Hyperglycemia

Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar, is the result of either too little insulin or of the body's inefficient use of insulin. Indicators of hyperglycemia include frequent urination, thirst, high levels of sugar in the urine, and high blood sugar. Failure to address hyperglycemia results in dehydration and ketoacidosis. Over the long term, hyperglycemia causes heart disease, foot problems, blindness, kidney disease, and nerve damage. For diabetics, frequent blood glucose testing and diet...

Weight Management Strategies

Behavioral change interventions typically include a number of specific strategies, including self-monitoring, stimulus control, cognitive restructuring, stress management, social support, rewards, problem solving, physical activity, and relapse prevention. These interventions make it easier for people to stay on a healthful eating plan and a regular exercise program. Self-monitoring. The most important behavioral strategy for obese people to follow is self-monitoring the observing and recording...

Foods of the Islands

The foods of the Caribbean are marked by a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, meats, grains, and spices, all of which contribute to the area's unique cuisine. Foods of Creole, Chinese, African, Indian, Hispanic, and European origin blend harmoniously to produce mouth-watering dishes. Fruits and Vegetables. There are many fruits and vegetables found in the various Caribbean Islands, and because many of them have been exported to North America and Europe, people have become familiar with them....

Major Religions with Food Proscriptions

Although no two religions hold exactly the same ideology about diet, health, and spiritual wellness, many do embrace similar practices. Buddhism. Many Buddhists are vegetarians, though some include fish in their diet. Most do not eat meat and abstain from all beef products. The birth, enlightenment, and death of Buddha are the three most commonly recognized festivals for feasting, resting from work, or fasting. Buddhist monks fast completely on certain days of the moon, and they routinely avoid...

Treatment for Diabetes

Treatment for diabetes involves following a regimen of diet, exercise, self-monitoring of blood glucose, and taking medication or insulin injections. Although type 1 diabetes is primarily managed with daily insulin injections, type 2 diabetes can be controlled with diet and exercise. However, when diet and exercise fail, medication is added to stimulate the production of insulin, reduce insulin resistance, decrease the liver's output of glucose, or slow absorption of carbohydrate from the...

Food Safety

The increase in the number of fast-food restaurants, supermarkets, and restaurants in developing countries, and the rising trend of eating meals away from home, present a global challenge to ensure that food is appealing and safe. Many countries have agencies that set and regulate standards for food safety. In the United States, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has the task of regulating and inspecting meats and poultry during slaughter and processing, while the Food and Drug...

Exercise Prescription

Adequate physical activity is dependent on having a well-rounded program that encompasses all aspects of improving health and preventing disease. A well-rounded program includes cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, posture, and maintenance of body composition. The most effective way to participate in a well-rounded program is by following a simple mnemonic device called FITT (Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type). The FITT principle includes how many times a week...

Goldberger Joseph

Often considered a significant contributor to the field of nutrition science, Joseph Goldberger was born to a Jewish family in Girald, Austria-Hungary. When he was six years old, Goldberger and his family emigrated to the United States, settling on Manhattan's East Side. Goldberger enrolled in City College in New York at the age of sixteen, determined to study engineering. At the end of his second year, Goldberger decided to switch to medicine after attending a lecture at Bellevue Hospital...

Carcinogenesis Process

All cancers involve the malfunction of genes that control cell growth and division. The process by which cancers develop is called carcinogenesis. This process usually starts when chemicals or radiation damage DNA, the genetic structure inside cells. Viruses induce carcinogenesis by introducing new DNA sequences. Most of the time, when DNA becomes damaged the body is able to repair it. In cancer cells, however, the damaged DNA is not repaired. While normal cells with damaged DNA die, cancer...

Body Image

The term body image refers to the view that a person has of his or her own body size and proportion. Body-image distortion occurs when a person's view of their body is significantly different from reality. Many factors impact the perception of one's body image, including the mass media, peer groups, ethnic groups, and family values. There is no such thing as an ideal or perfect body, and different cultures have different standards and norms for appropriate body size and shape. Even within a...

