohydrates. There are, however, examples where sugars consumption decreased and starch consumption increased yet levels of dental caries declined.
These motives to drink coffee, essentially all of a positive nature, imply that the disturbing effects of coffee on sleep are confounded by other aspects. Illustrative of this view is research by De Groen et al. (1993), who studied snoring and anxiety dreams in 98 veterans from World War II. Fifty-five of them suffered from current posttraumatic stress disorder. The outcome showed that the association between snoring and anxiety dreams was independent of many factors that were expected to be related, one of which was coffee consumption. A comparable study was done in 14,800 male twins, born between 1939 and 1995, who served the army in Vietnam between 1964 and 1975 (Fabsitz et al., 1997). Responses were collected from 8870 men on the frequency of their sleep problems as reported on the Jenkins sleep questionnaire, which inventories the prevalence of at least one sleep problem per month. Sixty-seven percent of the respondents awoke often, 61.5 awoke tired or worn out, 48.1 experienced...
The socioeconomic situation in the democratic part of Europe and in the United States after World War II was substantially different than that in the Soviet bloc. The United States and the European democratic states were prosperous countries with effective economies and a rich variety of all kinds of foods. The communist states, however, had ineffective centralized economies and lower standards of living. The amount of various foods, especially foods of animal origin, was almost always insufficient in the USSR and the majority of its satellite countries. Data on food consumption compiled by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) confirm that meat consumption was, between 1961 and 1990, substantially lower in the USSR, Poland, Romania, and Bulgaria than in Western Europe or the United States. Similarly, the consumption of milk and butter in Bulgaria, Hungary, and Romania was significantly lower in comparison with Western and Northern Europe.
It has been established that mercury damages chromosomes,75 and we have known for quite some time that gene mutations are closely correlated to the development of cancer. For example, methylmercury and mercury chloride have been shown to cause kidney tumors in male mice. Studies of those exposed occupationally, such as chloralkali and nuclear weapons workers, dentists, and dental technicians, indicate that exposure to low levels of mercury may increase the risk of lung, kidney, and brain tumors.76 Better studies on these groups of high-risk individuals need to be done. No one has specifically examined the
Are generally small less than 1 ha there is often little relationship between such plantings and the total size of one farmer's cocoa holdings (3) which can be at a number of different locations around a village or even around different villages. Nevertheless, very few African cocoa growers have more than 8 ha of cocoa under cultivation and almost none have more than 50 ha. However, there are again a few (mostly historic) exceptions in Cameroon, several estates were started by German companies before World War I, but these were all soon converted to other crops in Equatorial Guinea at one time, all the cocoa was produced on estates cocoa was planted quite extensively on some private estates in Zaire as well as on some state-owned ones in Nigeria in C te d'Ivoire, there are a few private sector cocoa estates, originally created by European investors.
Miyazaki & Morimoto (29) reported a significant correlation (r + 0.91) between sugar availability in Japan and DMFT at age 12 years between 1957 and 1987. Populations that had experienced a reduced sugar availability during the Second World War showed a reduction in dental caries which subsequently increased again when the restriction was lifted (30-32). Although the data pre-date the widespread use of fluoride dentifrice, Weaver (33) observed a reduction in dental caries between 1943 and 1949 in areas of northern England with both high and low concentrations of fluoride in drinking-water. Epidemiological studies have shown that starch is of low risk to dental caries. People who consume high-starch low-sugars diets generally have low levels of caries, whereas people who consume low-starch high-sugars diets have high levels of caries (39, 48, 49, 51, 67, 101, 102). In Norway and Japan the intake of starch increased during the Second World War, yet the occurrence of caries was reduced.
The sanitarium, in its heyday during the 1880s, was the most famous health institution in the country, a reputation it held until World War II. The sanitarium was also instrumental in spawning the health food industry and lent strong support to the concept of vegetarianism. The Battle Creek Sanitarium represented a haven to those who made pilgrimages to its abundant facilities. It afforded indoor exercise facilities, a steam-heated environment, and all the amenities of a first-class hotel, including Edison electric lights and polite attendants. In 1927, its golden anniversary year, the Battle Creek Sanitarium treated more than 7,000 patients. It eventually became the Percy Jones Army Hospital, which treated casualties of World War II and the Korean War. see also Kellogg, John Harvey White, Ellen G.
