P

Pabellón caraqueño, 2:203 Pacific Islander Americans, diet of, 2:126-128, 2:127t eating habits and meal patterns, 2:127

nutrition and health status,

2:126-127 nutritional transition, 2:128 Pacific Islanders, diet of, 2:128-132 childhood obesity, 1:122 eating habits and meal patterns,

2:129-130 nutritional status, 2:129 nutritional transition, 2:131-132 traditional cooking methods and food habits, 2:130, 130-131 See also Asians, diet of Pacific Northwest cooking, 2:167 Pacifier caries, 2:111 Paella, 2:205, 206 Pain, and endorphins, 2:66 Paint, lead-based, 2:24, 25, 26 Palestinian refugees, 2:165 Pancreas, 1:170, 171 Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5),

2:240t, 241 Papain, 1:65 Papayas, 1:108 Paraguay, 2:201, 203

Paralysis and bone loss, 2:211 defined, 1:236 Parasites defined, 1:41

and food-borne illness, 2:120 Parasitic, defined, 1:40 Parathyroid hormone (PTH),

1:83-84 Parenteral nutrition, 1:280 Parkinson's disease, 2:75 Pasta, glycemic index, 1:251 i Pasteur, Louis, 2:132-133, 2:133 Pasteurization, 2:133 defined, 1:65 electronic, 2:13-14 invention of, 2:132-133 See also Food safety Patent medicines, 2:161, 162 Pathogen, defined, 1:235 A Pattern for Daily Food Choices, 1:225 Pauling, Linus, 2:133-134, 2:134 PCM (protein-calorie malnutrition),

2:35, 159-160 PDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder), 2:147 Peanut allergies, 1:29 Peas, glycemic index, 1:251i Pectin, 1:96

Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance

System, 2:153 Pellagra, 2:135, 2:135 corn- or maize-based diets,

1:134-136, 135 Funk, Casimir, 1:244 Goldberger, Joseph, 1:253,

253-254, 2:73 and nutritional deficiency, 2:103, 240-241

PEM (protein-energy malnutrition),

2:136 Penicillin, 2:89 Pepsinogen, 2:157 Percent Daily Value, 1:233i, 234 Perimenopausal period, 2:47 Periodontitis, 2:112 Peristalsis, 1:169 Pernicious anemia, 1:40, 2:243 Persistent diarrhea, 1:149 Peru food habits, 2:202, 203 food-borne illness, 2:118 Pesticides, 2:137 food safety, 1:236-237, 2:116-117 genetically modified foods, 1:247

nutrition quackery, 2:162 organic foods, 2:116 sustainable food systems, 2:221 See also Food safety; Organic foods Petechiae, 2:111 pH, 1:37

defined, 1:1 Phenylalanine, 1:46, 2:5-6, 137-138, 156i

Phenylethylamine, 2:66 Phenylketonuria (PKU), 1:46, 2:5-6, 2:137-138 defined, 1:46 See also Amino acids Phosphate toxicity, 2:61 Phospholipids, 1:215-216

defined, 2:29 Phosphorus defined, 2:58 functions, 2:60 and osteomalacia, 2:122 and vitamin D, 2:235 PHS (U.S. Public Health Service),

1:238-239, 253, 2:73 Phylloquinone, 2:236 Physical activity. See Exercise Physical education, 1:131, 131-132 Physical fitness, 1:200 Physicians Committee for

Responsible Medicine, 2:37-38 Physiological, defined, 1:8 Physiology, defined, 1:168 Physiology of Taste, or Meditations on Transcendental Gastronomy (Brillat-Savarin), 1:78 Phytate, defined, 2:59 Phytochemicals, 1:91, 2:138, 2:207

defined, 1:91 Phytoestrogens, 2:48-49

defined, 2:48 Pica, 2:138, 2:146 See also Cravings Pickling, as preservative, 1:1 Pick-your-own farms, 2:222 Pigs, in Pacific Islander diet, 2:130 PIH (pregnancy-induced hypertension), 1:289 Pipes, lead-soldered, 2:24, 25, 26 Pituitary gland, defined, 1:244 PKU. See Phenylketonuria (PKU) Plant proteins, 2:156 Plantains, 1:18

Plant-based diets, 2:138-139

See also Vegetarianism Plaque, 1:59, 60

defined, 1:60 Plasma, defined, 1:120

PLP (pyridoxal phosphate), 2:242 Plumbism. See Lead poisoning Pluralistic, defined, 1:140 PMS. See Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)

Pneumonia, defined, 1:146 Pod corn, 1:134 Poi, 2:127, 130 Poland, 1:118 Polar, defined, 2:155 Polydextrose, as fat substitute, 1:211-212 Polypeptides, 2:155 Polyphenols, and heart disease, 1:240 Polysaccharides, 1:94-96, 95, 2:91 Polyunsaturated, defined, 1:101 Polyunsaturated fat, 1:102, 215, 217 Popcorn, 1:133