Chronic Dieting

Many individuals with eating disorders report habitual dieting prior to the onset of their illness. Repeated dieting during adolescence increases the risk of eating disorders, with some patients reporting attempts at weight loss as early as age nine. The incidence of eating disorders may be as much as incidence number of new cases reported eight times greater among girls with a history of dieting, with the initiation each year of a weight loss regimen often marking the onset of the eating...

General Dietary Influences

In 1992 it was reported that there is little difference between the type of foods eaten by whites and African Americans. There have, however, been large changes in the overall quality of the diet of African Americans since the 1960s. In 1965, African Americans were more than twice as likely as whites to eat a diet that met the recommended guidelines for fat, fiber, and fruit and vegetable intakes. By 1996, however, 28 percent of African Americans were reported to have a poor-quality diet,...

Glisson Francis

English scholar, physician, and scientist 1597-1677 Francis Glisson was born in Rampisham, England, and attended Cambridge University, with which he had a long relationship. During his life he acted as a dean, senior fellow, and professor at the university. He also had a private medical practice. The Royal College of Physicians of London admitted Glisson as a candidate in 1634, the same year he received his medical degree from Cambridge. Within the Royal College he played the roles of fellow,...

Lipid Profile

A lipid profile measures total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. A physician may order a lipid profile as part of an annual exam or if there is specific concern about CVD, especially coronary artery disease. The National Cholesterol Education Program recommends that individuals age twenty and over have a fasting lipoprotein profile every insoluble not able to be dissolved in lipoprotein blood protein that carry fats cholesterol multi-ringed molecule found in...

Causes

The following organisms can cause food-borne illness Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Escherichia coli, (E. coli 0157 H7), Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Shigella, and Staphylococcus aureus. Campylobacter jejuni is caused by the ingestion of live bacteria and can be transmitted to humans via unpasteurized milk, contaminated water, and raw or undercooked meats, poultry, and shellfish. Clostridium botulinum, which causes botulism,...

Ramadan

In the Muslim faith, the holy month of Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic year and is devoted to prayer, fasting, and charity. Muslims believe that it was during this month that God first began to reveal the holy book of Islam, the Quran, to the prophet Muhammad. Most Muslims are required to refrain from food and drink during daylight hours for the entire month. The fast is broken in the evening by a meal called the iftar, which traditionally includes dates and water or sweet drinks, and...

Diagnosis

Individuals with eating disorders are obsessed with food, body image, and weight loss. They may have severely limited food choices, employ bizarre eating rituals, excessively drink fluids and chew gum, and avoid eating with others. Depending on the severity and duration of their illness, they may display physical symptoms such as weight loss amenorrhea loss of interest in sex low blood pressure depressed body temperature chronic, unexplained vomiting and the growth of soft, fine hair on the...

Kellogg John Harvey

John Harvey Kellogg was an influential spokesman for vegetarianism, a leader in the invention of nut- and soy-based meat substitutes, a surgeon, and, for over fifty years, the director of the Battle Creek Sanitarium. In partnership with his brother Will, he made the Kellogg name famous. By studying food chemistry, Kellogg learned that an early step in indigestion is the conversion of starch to dextrin, or sugar. Cereal grains have a high starch content, and Kellogg discovered that prolonged...

Conclusion

Asian food and the diets of Asians are often believed to be the model of healthful eating. Rice and fruit figure prominently in each country's typical meal. However, as diets have diversified, chronic diseases, such as heart disease, stroke loss of blood supply to part of the brain, due to a blocked or burst artery in the brain processed food food that has been cooked, milled, or otherwise manipulated to change its quality carbohydrate food molecule made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen,...

Causes of Cancer

The exact cause of cancer is not known. Most cancers result from permanent damage to genes or from mutations, which occur either due to internal factors, such as hormones, immune conditions, metabolism, and the digestion of nutrients within cells, or by exposure to environmental or external factors. A chemical or other environmental agent that produces cancer is called a carcinogen. Overall, environmental factors, defined broadly to include tobacco use, diet, infectious diseases, chemicals, and...

