Best Weight Loss Programs That Work

The 3 Week Diet

3 Week Diet is a program that covers the weight loss trifecta of dieting, exercise, and motivation and is intended to produce extremely quick fat loss results, guaranteeing to shed off 12 to 23 pounds in only 21 days. Expect this program to change your eating habits, teach you to follow a strict eating program that restricts carbohydrates while utilizing strategic protein consumption, go on an exercise habit, and keep a close eye on your progress. Brian Flatt who is health coach and nutritionist discovered these quick weight loss secrets after 12 years of research. Lots of people successfully burn fat with the help of these secrets. The main secret behind this program is signaling body to burn stored fat for energy and then creating starvation mode into the body. When body enters into starvation mode then body will burn stored fat for fueling liver, heart and other organs of the body. This is completely safe, natural and scientific proved weight loss technique. Read more here...

The 3 Week Diet Overview

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My The 3 Week Diet Review

Highly Recommended

The very first point I want to make certain that The 3 Week Diet definitely offers the greatest results.

As a whole, this book contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

Weight Loss and Dieting

If you have gained some unwanted weight since being diagnosed with celiac disease, dieting may seem like a logical option, but it probably is not the answer. Weight loss in America is big business. As a country, we spend billions of dollars trying to lose weight. While many individuals succeed at shedding pounds, only a very small percentage of those who lose weight through dieting are able to maintain their weight loss. Many of those who regain the pounds make further attempts to lose weight. This yo-yo dieting, as it is called, may contribute to several health problems. Yo-yo dieting may result in a higher risk of heart disease and diabetes. When fat is regained after dieting, it may be stored around the abdomen. Abdominal fat storage, in contrast to fat stored in the leg or hip region, appears to be a risk factor in the development of certain diseases. Yo-yo dieting also may increase your percent of body fat. When you lose weight through dieting, you lose both fat and muscle...

Losing Weight Without Starving

Weight loss is far more complex than the simple recommendation to just eat less and exercise more. Both serious athletes and fitness exercisers struggle to either lose weight or keep off the weight they have lost. Why is weight loss so difficult Does the body adapt to a reduced calorie intake Does dieting ruin your metabolism Or do dieters just have poor compliance The answer, to date, seems to be that most people have trouble with compliance it's hard to eat less food (Heymsfield et al. 2007). As a result of the abundance of yummy food that pervades our environments, flabby thighs and big butts (either real or perceived) haunt many active people. Hence, they work extra hard to burn calories and trim excess body fat. Although some of them successfully lose weight and attribute that loss to their exercise programs, others express frustration that they don't shed an ounce of fat despite consistent workouts. As Sarah, an avid runner and newspaper editor, complained, I've been running for...

The Pros And Cons Of Losing Weight

People have a variety of reasons to lose weight. If you've failed at the weight loss game in the past, try this idea on for size write out a pros cons balance sheet for losing weight. Take a sheet of paper and divide it into 4 squares. The first two squares going across will have Pros of Losing Weight in one and Cons of Losing Weight. The bottom two squares will have Pros of NOT Losing Weight and Cons of NOT Losing Weight.

Challenges Of Lifestyle Change In The Management Of Obesity

Lifestyle change (diet and exercise) remain the first-line therapy for many common disorders, including diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. The reported prevalence of people trying to lose weight in a community-based survey was 28.8 percent for men and 43.6 percent for women.11 A recent, systematic review of the literature regarding obesity treatment by McTigue et al. showed that behavior and counseling (diet and exercise) result in average weight loss of 3 kg to 6 kg over 12 to 60 months.12 Since dieting is associated with a high failure rate, physicians are hesitant to recommend it as a treatment for improving obesity comorbidities. However, a recent review of long-term outcomes of dietary intervention showed a 15 percent success rate among 2131 patients followed for five years.13 Interventions most likely to be successful were high intensity (contact with the participant more often than monthly) and included more than one component (i.e., diet education, exercise...

Losing Weight by Eating More

If diets worked, then everyone who has ever gone on a diet would be thin. That's not what happens. Most dieters are heavy. The way to lose weight for the long haul is to learn how to eat healthfully and appropriately. Chapters 1 and 2 offer guidelines for making healthful food choices. This chapter builds on that information to help you choose the right portions at the right times so that you can lose weight without feeling denied or deprived. I'll teach you nutrition skill power, which is more powerful than the willpower you might yearn for. Such was the case with Roberta, a 42-year-old computer programmer, mother of two teenagers, and fitness runner. If only I had more willpower, I could lose weight, Roberta complained. I've been trying to lose these same 8 to 10 pounds for 12, yes 12, years. I'm the diet queen Feeling completely helpless, Roberta came to me as a last resort to help her achieve her weight goals. When reviewing her dieting history, I noticed that Roberta needed a...

Whats the Best Diet Anyway

If you're looking for a quick fix, this chapter is not going to help you. The bottom line is that people should lose weight eating the very same healthy foods that they will continue to eat after they have lost the weight that is, moderate amounts of carbs coming from whole grains, fruits and vegetables, low-fat dairy, and lean sources of protein foods. Makes perfect sense, right To lose weight forever, you must work on changing your eating behavior forever. Read through and try my bubble plan. You've got nothing to lose except some unwanted pounds and perhaps a lifetime of professional dieting.