Deficiency as a public health problem in developing countries in the 1950s. The FAO WHO Expert Committee on Nutrition recognized that dried skimmed milk production had increased greatly after World War II, and that it was a surplus food being considered for distribution in developing countries in the form of food aid. The expert committee recommended that dried skimmed milk be fortified with vitamin A (85).
The RNI for children up to 5 years of age is 400 mg retinol equivalents (RE) day, which can easily be met from the diet if animal foods are available e.g. 1 egg (50g) contains about 100 mg RE, 25g chicken liver contains 3000 mg RE. Plants also contribute to vitamin A intake e.g. 1 raw carrot (20g) contains 400 mg b-carotene, a 70 g portion of spinach contains 600 mg b-carotene and with a bioefficacy of 100 would supply 400 and 600 mg RE respectively. But the pro-vitamin A carotenoids are absorbed less efficiently than retinol, that is, their bioefficacy is less than 100 . Therefore the effective supply of vitamin A from fruits and vegetables is much lower than that from retinol in animal foods (van Lieshout et al, 2001). If 1 mole b-carotene (Fig. 3.1) yields 2 moles retinol then, using 100 bioefficacy, 1 mmol (0.537 mg) b-carotene would be absorbed and converted totally to 2 mmol (0.572 mg) retinol, i.e. 0.537 0.572 0.94 mg b-carotene is equivalent to 1 mg retinol. The results of the...
The measurement of gas concentration before World War II was largely gravimetric for chamber or room calorimeters and volumetric when measuring basal metabolic rates of individuals. The classic portable basal metabolic rate apparatus of Benedict ( 4) depended on a closed system, in which a container of oxygen would decrease in volume in proportion to the uptake of oxygen by the subject, while the CO2 was absorbed but not measured. Oxygen consumption was then translated into calories per hour by assuming an amount of expired CO2, which would yield a nonprotein respiratory quotient (RQ) of 0.82 and hence a caloric equivalent for oxygen of 4.825 kcal (20.19 kJ) liter-1. The wartime events of the early 1940s provided a stimulus to develop more rapid and accurate methods of gas analysis, particularly for the new demands of combat aviation at higher altitudes. Following World War II, physical methods of gas analysis began to dominate the field of gas exchange. Mass spectrometry was...
Xerophthalmia has been associated with larger household size in Indonesia (285) and larger family size in urban Bangladesh (747), but no relationship was found between xerophthalmia and household size in Malawi (673). In Bangladesh, a family size of three or more children compared to one or two children was associated with an increased risk of xerophthalmia (OR 3.2, 95 CI 1.61-6.50) (748). Larger overall fluctuations in poverty may account for changes in the incidence of xerophthalmia over time. In Egypt between 1912 and 1931, the incidence of xerophthalmia in government ophthalmic hospitals peaked in 1913 and in 1918-1919, the former peak coinciding with economic crisis in Egypt and the latter peak coincided with poor conditions in the country at the end of World War I (749).
Vitamin C is probably the most studied vitamin. Vitamin C is a water soluble antioxidant. It scavenges free radicals that cause cell damage and protects vitamin E, another antioxidant, from destruction. It participates in many enzymatic reactions by acting as an electron transmitter, and is involved in the synthesis of collagen and carnitine (the latter is needed for the transport of long chain fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane prior to oxidation). Vitamin C enhances iron absorption in the gut. It is also needed for the biosynthesis of some hormones (14, 68, 131). Early studies performed during the Second World War showed that insufficient vitamin C lowered physical performance capacity in soldiers and increased the sensation of exhaustion and muscle pains during and after hard physical
The story begins during World War II in 1943 with the Manhattan Project and the creation of the atomic bomb, one of the most secret projects in our nations' history. The manufacture of high-grade uranium for nuclear bombs required huge amounts of fluoride millions of tons of it in fact and many parts of the project were farmed out to America's manufacturing firms, such as the industry giant DuPont. Handling such enormous quantities of fluoride proved to be a monumental task, chiefly because of the escape of the fluoride into the atmosphere. Not unlike most disasters involving the government, a massive cover-up ensued. Eventually, the Pentagon intervened directly and engineered a whitewash of the disaster that included token pay-offs to the injured farmers who had filed suit against the government in 1946 once the war ended. These lawsuits sent ripples of fear throughout the government (as recently released secret memos from the period indicate), and raised concerns that future suits...
Exposing the skin to the Sun stimulates the capillaries and brings more blood to the skin surface. This helps to heal cuts, bruises, and rashes. In World War II it was discovered that exposing abrasions, open wounds, and broken bones to direct Sunlight led to quicker healing.