Historical Background

In 1950, the following problems that had led to inconsistencies in food recommendations for persons with diabetes were identified (1) methods used diet the total daily food intake, or the to estimate the composition of a diet were prolonged and needlessly pre- types of foods eaten cise (2) there were many inconsistencies in the inclusion or restriction of foods and (3) sizes of recommended portions were often stated in impractical amounts that were difficult to measure. Recognizing these facts,...

Vegetarianism at Different Ages

When choosing vegetarian eating, it is important to be aware that there are special nutritional needs at different stages of life. Pregnancy and breastfeeding require additional calories and nutrients. A well-planned vegetarian diet can provide these in the amounts needed for a healthy mother and baby. During infancy, childhood, and the teenage years, adequate calories to sustain proper growth are necessary. This usually is not a problem for infants because they are either breastfed or on...

Coronary Artery Disease CAD

Coronary artery disease (CAD) refers to any one of the conditions that affect the coronary arteries and reduces blood flow and nutrients to the heart. It is the leading cause of death worldwide for both men and women. The most common kind of CAD is atherosclerosis, which results in narrowing and hardening of the arteries. Coronary atherosclerosis is at epidemic proportions worldwide. Traditionally, CAD was seen as a disease of aging and was observed primarily in the elderly. However,...

History and Purpose of Food Safety Regulations

Public Health Service Commissioned Corp (PHS) is a uniformed service of the United States comprised of health professionals and led by the Office of the Surgeon General. The origins of the agency can be traced to a 1798 act that was passed to provide care for sick and injured merchant seamen. Formalized in 1889, it oversaw quarantines and medical examinations of immigrants. The agency commissioned officers to control the spread smallpox deadly viral disease of contagious diseases such...

Portion Sizes Caloric Intake and Obesity

Scientists have begun to trace the link between portion sizes and increased obesity in the United States. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, between 1971 and 2000 American women increased the number of calories they consumed by 22 percent (from 1,542 to 1,877 per day), while men increased their intake by 7 percent (from 2,450 to 2,618 calories). Government recommendations, by contrast, are a mere 1,600 calories a day for women and 2,200 a day for men. Many of the...

National School Lunch Program

Congress established the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) in 1946 to safeguard the health and well-being of children and encourage the domestic consumption of nutritious agricultural commodities. Participating schools in all the states receive cash subsidies and free commodities from the USDA. Schools and residential child-care institutions are responsible for providing lunches that meet specific nutritional standards. Students are eligible to receive lunches free or at a reduced...

Trace Minerals

Trace minerals are present (and required) in very small amounts in the body. An understanding of the important roles and requirements of trace minerals in the human body is fairly recent, and research is still ongoing. The most important trace minerals are iron, zinc, copper, chromium, fluoride, iodine, selenium, manganese, and molybdenum. Some others, such as arsenic, boron, cobalt, nickel, silicon, and vanadium, are recognized as essential for diabetes inability to regulate level of sugar in...

Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism

Galactosemia is a disorder in which the body cannot break down the sugar called galactose. Galactose can be found in food, and the body can break down glucose a simple sugar the most com- lactose (milk sugar) to galactose and glucose. The body uses glucose for monly used fuel in cells energy. People with galactosemia lack the enzyme to break down galactose, so it builds up and becomes toxic. In reaction to this buildup of galactose the body makes some abnormal chemicals. The buildup of...

Types of Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus is classified into four categories type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes, and other. In type 1 diabetes, specialized cells in the pancreas are destroyed, leading to a deficiency in insulin production. Type 1 diabetes frequently develops over the course of a few days or weeks. Over 95 percent of people with type 1 diabetes are diagnosed before the age of twenty-five. Estimates show 5.3 million people worldwide live with type 1 diabetes. Although the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes...