The Dietary Guidelines forAmericans

Research clearly shows that being overweight greatly increases your risk for many diseases, including heart disease, cancer, and diabetes. If you are overweight, combining a healthful eating plan with regular physical activity is the most effective way to lose weight and to sustain the loss (see sidebar Diet and Exercise The Perfect Pair, page 10). If you are at a healthy weight, your goal is to maintain that weight. Chapter 3 (page 47) provides further information on weight control.

Increasing Your Weight

Theoretically, to gain 1 pound (0.45 kg) of body weight per week, you'd need to consume an additional 500 calories per day above your typical intake. Some people are hard gainers and require more calories than other people do to add weight. In one landmark research study (Sims 1976), 200 prisoners with no family history of obesity volunteered to be gluttons. The goal was to gain 20 to 25 percent above their normal weights (about 30 to 40 pounds 14 to 18 kg ) by deliberately overeating. For more than half a year, the prisoners ate extravagantly and exercised minimally. Yet only 20 of the 200 prisoners managed to gain the weight. Of those, only 2 (who had an undetected family history of obesity or diabetes) gained the weight easily. One prisoner tried for 30 weeks to add 12 pounds (5 kg) to his 132-pound (60 kg) frame, but he couldn't get any fatter. Among my clients, I've observed that hard gainers are good fidgeters. They twiddle their fingers, swing their legs back and forth while...

The Role Of Exercise In The Management Of Obesity

The current public-health recommendation for physical activity is for individuals to participate in 30 minutes of moderately intense physical activity on most days of the week.31 The reason that people do not lose weight with increased exercise alone is because they usually also increase their food intake. Therefore, exercise combined with energy restriction is recommended based on the rationale that physical activity will result in an increase in total energy expenditure. It appears that the key factor that explains the relationship between exercise and weight is the adoption of an active lifestyle to prevent weight gain and weight regain. Despite recommendations of exercise for prevention of weight gain and improvement of cardiovascular fitness and insulin sensitivity, the major challenge is adoption of a regular exercise pattern. Recent studies on the effectiveness of intermittent exercise (multiple 10- to 15-minute exercise sessions daily) suggest that intermittent exercise is a...

Dietary Interventions That May Alter Risk Factors

It is, of course, useful to know which dietary interventions affect which risk factors. The problem is that the answers are not always entirely consistent with effects on health. The reason is that altering one dietary component may affect many other dietary components While dietary advice has a role to play in normalizing abnormal serum lipids in people with cardiovascular disease, aspects of diet that clearly protect against death and disease should be given greater emphasis than lipid reduction in this group. Dietary changes are likely to result in reductions of total cholesterol of about 5 ,25-27 while statin trials reduce total cholesterol by 18 to 28 therefore, lipid lowering medication is more effective than dietary advice.25 Metabolic ward studies suggest that replacing 60 of saturated fats by other fats and avoiding 60 of dietary cholesterol would reduce serum total cholesterol by 0.8 mmol L (about 13 ), but it appears difficult to maintain this in a normal lifestyle.25...

Controlling Your Weight

During the past two decades, as the number of overweight Americans has bounced upward like a rubber ball, the incidence of obesity-related conditions such as Type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease also has risen. The challenge (as always) is to set, reach, and hold a healthful weight. Three chapters in the new Dietary Guidelines (Adequate Nutrients within Calorie Needs, Weight Management, and Physical Activities) lay out some clear, um, guidelines.

Uses of the Food Guide Pyramid

Individuals can use the Pyramid educational materials to plan a diet that contains all needed nutrients and is moderate in fat and saturated fat. This is important in the United States, where the major causes of death, such as heart disease, are related to diets high in fat, especially saturated fat. Obesity is also a major health concern in the United States. Although physical activity is a critical component of weight management, food intake also plays a role in energy balance. The Food Guide Pyramid educational materials provide serving sizes and a recommended number of servings for people of different ages and activity levels. This guide can help people learn to eat reasonable amounts of food in a country where large portion sizes are the norm.

Match Yourself With One Of These Exercise Scenarios to Help You Lose Weight

You'd think that 30 minutes would be enough exercise for one day. After all, that's how long aerobics videos last, how aerobic machines are generally programmed, how long you have time at your lunch hour to break a sweat. Even our Surgeon General recommends 30 minutes of physical activity daily. So if 30 minutes a day is the ticket, why are so many people having trouble losing weight

Body Mass Index Fit or

Body mass index (BMI) is a number based on body weight in relation to your height that indicates how much your weight affects your risks for weight-related health problems. It doesn't directly measure body fat. For adults, there's no difference in BMI weight ranges for age health risks appear to be the same, regardless of age. The same chart applies to men and women. The generous BMI range of healthy weights allows for individual differences. Higher weights within the healthy range typically apply to people with more muscle and a larger frame, such as many men and some women. After all, muscle and bone weigh more than fat. Gaining or losing weight within these ranges isn't necessarily healthful for you. Calculate your BMI (1) Multiply your weight in pounds times 703. (2) Divide that by your height in inches. (3) Divide that by your height in inches again Or skip the calculations check the BMI chart on page 23 or in the Appendices.