Just as cellophane was used to make an artificial kidney in the early days, it also changed the way food items were packaged and distributed in the United States. After World War II, the boom in packaged foods stemmed largely from the widespread introduction of new transparent wrappers that kept food fresh and allowed customers to see exactly what they were purchasing. In the 1950s and 1960s, patients with kidney disease tried these new foods, but continued to prepare most meals in their home kitchens. Canned foods were utilized and many of them were preserved by the homemaker home-baking remained popular. When patients ate in restaurants or were a guest in another's home, food was prepared fresh, using mainly fresh ingredients. Patients with kidney disease were encouraged to ask for special preparation methods when eating away from home.
The work on chocolate in human observational studies is often associated with sugar. Nonetheless, many studies commenced in the 1930s focusing on retrospective diet diaries of adults or children related to the development of dental caries. The most extensive of these retrospective studies was published by Nizel and Bibby (3) using dental caries data for recruits to the US armed forces during the Civil War (186165), World War I (191718) and World War II (194245). Mapping dental caries by state and relating this data to food consumption and dietary patterns, the authors discovered that caries was not, as expected, related to sugar or confectionery use. The low-caries states of the south-west and south-central USA used far higher levels of soft drinks (soda pop) and confectionery, which would have included chocolate, while the high-caries states used higher levels of white flour. Further important observational studies were those of World War II, where dental caries was shown to drop...
Many of my active clients are health- and weight-conscious parents who are frustrated by their children's eating practices. As Janine, a triathlete and parent of two girls (11 and 14 years old) vented, I wish I could get my kids to eat better and exercise more. They love junk food, spend hours chatting to their friends via computer, and weigh more than they should. Mealtimes are becoming World War III. Janine tried hard to teach her children about the importance of nutrition and health, but her messages fell on deaf ears.
Howard Johnson was born in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1885. He quit school in the eighth grade to work in his father's cigar store and export business as a salesman. Johnson served in World War I as a part of the American Expeditionary Force. Soon after Johnson's return, his father died, leaving him the business and its heavy debt. He sold the business to pay off the During World War II, 90 percent of the restaurants closed due to gas rationing. The industrious Johnson contracted to manufacture candy and other goods for the armed forces. After the war, he began expanding his chains nationwide. More Americans were beginning to travel, and Johnson saw a need for better quality motels and hotels to meet the needs of these
Figure 1.1 shows the relationship between food intake, physical work and changes in body reserves of metabolic fuels, as shown by changes in body weight. This study was carried out in Germany at the end of the Second World War, when there was a great deal of rubble from bomb damaged buildings to be cleared, and a large number of people to be fed and found employment. Increasing food intake resulted in an increase in work output initially with an increase in body weight, indicating that the food supply was greater than required to meet the (increased) work output. When a financial reward was offered as well, the work output increased to such an extent that people now drew on their (sparse) reserves of metabolic fuel, and there was a loss of body weight.
During World War II, Mellanby was involved with programs to create a wartime diet as well as programs to promote the welfare of both military and civilian personnel. After retiring from the Medical Research Council in 1949, he traveled to India, Australia, and New Zealand to serve as an advisor. After his return to England, he gave several public lectures. Mellanby died on January 30, 1955, while working in his London laboratory. see also Rickets.
In developed countries, transverse serological studies have demonstrated that the rate of infection increases slowly and regularly by 10 with each decade of life.8 In Italy, a recent epidemiolog-ical study showed that 11 of subjects from 6 to 18 years were infected,10 while the prevalence rate in people of 50-60 years was 50-60 . Longitudinal studies demonstrated that this increase of infected subjects with aging was related to an effective decrease of infection in the youngest cohorts, rather than to an increase of new cases with aging.11 This phenomenon is explained by the fact that each generation or cohort has a distinct and possibly unique environmental risk of exposure to the infection (cohort effect), linked to specific risk factors. These risk factors are well known and are socioeconomic, so that the cohort effect is considered to be the consequence of the improvement of socioeconomic conditions in the most recent decades. In Japan, a country that has had an impressive and...
Vitamin A deficiency is not a public health problem in Singapore, which is among the countries with the highest standards of living in the world. It is notable that keratomalacia was once present and showed a steady decrease in incidence since World War II (617).
Download Alive after the Fall Review Now
The legit version of Alive after the Fall Review is not distributed through other stores. An email with the special link to download the ebook will be sent to you if you ordered this version.