Phenylketonuria PKU

Phenylketonuria (fee-nyl-key-ton-uria), or PKU, is an inherited metabolic disease that results in severe developmental delay and neurological problems when treatment is not started very early and maintained throughout life. The disease is caused by the absence of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, which normally converts the amino acid phenylalanine to another amino acid, tyrosine. This results in a build-up of phenylalanine and a low level of tyrosine, which causes a variety of problems,...

Food Security

A far greater threat comes from increasingly insecure food sources (a lack of consistent and affordable food staples) arising from adverse weather (drought and floods) and war. During the late 1900s, famine became increasingly frequent in Africa. In addition, a new threat to the food supply emerged due to the worsening HIV AIDS epidemic. As adults fall ill and die, agricultural production declines. Rural communities are the hardest hit, and women are particularly at risk given their unique...

Diet and Hypertension

Sodium intake has been a primary target for hypertension control, though it is ranked fourth as the lifestyle factor associated with hypertension. About 50 percent of individuals appear to be sodium sensitive. This means that excessive sodium intake tends to increase blood pressure in these groups of people, and they do not appear to excrete excessive amount of salt via the kidneys. Sodium-sensitive individuals include the elderly, obese individuals, and African Americans. The Dietary...

Eating Habits and Meal Patterns

While the islands are geographically close, the Pacific Island region is racially and culturally diverse. The cuisine varies slightly from island to island and is a blend of native foods with European, Japanese, and American influences. The cuisine is also influenced by the Asian Indians, Chinese, Korean, and Filipino agricultural workers who arrived in the eighteenth century. Food plays a central role in Pacific Islander culture it represents prosperity, generosity, and community support....

Health Benefits and Risks Associated with Specific Practices

Certain groups of people must necessarily be excused from fasting and restrictive practices. These groups include pregnant or nursing women individuals with diabetes or other chronic disorders those engaged in very strenuous work malnourished individuals young children and frail elderly or disabled persons. Recognition of these exceptions has been addressed by each religious group. Most fasting practices allow certain intakes of liquid, particularly water. In fasting regimes where water is...

Fat Lipid Metabolism

Fats contain mostly carbon and hydrogen, some oxygen, and sometimes other atoms. The three main forms of fat found in food are glycerides (principally triacylglycerol triglyceride , the form in which fat is stored for fuel), the phospholipids, and the sterols (principally cholesterol). Fats provide 9 kilocalories per gram (kcal g), compared with 4 kcal g for carbohydrate and protein. Triacylglycerol, whether in the form of chylomicrons (microscopic lipid particles) or other lipoproteins, is not...

Breastfeeding Trends

Despite the many benefits of breastfeeding, only 64 percent of mothers in the United States initiate breastfeeding, with 29 percent still breastfeeding six months after birth. The U.S. goals for 2000 were to increase to 75 percent the proportion of women who initiate breastfeeding, and to increase to 50 percent the proportion of women who breastfeed for five to six months. In the United States, ethnic minorities are less likely to breastfeed than their white counterparts. Based on a 2001 report...

T

Caffeine, 1 81, 81i England, Wales, and Scotland, 2 84 Ireland, 2 86 South America, 2 201 Teenagers. See Adolescent nutrition TEFAP (The Emergency Food Assistance Program), 1 128, 284-285 Television African Americans, 2 167-168 body image, 2 131 International Children's Day of Broadcasting, 2 226 obesity, 2 106 TV Dinners, 2 141 Temperance, 1 254, 255, 2 254 Temperate zone, defined, 1 18 Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding program, 2 226 Testosterone, defined, 1 137 Tetracycline, 2 88t, 89...

Dietary Guidelines

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans are the foundation of national nutrition policy for the United States. They are designed to help Americans make food choices that promote health and reduce the risk of disease. The guidelines are published jointly by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). The first set of guidelines was published as Nutrition and Your Health Dietary Guidelines for Americans in 1980. Since then, an advisory committee...