Body Mass Index Table

To use the table, find your height in the left-hand column. Move across to find your weight. The number at the top of the column is your BMI. The body has a nearly unlimited capacity to store fat. Excess fat in the abdomen can lead to illnesses, including diabetes, high blood lipid levels, and high blood pressure. It is also associated with an increased risk for coronary artery disease, stroke, and certain cancers. Losing weight will reduce these risks and lessen the strain on the lower back, hips, and knees. The body has a nearly unlimited capacity to store fat. Excess fat in the abdomen can lead to illnesses, including diabetes, high blood lipid levels, and high blood pressure. It is also associated with an increased risk for coronary artery disease, stroke, and certain cancers. Losing weight will reduce these risks and lessen the strain on the lower back, hips, and knees. people whose excess fat is located in their lower body (hips, buttocks, and thighs) seem to have minimal or no...

Traditional Eating Habits

Traditional eating habits of Mediterranean countries, and those countries along the basin, include olives, fish, lamb, wheat, rice, chick peas and other In ancient times, sea trade brought many of the world's cultural and culinary achievements to the nations around the Mediterranean Sea. More recently, the Mediterranean diet which features low-cholesterol foods such as vegetables and fish, and includes very little meat has been recognized as one of the world's healthiest. Photograph by Annebicque Bernard. Corbis. Reproduced by permission. In ancient times, sea trade brought many of the world's cultural and culinary achievements to the nations around the Mediterranean Sea. More recently, the Mediterranean diet which features low-cholesterol foods such as vegetables and fish, and includes very little meat has been recognized as one of the world's healthiest. Photograph by Annebicque Bernard. Corbis. Reproduced by permission.

Recommended Dietary Allowances

The Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) are nutrient intake levels that meet the needs of most healthy Americans. They were originally developed by the National Academy of Sciences, and were based on nutrient levels that would prevent nutrient deficiencies. Since the mid-1990s, RDAs have been developed as one component of nutrient intake standards called Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). RDAs, developed as part of DRIs, target nutrient levels needed not only to prevent nutrient deficiencies, but also to reduce the risk of chronic disease. They are meant to be intake goals averaged over several days, rather than daily requirements. RDAs can help people establish eating habits that promote health and reduce disease risk. see also Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) National Academy of Sciences (NAS). National Research Council (1989). Recommended Dietary Allowances, 10th edition. Washington, DC National Academy Press. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) and...

Evolution of the Dietary Guidelines

During the 1970s, scientists began identifying links between people's usual eating habits and their risk for chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer. They realized that a healthful diet was important not only to prevent nutrient deficiencies, but because it might play a role in decreasing the risk for chronic diseases. Since heart disease and cancer were, and still are, major causes of death and disability in the United States, there was a need to help Americans select health-promoting diets. The first major step in federal dietary guidance was the 1977 publication of Dietary Goals for the United States by the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs, which recommended an increased intake of carbohydrates and a reduced intake of fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, nutrient dietary substance necessary for health

Design and Recommendations of The Food Guide Pyramid

USDA nutritionists spent many years designing, testing, and refining the Food Guide Pyramid. The goal was to have an easy-to-use graphic that would help people select a diet that promoted nutritional health and decreased the risk of disease. They designed the Pyramid to be flexible enough to be used by most healthy Americans over the age of two. However, they also recognized that people with substantially different eating habits, such as vegetarians, may need a different food guidance system. The Pyramid includes symbols that represent the fats and added sugars found in foods. These are most concentrated at the tip of the Pyramid, but are also found in foods from the five major food groups. This reveals that some foods within the five food groups are high in fat and or sugar. People can limit their fat and sugar intake, as suggested by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, by selecting foods low in fat and added sugars most of the time. obesity the condition of being overweight,...

Collecting Dietary Intake Data with Different Tools

The 24-h recall helps the patient to remember his her food intake on the previous day and to quantitate it (46-52). The interviewer needs to be trained to recall the patient's exact food intake. Accurate quantification is essential. Providing food models, bowls, and plate and picture charts are helpful for collecting accurate intake data. This tool assesses the actual intake of the patient. However, the 24-h recall is not sufficient to describe the patient's usual dietary pattern because it covers a short time. The recall usually takes 20-30 min to complete, but it may take longer if many different foods, ethnic foods, or mixed dishes with various ingredients are consumed. The 24-h recall is the most commonly used dietary tool in the United States, and it is used in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (48-49) and the Nationwide Food Consumption Surveys of Food Intake by Individuals. The interviewer can conduct a 24-h recall on random...

Dietary and supplemental sources

To select a natural diet that is high in MCFAs and low in LCFAs would be very difficult, boring, and unhealthy. While MCFAs appear in several natural foods, there is not a class of foods that is high in MCFAs while being low in LCFAs and balanced in other nutrients. While some foods are higher in one FA than another, both groups of FAs are intermingled in a variety of natural foods. Also, MCTGs do not contain the essential fatty acids (EFAs) linoleic and linolenic. Both EFAs are long-chain FAs with 18 carbons. Linoleic has two double bonds and linolenic has three. A diet without EFAs would cause severe deficiencies incompatible with life. It can be noted in Table 3.3 that MCFAs are not found in abundance in most foods. Coconut oil and palm kernel oil are two plant oils that are high in MCFAs, but note that these FAs are also saturated. The lack of MCFAs in everyday foods creates an argument for taking supplements containing MCFAs, if there is sufficient reason for increasing intake....

