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Saccharin, 1:47 Saffron, 2:204, 205 Salmonella food-borne illness, 1:236, 2:2, 119, 120i hand washing, 2:3 organic foods, 2:116 photographs, 1:237, 2:2 Scandinavia, 2:187 Salmonellosis, defined, 2:118 Salt. See Sodium Salvation Army World Service

Office (SAWSO), 1:175i Sanitarium Food Company, 2:17 Sarcoma, 1:88

SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory

Syndrome), 2:262 Satiety, 2:187 See also Appetite; Weight management Saturated fat actual and recommended intake,

1:217, 218 and cardiovascular disease, 1:101 chemical structure, 1:214-215 defined, 1:51

Healthy Eating Index, 1:268 Mediterranean diet, 1:260 as nutrient, 2:93 Saudi Arabia, fast food in, 1:165 SAWSO (Salvation Army World

Service Office), 1:175i Say Yes for Children program, 2:227

SBP (School Breakfast Program),

1:284, 2:97, 190-191, 194 Scandinavians, diet of, 2:187-190 eating habits and dietary patterns,

2:187-189, 188, 189 nutrition and health status, 2:187 special meals, 2:189-190 See also Central Europeans and Russians, diets of; Northern Europeans, diet of Scavenger cell, 2:29 School Breakfast Program (SBP),

1:284, 2:97, 190-191, 194 School dietitians, 1:168 School food service, 2:194-197, 2:195, 196t competitive foods, 2:195-197 plate waste, 2:195 School gardens, 2:222 School health services, 1:110, 131 School-aged children, diet of, 2:190-194 dietary patterns, 2:191-192 junk food in schools, 2:191, 192 nutritional needs, 2:190-191 obesity, 2:192-193 snacking, 2:192 See also Adolescent nutrition;

Preschoolers and toddlers, diet of

Schools/Child Nutrition

Commodity Programs, 1:129 Scotland, 2:84-85 Scurvy, 2:197, 2:197 defined, 1:156 Glisson, Francis, 1:249, 249 Stark, William, 2:219-220, 220 and vitamin C, 2:219-220, 220 SDR (standardized death rate), 1:117

Seasickness, ginger for, 1:33 Secondary hypertension, 1:289, 291 Secondary lactose intolerance, 2:22 Second-hand smoke, 2:198 Secretin, 1:170 Sedentary, defined, 1:51 Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), 1:180-181, 2:149 See also Serotonin

Selenium as antioxidant, 1:43, 44i deficiency, 2:63

disease prevention and treatment, 2:62 functions, 2:62 Self-monitoring, and weight management, 2:251 Self-starvation, 1:181, 2:140

See also Anorexia nervosa Semi-vegetarians, 2:229 Sen, Amartya, 1:207-208 Serine, 2:156i Serotonin cravings, 1:137 defined, 1:137 depression, 2:75 eating disorders, 1:178 effect on mood, 2:64, 65, 66-67, 66t premenstrual syndrome, 2:149 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), 1:180-181, 2:149

Serum, defined, 1:103 Service-systems paradox, 1:282 Seventh-day Adventist Church, 2:17,

175, 178t, 179 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

(SARS), 2:262 Shigella, 2:2, 119, 120t Shock, defined, 1:149 Shuttle space program, 2:212, 213, 214

Shuttle-Mir program, 2:213, 214

Sickle-cell anemia, 1:39

Sideroblastosis, defined, 1:38

Sierra Leone, life expectancy in, 2:28

Siesta, 2:201, 206

Simplesse, 1:218

Singapore, 1:55, 2:115

Skinfold calipers, 2:101, 102, 253

Skylab space program, 2:212, 214

Slavery and African-American diet, 1:10-11 and Caribbean Islanders diet, 1:107, 108 Sleep apnea, defined, 1:122 Small for gestational age, 2:197-198

See also Low birth weight infant Smog, defined, 2:183 Smoking, 2:198-200, 2:199 and atherosclerosis, 1:59 and cancer, 1:89, 90, 91, 2:51 and cardiovascular disease, 1:101 and free radicals, 1:43 and heart disease, 1:274

and hypertension, 1:290 and pregnancy, 2:198 religious proscriptions, 2:176 Smorgasbords, 2:188 Snacking adolescents, 1:5-6 American dietary trends, 1:159 college students, 1:123 eating habits, 1:186 school-aged children, 2:192 See also Grazing SNE (Society for Nutrition

Education), 2:200 Social group, defined, 1:143 Social support, and weight management, 2:252-253 Society for Nutrition Education

(SNE), 2:200 Socioeconomic status defined, 1:20 and diabetes, 2:167 Hispanics and Latinos, 2:168, 169 and maternal mortality rate, 2:42 Sodium and cardiovascular disease, 1:103 deficiency, 2:61

disease prevention and treatment, 2:60, 61 as food additive, 1:1, 2 functions, 2:60 Healthy Eating Index, 1:268 and hypertension, 1:290, 2:53 nutrient content claims, 1:265i and space travel, 2:211, 215 toxicity, 2:61 Sodium-sensitive individuals, 1:290,

2:53 Soft drinks American dietary trends, 1:160, 160

caffeine, 1:81, 81i glycemic index, 1:251i and oral health, 2:111-112 school-aged children, 2:192 Solder, lead, 2:24, 25, 26 Soluble fiber, 1:221 Somalia, 1:224 Soul food, 1:11-12 Soursop, 1:109