Small for Gestational

Small for gestational age, also known as intrauterine growth retardation, is defined as an infant or fetus smaller in size than expected, meaning a weight in the bottom tenth percentile for a particular age. Small for gestational age is believed to be related to placental insufficiency, infectious disease, congenital malformations, drug and alcohol abuse, and cigarette smoking. Other risk factors include maternal hypertension, first pregnancies, and exposure to environmental toxins. It is...

Space Food Systems

Historically, space food systems have evolved as U.S. space programs have developed. The early Mercury program 1961-1963 included food packaged in bite-sized cubes, freeze-dried powders, and semiliquid foods such as ham salad stuffed into aluminum tubes. The Gemini program 1965-1966 continued using bite-sized cubes, which were coated with plain gelatin to reduce crumbs that might clog the air-handling system. Freeze-dried foods were put into a special plastic container to make rehydrating...

Inappropriate Advertisements

Attempts to sell large quantities of products sometimes cause advertisers to make claims that are not entirely factual. For instance, an advertisement for a particular brand of bread claimed the bread had fewer calories per slice than its competitors. What the advertisement did not say was that the bread was sliced much thinner than other brands. Deceptive advertising has also been employed to persuade women to change their infant feeding practices. Advertisers commonly urge mothers to use...

Eating Habits and Dietary Patterns

The descendants of the Vikings continue to eat many of the foods of their ancestors, and they often prepare them in the same way. Preserved food are very common and include dried, smoked, salted, or pickled fish dried fruits and jams and fermented milk. Fresh fruits and vegetables are only available for a few months a year and are dried and stored for the fall and winter months. Strawberries, blueberries, and raspberries abound in the summer. Potatoes are an important staple of the diet and are...

Lipids

Lipids, which consist of fats and oils, are high-energy yielding molecules composed mostly of carbon C , hydrogen H , and oxygen O though lipids have a smaller number of oxygen molecules than carbohydrates have . This small number of oxygen molecules makes lipids insoluble in water, but soluble in certain organic solvents. The basic structure of lipids is a glycerol molecule consisting of three carbons, each attached to a fatty-acid chain. Collectively, this structure is known as a...

Battle Creek Sanitarium Early Health

The Western Health Reform Institute, which opened in 1866, was originally a residence belonging to Benjamin Graves, a judge of the Michigan Superior Court. Set on eight acres of land, this farm house gave no hint of what it was to become, but already there were ideas and propositions for the building that would lead to a worldwide reputation. Upon its opening, in 1866, the Western Health Reform Institute was heralded far and wide through the Seventh-day Adventist journal Review and Herald. Dr....

Dietary Patterns

While school-food service personnel attempt to provide healthful meals and food choices, children do not always eat the food they receive. The dietary patterns of children are determined by social, psychological, and economic factors. Toddlers and preschoolers spend more time eating at home than they do in school. Their food choices and food preferences are thus largely dependent on what their parents and caregivers provide. When children are young, their parents and families have greater...

Body Mass Index

Body weight is used as an indicator of an individual's health. It is usually compared to tables that list ideal or desirable weight ranges for specific heights. Some of these tables use values gathered from research studies, while some include the heights and weights of individuals who have bought life insurance e.g., the Metropolitan Height and Weight Tables . An individual's weight can be described as a percentage of the ideal or desirable weight listed, and can also be categorized as...

Forming Healthy Communities

Nutrient dietary substance necessary for health carotenoid plant-derived molecules used as pigments antioxidant substance that prevents oxidation, a damaging reaction with oxygen macular degeneration death of cells of the macula, part of the eye's retina heart disease any disorder of the heart or its blood supply, including heart attack, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease cholesterol multi-ringed molecule found in animal cell membranes a type of lipid artery blood vessel that carries...