Are There Medical and Social Concerns with Childhood Obesity

Overweight children are fraught with many of the same concerns as adults. Socially, overweight and obese kids are subject to teasing and other negative peer interactions leaving them prone to feeling isolated. Medically, the incidence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in overweight children continues to climb along with the diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia and hypertension. Sadly, about 40 percent of obese children and 70 percent of obese adolescents maintain their obese status into adulthood. In addition, obese children who achieve a healthier weight before becoming adults are more prone to obesity during adulthood than children who never were obese. This is a huge concern as we are all aware of the low success rates of weight reduction and maintenance in adults.

Example Recommended Calorie Intakes for Weight Reduction by Body Weight and Body Mass Indexa

The optimal macronutrient (fat protein carbohydrate) distribution for weight reduction has not been resolved but is currently a matter of active debate (26). In recognition of the high caloric density of dietary fat and its relatively low satiety value compared to isocaloric amounts of carbohydrate and protein, a low-fat diet has been most typically employed for WR in diabetes, as well as in the general OW OB population. However, the recent success of high-protein high-fat low-carbohydrate diets for WR has called this conventional approach into question.

Dietary and Lifestyle Changes

Recommendations for dietary and lifestyle changes for women during menopause are a little different from that for women in general. Menopausal women need to eat less of foods that are high in iron. Because they are not menstruating, their requirement for iron is reduced, and is thus the same as for men, about 10 milligrams per day. This means that they need to cut down on red meat, organ meats such as liver and kidney, and other foods high in iron. If they are taking multivitamin and mineral supplements, ones with a low iron content are recommended. Menopausal women need to decrease their intake of total fat, saturated fat, and total calories to balance their energy expenditure and prevent weight gain, which is sometimes associated with this period in a women's life. It is believed that, on average, women gain about 1.2 pounds a year, with most of the weight gain in the form of abdominal fat. A study done in the 1990s found that a modest weight reduction program in premenopausal...

Can Frequent Dieting Have Derogatory Effects

Many people are on a dieting roller coaster. Some starve or semi-starve themselves for several days to weeks and then eat excessively for a period of time. This is sometimes called yo-yo dieting. During the period of drastic energy restriction, the body will deplete its glycogen stores and rely heavily upon stored fat and protein to power metabolic activities. Since protein is largely derived from lean body tissue, such as skeletal muscle, this practice tends to reduce muscle mass and in turn decrease basal metabolism. This can result in a decrease in RMR calories and a greater likelihood of gaining weight when we return to eating an unrestricted amount of energy. Furthermore, it may be that the activity of some of the enzymes involved in making fat from excessive carbohydrates and amino acids may be slightly higher once we begin to eat again. Therefore, we have ultimately set ourselves up for a potentially quick return of body weight, especially body fat.

Things You Can Do Now To Start Losing Weight

You've wrestled with the same 10-20 pounds for years. You weighed and measured foods like a chemist, tried everything from low fat to high-protein. And here you are again, struggling to zip up your favorite pair of jeans. You know it's time to get serious about slimming down, but at this point, you just can't make a major dieting effort.

Adding Fiber to Your Diet

All plant foods, including fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains, contain fiber. Therefore, as you will see from the suggestions provided here, it is very easy to add fiber to your diet. There is one word of caution, however it is best to add fiber to your diet gradually. A rapid increase in fiber intake can cause stomach and intestinal distress, including gas, bloating, and diarrhea conditions that sometimes may be wrongly associated with a gluten reaction. But if you increase fiber intake gradually, you reduce the chance of developing these symptoms. High-Fiber Fruits. According to Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005, the most recent edition of a guide published jointly by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and Department of Agriculture, a person requiring 2,000 calories a day should consume 2 cups (four servings) of fruit each day. A -cup serving of fruit is equivalent to xh cup of fresh fruit or V cup of dried fruit. Dietary Fiber High-Fiber Vegetables....

Recommendations for carbohydrates fats dietary fiber and alcohol

What nutrients are missing from the RDA list of essentials Carbohydrates, fiber, fat, and alcohol. The reason is simple If your diet provides enough protein, vitamins, and minerals, it's almost certain to provide enough carbohydrates and probably more than enough fat. Although no specific RDAs exist for carbohydrates and fat, guidelines definitely exist for them and for dietary fiber and alcohol. In 1980, the U.S. Public Health Service and the U.S. Department of Agriculture joined forces to produce the first edition of Dietary Guidelines for Americans (see Chapter 16). This report has been modified many times. The latest set of recommendations, issued in the spring of 2005, sets parameters for what you can consider reasonable amounts of calories, carbohydrates, dietary fiber, fats, protein, and alcohol. According to these guidelines, as a general rule, you need to i Balance your calorie intake with energy output in the form of regular exercise. Check out Chapter 3 for specifics on how...