Popular culture, and food, 2:139-142 adolescents, 2:192 convenience foods, 2:141 current trends, 2:139 dieting, 2:141

eating away from home, 2:139-140, 140

ethnic foods, 2:142 functional foods, 2:141 obesity and malnutrition, 2:140-141 supplements, 2:141 Population, world, 1:230 Pork, folk beliefs about, 1:13 Porridge, 2:84-85, 189 Portion sizes, 1:123, 160, 234, 2:65,

106, 140 Portugal, cuisine of, 2:204, 205 Positive nitrogen balance, 2:160 Post, C. W., 2:17 Postmenopausal period, 2:47 Potable, defined, 1:173 Potassium and cardiovascular disease, 1:103 deficiency, 2:61

disease prevention and treatment, 2:60-61 functions, 2:60

and hypertension, 1:290, 2:167 toxicity, 2:61 Potassium iodide, 2:62 Potatoes genetically modified, 1:245,

246-247 glycemic index, 1:251 í Ireland, 2:86 Poverty and WIC program, 2:255, 256 worldwide, 1:230 Prednisone, 2:88í

Preeclampsia, 1:289, 2:146, 223

See also Pregnancy Preformed retinoids, 2:232, 234

See also Vitamin A Pregnancy, 2:142-147 alcohol use, 1:25 aspartame, 1:46 beta-carotene, 2:36 caffeine, 1:82 calcium, 1:85 cravings, 1:136, 2:146 folate, 1:40, 2:243 iron, 1:40

nutrition requirements, 2:144-145,

1441, 145, 146, 259 pica, 2:138, 146 protein, 2:159 smoking, 2:198 teens, 1:7 vegetarians, 2:230 vitamin A, 2:36, 234 vitamin and mineral requirements,

2:145, 145 weight gain, 2:143-144, 143i WIC program, 2:146-147, 255,

256, 257 See also Breastfeeding; Low birth weight infant Pregnancy-induced hypertension

  • PIH), 1:289 Premenstrual dysphoric disorder
  • PDD), 2:147 Premenstrual syndrome (PMS), 2:147-150, 2:148, 259 symptoms, 2:148 treatments, 2:148-149, 149 See also Women's nutritional issues Pre-renal, defined, 2:45 Preschoolers and toddlers, diet of, 2:150-154 energy and protein needs,

2:151-152, 152t nutritional requirements,

2:150-153 potential feeding problems,

2:153-154 vitamin and mineral needs,

2:152-153 WIC program, 2:255, 256,

257-258 See also Baby bottle tooth decay Preservatives. See Additives and preservatives Pressure cuffs, 1:99, 100 Prevalence, defined, 1:14 Preventive medicine, defined, 1:253 Primary hypertension, 1:289 Primary lactose intolerance, 2:22

Primary sampling unit (PSU), 2:70 Probiotics, 1:242i, 2:154-155

See also Functional foods Problem solving, and weight management, 2:253 Processed foods Central America, 1:113 defined, 1:12 and food allergens, 1:27 Mexico, 1:113 and vitamin C, 2:197 versus whole foods, 2:255 Product Identity statement, 1:232 Proenzymes, 1:37 Progesterone, and premenstrual syndrome, 2:149 Prolactin, 1:76 Proline, 2:156i Proscription, defined, 1:188 Prostaglandin, defined, 2:108 Prostate, defined, 1:88 Prostate cancer, 1:91, 2:208, 234 Prostate health, 2:53 Protein, 2:155-160 absorption, 1:172, 2:157 adolescents, 1:5 amino acids, 2:155-156, 156i animal, 2:156 blood, 2:158 cancer patients, 1:92 and cardiovascular disease, 1:103 Caribbean Islands, 1:108 corn- or maize-based diets, 1:134 cravings, 1:137-138 defined, 1:5 denaturation, 1:37 digestion, 2:157 effect on mood, 2:66, 66t functions, 1:37, 2:158-159 high-quality, 2:156 infants, 2:8

and kwashiorkor, 2:20, 21 in legumes, 2:27-28 lower-quality proteins, 2:156 metabolism, 2:55-56, 157 motor, 1:37 as nutrient, 2:92 plant, 2:156

preschoolers and toddlers,

2:151-152, 152t protein-calorie malnutrition, 2:35, 159-160

protein-energy malnutrition, 2:35,

36, 141 quality, 1:134, 2:156 requirement, 2:159

sources, 2:159, 159i soy, 1:243, 2:207, 2071, 208 sports nutrition, 1:192, 2:216, 218 structural, 1:37 supplements, 1:192, 2:218 See also Amino acids Protein Power, 1:2031, 204 Protein-based fat substitutes, 1:212, 2121, 218 Protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM),

2:35, 159-160 Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM),

2:35, 36, 141 Protestant food practices, 2:176, 178i Psoriasis, defined, 2:108 PSU (primary sampling unit), 2:70 Psychological, defined, 1:1 Psyllium, defined, 1:240 PTH (parathyroid hormone),

1:83-84 Puberty defined, 1:4

See also Adolescent nutrition Public Health Nutritionists, 1:105 Pubs, 2:84, 85, 86 Puerto Rican Americans. See

Hispanics and Latinos, diet of Pure Food and Drug Act (1906),

2:162, 171 Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), 2:242 Pyruvate, 2:55 Pyruvic acid, 1:96

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