Minerals and Vitamins

The nutritional disease pellagra, which is caused by a deficiency in niacin, is associated with maize-based diets in the Americas and Africa. While niacin is readily available in corn, it exists in a bound form niacytin that is not biologically available to monogastric single-stomach animals. Furthermore, In the early twentieth century, hundreds of thousands of people in the southern United States suffered from pellagra, a serious disease that affects people whose diet does not include enough...

Pemberton John S

John Stith Pemberton was born in Knoxville, Georgia, and spent his childhood in Rome, Georgia. He graduated from Southern Botanico Medical College of Georgia in 1850. Pemberton briefly practiced as a traditional Thomsonian steam doctor, modeled after Samuel Thomson's Complete System of Practice as outlined in his book New Guide to Health. Steam doctors used steam baths, herbs, and other products to induce sweating, which they believed would restore the body to proper health. Pemberton later...

Deficits in the Diet

Many homeless people rely on shelters and soup kitchens for their food intake. However, these sites may not provide an adequate diet. Most shelters rely on private donations, a local food bank, and surplus commodity distributions. Because the nutritional quality and quantity of these resources vary greatly over time, meals may be nutritionally limited, even though the quantity of the food served may be acceptable to the recipient Wolge-muth et al., 1992, p. 834 . Furthermore, easily stored and...

Nutritional Requirements

Compared to adults, small children need more nutrients in proportion to their body weight. As bones, muscles, teeth, and blood volume are develop- Former U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Dan Glickman promotes federal food programs at a daycare center while the children behind him enjoy lunch. Photograph by Mike Derer. AP Wide World Photos. Reproduced by permission. Former U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Dan Glickman promotes federal food programs at a daycare center while the children behind him...

Nutritional Status

Cardiovascular disease e.g., coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension is the most common cause of death in these countries, and smoking rates are high. Obesity is the fastest growing chronic disease, especially among children. Alcoholism is high, especially among the Irish. France's low rate of heart disease has been termed the French Paradox. The theory is that France's low rate of heart disease is due to the regular consumption of wine, despite the high intake of saturated fats. However,...

Space Travel and Nutrition

Nutrition has played a critical role throughout the history of exploration, and space exploration is no exception. While a one- to two-week flight aboard the Space Shuttle might be analogous to a camping trip, adequate nutrition is absolutely critical when spending several months aboard the International Space Station or several years on a mission to another planet. To ensure adequate nutrition, space-nutrition specialists must know how much of various individual nutrients astronauts need, and...

Looking Forward to a Healthier Tomorrow

African-American food and its dietary evolvement since the beginning of American slavery provide a complicated, yet extremely descriptive, picture of the effects of politics, society, and the economy on culture. The deep-rooted dietary habits and economic issues that continue to affect African Americans present great challenges regarding changing behaviors and lowering disease risk. In January 2000, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services launched Healthy People 2010, a comprehensive,...

The Women Infants and Children WIC Program

The WIC program was established in the 1970s as a supplemental food and nutrition-education program. Eligibility requirements include a household income of up to 185 percent of the federal poverty level, as well as nutrition-risk criteria. The WIC program goals include improving pregnancy outcomes by helping participants achieve recommended weight gain. Nutritional food choices and calorie levels based on recommended weight gain are emphasized. The program has been shown to significantly reduce...

Contributors

Ball State University Muncie, Indiana Healthy Weight Network and University of North Dakota School of Medicine University of Florida Gainesville, Florida University of Pittsburgh Medical Center International Food Information Council Foundation Washington, DC University of Kentucky Lexington, Kentucky Bryan-College Station Community Health Center Bryan, Texas University of Florida Gainesville, Florida Texas A amp M University College Station, Texas Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise...

Competitive Foods

According to the USDA, competitive foods are foods sold to children in food service areas during meal periods in competition with the federal meal programs. The USDA divides competitive foods into two categories. The first is foods of minimal nutritional value FMNV . USDA regulations prohibit the sale of FMNV in school-food service areas during mealtimes. FMVN include carbonated drinks such as sweetened soft drinks , chewing gum, and candy. These items may be sold in other areas at anytime...