Dietary Fiber The Non Nutrient in Carbohydrate Foods

Dietary fiber is a group of complex carbohydrates that are not a source of energy for human beings. Because human digestive enzymes cannot break the bonds that hold fiber's sugar units together, fiber adds no calories to your diet and cannot be converted to glucose. Ruminants (animals, such as cows, that chew the cud) have a combination of digestive enzymes and digestive microbes that enable them to extract the nutrients from insoluble dietary fiber (cellulose and some hemicelluloses). But not even these creatures can pull nutrients out of lignin, an insoluble fiber in plant stems and leaves and the predominant fiber in wood. As a result, the U.S. Department of Agriculture specifically prohibits the use of wood or sawdust in animal feed. But just because you can't digest dietary fiber doesn't mean it isn't a valuable part of your diet. The opposite is true. Dietary fiber is valuable because you can't digest it

Maintain a healthy weight by eating appropriate portion sizes

You may have nutritional challenges caused by certain cancer treatments. Talk to your physician about what would be a healthy weight for you. If you are underweight, you may wish to include a liquid nutritional product in your diet. If you are unable to eat a large meal at one sitting, try having smaller, more frequent meals throughout the day. If you have experienced unintentional weight gain, talk to your doctor. Any attempt to lose extra pounds should not compromise your recovery from treatment. Try not to skip meals, as it may lead to overeating at the next meal. If you make naturally lowfat vegetables, fruits, whole grains and beans the main part of your diet, you will be less likely to overindulge in fatty meats and sweets.

Adding Calcium to Your Diet

You can get enough calcium in your diet even if you follow a vegetarian or vegan diet, are lactose intolerant, follow a low-fat diet, or just don't eat dairy products. A combination of the foods listed in this section will enable you to get enough calcium in your diet while suiting your particular needs. Milk Products. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005 recommends that adults drink 3 cups of fat-free or low-fat milk or consume the equivalent each day. One cup of milk is equivalent to 1 cup of yogurt, 11 ounces of hard natural cheese, 2 cups of cottage cheese, 1 cup of frozen yogurt, or 11 cups of ice cream. Consuming three servings of milk products each day does not have to add a lot of calories and fat to your diet if you choose low-fat products most often. For example, consuming 1 cup of 1 percent milk, 1 cup of low-fat plain yogurt, and ounces of low-fat cheddar cheese provides you with 914 milligrams of calcium (and only 330 calories).

How to Improve Your Diet

Now that you have compared what you should be eating with what you actually are eating, you can start making changes to improve the nutritional quality of your diet. By taking a critical look at your food record, you have identified where you should make adjustments in your eating. You may have found that you need to increase or decrease servings from the various food groups. For example, you may be consuming too many ounces of meat and not enough cups of vegetables. If so, you need to increase your vegetable intake and decrease your meat intake. To help maintain an appropriate intake of calories, it is important that when adding food to your meal plan, you take something else away, assuming you are now eating enough. For example, if you need to increase your fruit and milk intake but are on target with the other food groups, you will need to look at your intake of discretionary calories. These are calories you need to maintain your weight but don't necessarily need for nutrients....

Definition Of Dietary Environmentalism

Dietary environmentalism is the application of environmentalist reasoning in the domain of diet. Man, like all living creatures, lives in symbiosis with his environment. The delicate equilibrium of life is the result of a perfect balance between the genetics of a species, which determine its morphology and its physiological functions, and its environment. By breathing, man absorbs oxygen, which is essential to his survival and releases carbon dioxide. Thus, any modification of atmospheric composition, a shortage of oxygen, or the pollution or modification of the air can be harmful to our health. This is why atmospheric pollution in large cities is carefully monitored. But breathing only ensures our supply of oxygen. The main exchange of matter and energy between man and his environment comes from food1. Any processing of our natural food is therefore liable to harm the quality of our life if just occasional errors are made, and can endanger our survival as a species if more serious,...

Dietary Interventions That May Reduce Illness and Death

To date, the most effective dietary intervention for people who already have cardiovascular disease is omega-3-rich fish oil. Evidence for this comes from a high-quality systematic review of randomised controlled trials.14 Advice to increase intakes of long chain omega-3 fats for people with some cardiovascular disease (compared with no such advice) appears to reduce the risk of fatal myocardial infarction (relative risk 0.7, 95 CI 0.6 to 0.8), sudden death (relative risk 0.7, 95 CI 0.6 to 0.9), and overall death (relative risk 0.8, 95 CI 0.7 to 0.9), but not nonfatal myocardial infarction (relative risk 0.8, 95 CI 0.5 to 1.2). The effects of these cardioprotective doses of omega-3 fats appear consistent whether the advice is dietary (eating more oily fish, usually 2 to 3 large portions weekly) or supplemental (taking the equivalent of 0.5 to 1.0 g of a mixture of eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) fatty acids daily). Several systematic reviews have assessed the...