South Americans, diet of, 2:200-204 eating habits and meal patterns, 2:201

nutritional status, 2:201 regional food habits, 2:202,

202-203 traditional cooking methods and food habits, 2:201-202

See also Central Americans and Mexicans, diets of South Asians, diet of, 1:55 South Beach diet, 1:97 Southeast Asians, diet of, 1:54-55 Southern Africans, diet of, 1:18 Southern cooking, 1:11-12, 2:167 Southern Europeans, diet of, 2:204-207, 2:205 dietary benefits, deficits, and changes, 2:205-206 influences on American diet, 2:206 traditional foods, 2:204-205 See also Central Europeans and Russians, diets of; Northern Europeans, diet of Southwest cooking, 2:167 Soy, 2:207-210, 2:209 and cancer, 2:208 as functional food, 1:242i genetically modified, 1:245 and heart, 2:207-208 and menopause, 2:48-49, 208, 260 and osteoporosis, 2:208 protein, 1:243, 2:207, 207t, 208 sources, 2:207t

See also Legumes; Meat analogs Space travel and nutrition, 2:210-215 dietary intake during spaceflight,

2:214-215 space food systems, 2:212-214, 213 space physiology, 2:210-212 Spaghetti, glycemic index, 1:251t Spain, 2:204, 205, 205, 206 Special Milk Program, 2:97 Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). See WIC program Sphygmomanometers, 1:99, 100 Spices, 1:108, 2:204, 205 Splenda, 1:47

Spores, and food-borne illness, 2:119 Sports bars, as functional food, 1:242t

Sports drinks, 2:4, 217-218 Sports nutrition, 2:215-219 caffeine, 1:83 calories, 2:216 carbohydrates, 2:216 eating disorders, 1:125 fat, 2:216

female athlete triad, 2:218-219 fluids, 2:217, 217-218, 218t glycemic index, 1:251-252 human growth hormone, 1:262-263 nutritional needs, 1:7

protein, 2:216 sports supplements, 2:218 timing of meals, 2:218 vitamins and minerals, 2:217 water, 2:245, 246, 247, 247 See also Ergogenic aids; Female athlete triad Sri Lankans, diet of, 1:55, 2:180 SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor), 1:180-181, 2:149 See also Serotonin St. Vincent and the Grenadines, 1:110

Stabilizing agents, 1:2 Stacking, 1:190

Standardized death rate (SDR), 1:117 Stanol esters, 1:242 í Staphylococcus aureus, 2:3, 119, 120í Staples, defined, 1:16 Starch, 1:94

Stark, William, 2:219-220, 2:220

See also Scurvy Starvation, self-imposed, 1:181, 2:140

See also Anorexia nervosa Steam doctors, 2:135 Stem cell research, 2:74-75 Steroid hormones, 1:215 Steroids, defined, 1:190 Sterol, defined, 2:30 Stevioside, 1:48 Still birth, defined, 1:252 Stimulants, religion and dietary practices, 2:176, 177 Stimulus control, and weight management, 2:251 Stool acidity test, 2:22 Stress, defined, 1:44 Stress management mood-food relationships, 2:65, 66-67

and weight management, 2:251-252 Stress response, 1:138 Stroke, 1:100, 147 defined, 1:24

See also Cardiovascular disease (CVD) Structural proteins, 1:37 Structure and function claims for dietary supplements, 1:33, 156 for functional foods, 1:241-243 Subcutaneous, defined, 2:37 Sucralose, 1:47 Sucrose, 1:93-94, 94í

defined, 1:46 Sudan refugees, 2:165

Sugar

Caribbean Islands, 1:107 comparison, 1:94i maple, 2:80 and oral health, 2:110 and pregnancy, 2:144 simple, 1:93-94, 94i, 2:91 Sugar alcohols, 1:47, 242i Sugar Busters!, 1:203i, 204 Sulfite intolerance, 1:28 Summer Food Service Program for

Children, 1:284, 2:97 Sun exposure, and vitamin D, 2:183, 184, 184-185, 235, 235-236 Sunette, 1:46 Sunscreens, 2:235, 235 Superweeds, 1:246 Supplements, dietary. See Dietary supplements Surgeon General's Report on Nutrition and Health, 1:154 Suriname, 2:203

Sustainable food systems, 2:220-223, 2:222 importance, 2:221 promoting, 2:221-222 See also Organic foods; Pesticides Swallowing difficulties, 1:21, 2:110, 111

Swanson TV Dinner, 2:141 Sweden life expectancy, 2:28 obesity, 2:105

vitamin C deficiency, 1:120 Sweet corn, 1:133-134 Sweeteners, artificial. See Artificial sweeteners Sweet'n Low, 1:47 Switzerland food-borne illness, 2:118 life expectancy, 2:28 Systolic pressure, 1:99, 100, 288

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The Sugar Solution

The Sugar Solution

Curb Sugar Cravings Once And For All With These Powerful Techniques. Sugar sensitive people might be low in specific neurochemicals that help us feel calm, centered, confident, and optimistic. Sugar is a drug that temporarily makes the sugar sensitive feel better, but with damaging consequences.

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