Early Dietary Advice in the United States

The first half of the twentieth century was a period of enormous growth in nutrition knowledge. The primary goal of nutrition advice at this time was to help people select foods to meet their energy (calorie) needs and prevent nutritional deficiencies. During the Great Depression of the 1930s, food was rationed and people had little money to buy food. They needed to know how to select an adequate diet with few resources, and the USDA produced a set of meal plans that were affordable for families of various incomes. To this day, a food guide for low-income families the Thrifty Food Plan is issued regularly by the USDA and used to determine food stamp allotments. In addition to meal plans, the USDA developed food guides tools to help people select healthful diets. Over the years the food guides changed, based on the current information available.

Eating Habits and Meal Patterns

The northern European diet generally consists of a large serving of meat, poultry, or fish, accompanied by small side dishes of vegetables and starch. The traditional diet is high in protein, primarily from meat and dairy products. The diet tends to be low in whole grains, fruits, and vegetables. Immigrants from this region of the world brought this eating pattern to North America and it still influences the meat and potatoes American meal. The influence of each country's food habits on each other is also extensive.

Dietary data in Europe European surveys

In Europe, there is a need for sources of dietary data that would provide a regular and comparable flow of information. A limited number of studies on documenting and monitoring the dietary intake in Europe have been conducted. The EPIC and SENECA projects are examples of studies that developed procedures to allow the collection of harmonised data across countries. DAFNE is an example of a European project that aimed at achieving post-harmonisation of data already collected. The development of a food classification system that would allow international comparisons of dietary patterns was a central element in the development of an HBS-based European food databank One of the intermediate results of the harmonisation procedure is the development of the DAFNE food classification system, which allows the categorisation of HBS-collected food data into 56 detailed subgroups. These subgroups can be aggregated at various levels ending up at 15 main food groups (Lagiou et al, 2001). The...

Dietary data in Europe national surveys

A number of European countries have carried out national dietary surveys. Table 2.1 summarises basic information on the various IDSs that have been undertaken in 20 European countries during the last 20 years. The surveys are often designed to document the dietary patterns of the general population or segments of it and possibly to identify groups at nutritional risk. In other instances, the primary aim is to address country-specific objectives. The selection of the dietary survey method depends on a number of different factors and investigators may frequently have to compromise according to the specific objectives of the survey and the inherent cost of setting it up. When the option of running international comparisons using these data is raised, a number of methodological constraints emerge. It can directly be noted that a variety of dietary assessment methods are used, making it difficult to accomplish comparability at the international level (Friedenreich, 1994). The differences...

Nutrition Programs in the Community

In the United States, as in most developed countries, a number of services and programs exist to help those who are in need due to age, illness, poverty or adverse circumstances. This is often not the case in less-developed countries, where individuals and communities experience hardships due to a lack of social, health, and welfare services. In the United States, private charitable organizations, churches, and the government assist in providing what is often called a safety net of services, including nutrition or food services, to prevent or reduce deprivation for individuals and communities. The nutrition programs that have the greatest impact are those supported by the government, and in most cases the federal government provides resources to states through various funding methods.

The brand new USDA Food Guide Pyramid

By the time USDA HHS got around to revising the Dietary Guidelines for 2005, it was pretty clear that the original food pyramid hadn't done its proposed job of teaching most Americans how to choose foods that provide sufficient nutrients without piling on the pounds. Like the original Food Guide Pyramid, this new version is made up of sections representing the foods in your daily diet from left to right, grains, vegetables, fruit, oils, milk, and meat beans. Like the building blocks on the original Food Guide Pyramid, the six bands on this one say pick lots of different kinds of foods to build a better diet. The different sizes of the sections suggest that you should consume more of some foods than others. The steps going up the side of the pyramid say, Physical activity matters, so get moving

Can Drugs Help People Lose Weight

The short answer is more than likely. There are a couple of ways for substances such as these to work. Approved weight-loss drugs target appetite suppression (Sibutramine and Rimonibant) or reducing fat digestion (Orlistat). Amphetamines (for example, fenfluramine (Pondimin) and dexfenfluramine (Redux), which increase energy expenditure, were taking off the market in the 1990s because of risk of serious cardiovascular side effects. See the FAQ Highlight Weight Loss Drugs and Supplements at the end of the chapter for more details.

Dietary protein requirements for athletes

In most countries there are no specific allowances for an effect of physical exercise on protein requirements. It is sometimes stated that these are not required because all athletes consume more energy and subsequently achieve adequate protein intakes. Others have argued that moderate exercise does not increase the requirement for dietary protein,6680145 and therefore there is no need to provide specific protein requirements for athletes. However, these studies were undertaken using exercise intensities that would be considered recreational by most standards. Clearly, an elite athlete is performing daily exercise at a much higher intensity and for a longer duration than the novice. Therefore, it is critical to quantify the state of training and the daily volume for any study looking at protein requirements in athletes. Although most athletes consume enough protein to cover any potential increase in dietary need, there are individuals who may not even meet minimal requirements, and it...

Food Guides versus Dietary Guidelines

Food guides are practical tools that people can use to select a healthful diet. Food guide recommendations, such as how many servings of grains to eat, are based on dietary guidelines that are overall recommendations for healthful diets. For example, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans include the recommendation that Americans choose a variety of grains daily, especially whole grains. To help people reach this goal, the USDA's Food Guide Pyramid is built on a base of grain foods and recommends six to eleven servings daily with several servings from whole grains. Thus, the Food Guide Pyramid supports the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines.

The Power of the Food Guide Pyramid

The Food Guide Pyramid, the triangular symbol you see on many food packages, was developed by nutrition experts at the U.S. Department ofAgriculture (USDA) (see below). The Pyramid is an educational tool that translates nutrient requirements into the foods you need to eat and helps you put into action the advice offered by the Dietary Guidelines. In graphic form, the Pyramid displays the variety of food choices and the correct proportions needed to attain the recommended amounts of all the nutrients you need without consuming an excess of calories. The Pyramid divides all foods into six categories, based on the nutrients they contain.

The Food Guide Pyramid

The Food Guide Pyramid was developed by the U.S. Department ofAgriculture. The pyramid incorporates many principles that emphasize a plant-based diet that is low in fat, high in fiber, and rich in important vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients. All of these factors contribute to optimal health and help you to control your weight and to reduce the risk of heart disease and some types of cancer. The arrangement of the food groups in a pyramid shape calls attention to the kinds of foods to eat more of and those to eat in moderation.

The Dietary Reference Intakes DRIs

We all need the same nutrients, but the amounts we need depend on our age, sex, and a few other factors. For example, women who are pregnant or breastfeeding need more of most nutrients. The Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, a group of nutritional scientists from the United States and Canada, has established the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), a set of recommendations for nutrient intake. The DRIs are age- and sex-specific. With the exception of fats and carbohydrates (whose requirements depend only on our calorie needs), a separate DRI is set for each of the known nutrients for each of10 different age groups. From the age of 9 years, males and females have separate DRIs, and additional DRIs are set for women who are pregnant or breastfeeding. How did the nutrient recommendations originate Concerned with the need to provide proper nutrition for newly drafted World War II soldiers, many of whom were undernourished, the Department of...

Dietary Guidelines

Dietary guidelines are designed to provide advice for healthy individuals regarding diet and related life-style practices to promote healthful eating and reduce the risk of disease.1 Dietary guidelines differ from nutrient standards such as the Reference Dietary Intakes (RDI) and Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA),2 or food guides such as the Food Guide Pyramid.3,4 Nutrient standards define the reference points for average daily intake of essential nutrients food guides provide a framework for selecting kinds and amounts of foods of different types that together provide a nutritionally adequate diet and dietary guidelines give advice on consumption of types of food or food component related to a public health concern. The guidelines are intended to be population-based recommendations for health promotion and disease prevention. The dietary guidelines concept was first introduced by Atwater over a century ago. He indicated that food production at the time provided a relative excess...

Dietary Benefits Deficits and Changes

The International Conference on Nutrition (ICN) was convened in Rome in 1992 and established the food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) for Europe. The purpose of the FBDG is to provide dietary guidance to the public. They are based on scientific knowledge, but are presented in a way that assists people in reaching nutritional goals. The southern European diet is fairly representative of these guidelines (see accompanying figure). Southern Europeans experience less heart disease, stomach and lung cancers, strokes, high blood pressure, diabetes, and obesity than other Western nations. This lower rate of chronic disease has been attributed to diet. The diet of people in this area is similar to that recommended in the American Food Guide Pyramid. It differs mainly in the amount of meat and dairy consumed. obesity the condition of being overweight, according to established norms based on sex, age, and height Although the dietary habits described above are traditionally true, recent trends...

Speed the weight lossfat loss process

However, not all aerobic activities are the same. Some programs are better than others, especially for weight control. The general recommendation for aerobic fitness (NOT weight loss) is 20-40 minutes of moderate activity 3-5 times a week. If you're talking weight loss, you're looking at a different picture. People who have lost weight - and kept it off - exercise more than that. To burn off one pound of fat, you need to have a 3500 calorie deficit between exercise and diet (MOST of the expended calories are to come from exercise) during the course of a week. So you're looking at reducing your calorie intake by a little over a hundred calories a day, and the rest from exercise.

Blunted Muscle Insulin Signal Transduction in Obesity

In our in vitro human-muscle preparations we have not been able to study muscle contraction, but stimulation of transport by hypoxia occurs by the same signaling pathway as contraction stimulation by insulin and hypoxia are additive, but stimulation by contraction and hypoxia are not additive.20 The finding that stimulation of transport by hypoxia was normal in muscle of obese patients seems to confirm that the glucose-transport system is intact in insulin-resistant muscle.7 Likewise, we have observed that stimulation of transport by alkaline conditions was normal in muscle of obese patients,19 suggesting that several stimuli can stimulate transport in insulin-resistant muscles. Another line of evidence that a defect in insulin signaling causes insulin resistance comes from our experiments with serine threonine and tyrosine protein phosphatase inhibitors. These experiments were based on the fact that insulin initiates a cascade of tyrosine and serine threonine kinase activations....

Needs for Further Research on Dietary Assessment and CKD

There are several critical needs for improving dietary intake assessment in CKD (26,35,82,83). They include finding simple ways for patients to record their intakes frequently and easily so that usual intakes can better be assessed. It is difficult for patients not to change their intake, at least for the first few days while they are keeping food records multiple records are likely to be more representative of true intake. Additionally, in CKD, especially in the later stages of the disorder, intakes vary considerably from day to day and they are only assessed occasionally. Thus, a true picture of actual intake over the long term is very difficult to obtain. Also, true intake is more likely to be A second challenge is to find better ways to document underreporting of intake, which occurs strikingly in obese patients, but in all patients. Over-reporting is also a problem among patients who are frequently ill because they fail to report intakes on such days. It is also important to...

Recommended Dietary Intake for Vitamin D

Due to the very small and insignificant amounts of vitamin D secreted in human milk, it has historically been concluded that there is no evidence that lactation increases maternal requirements for vitamin D. Therefore, the current recommended adequate intake remains similar to nonlactating adults and is set at 200 IU day 21 . Since the establishment of this recommended dietary intake of vitamin D in 1997, concerns about the wide spread prevalence of vitamin D deficiency have surfaced in the medical and scientific literature. Furthermore, the basis of these recommendations was made prior to the use of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D as an indicator of vitamin D status. To date, there is no scientific literature available pertaining to the minimum vitamin D intake needed to maintain normal concentrations of maternal circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D. The appropriate dose of vitamin D during lactation appears to be greater than the current dietary reference intake of 200 IU day....

Health Implications Of Obesity

An estimated 300,000 deaths per year may be attributable to obesity. Individuals who are obese have a 50 to 100 percent increased risk of premature death from all causes compared with individuals with a healthy weight. Obese persons have more than 10 times the risk of type 2 diabetes and 3 times the risk of coronary heart disease of those who are lean. Conditions aggravated by obesity include arthritis, varicose veins, and gallbladder disease. In addition, surgery is riskier for obese individuals. Obesity creates a psychological burden that in terms of suffering may be its greatest adverse effect. In American and other Westernized societies there are powerful messages that people, especially women, should be thin and that to be fat is a sign of poor self-control. Negative attitudes about the obese have been reported in children and adults, health-care professionals, and the overweight themselves. People's negative attitudes toward the obese often translate into discrimination in...

Body Basics Whats Your Healthy Weight

The answer isn't as simple as stepping onto a bathroom scale, then comparing your weight to a chart. Your own healthy weight is one that's right for you. It may be quite different from someone else's weight, even if you are the same height, gender, and age. So what's your healthy weight That depends. Determining your right weight takes several things into account (1) your body mass index, or your weight in relation to your height (2) the location and amount of body fat you have and (3) your overall health and risks for weight-related problems such as diabetes or high blood pressure.

Figure Body Mass Index Chart

Locate the height of interest in the left-most column and read across the row for that height to the weight of interest. Follow the column of the weight up to the top row that lists the BMI. BMI of 19-24 is the healthy weight range, BMI of 25-29 is the overweight range, and BMI of 30 and above is in the obese range. Healthy Weight Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults, Healthy Weight Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults, Another way to measure obesity is to determine the percentage of your body that is fat. For men, a desirable percentage of body fat is under 25 percent for women, under 35 percent. Body fat is most often measured by using special calipers to measure the skinfold thickness of the triceps and other parts of the body. Because half of all your fat is under the skin, this method is quite accurate when performed by an experienced professional. Other methods of estimating body fatness include underwater weighing and bioelectrical impedance.

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans

Aim for a healthy weight Be physically active each day salt, and sugar. There was heated debate among nutrition scientists when the Dietary Goals were published. Some nutritionists believed that not enough was known about effects of diet and health to make suggestions as specific as those given. In 1980, the first edition of Dietary Guidelines for Americans was released by the USDA and HHS. The seven guidelines were (1) Eat a variety of foods (2) Maintain ideal weight (3) Avoid too much fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol (4) Eat foods with adequate starch and fiber (5) Avoid too much sugar (6) Avoid too much sodium and (7) If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation. The second edition, released in 1985, made a few changes, but kept most of the guidelines intact. Two exceptions were the weight guideline, which was changed to Maintain desirable weight and the last guideline, in which alcohol was changed to alcoholic beverages. Following publication of the second edition of the Dietary...

The Hypolipidemic and Antiobesity Effects of Puerh

Recently, research on the biomedical activity of pu-erh tea has focused on its antibacterial, antioxidative, lipid-lowering, and antiobesity effects . Many in vitro studies have shown that pu-erh tea has antioxidative activity. Lin et al. 8 reported that the water extract of pu-erh tea (100 g ml) can protect the plasmid DNA from strand breakage induced by the Fenton reaction as well as the control, regardless of total catechin content Duh et al 4 reported that pu-erh tea water extract with less cat-echins (8 . 01 mg ml), compared to green tea water extract with more catechins (79 . 1 mg ml), could still chelate metal ions, scavenge DPPH radicals, and decrease nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages .

Obesity As A Public Health Problem

Obesity is rapidly becoming the scourge of modern society. Presently, at least 34 of the U.S. population is obese (20 or more above their ideal weight) and more than 55 weigh in excess of ideal.1,2 This represents the highest prevalence ever recorded in the United States.3 Nor is the problem unique to Americans. It is estimated that there are now 250 million obese adults in the world (7 of the total population), with many more overweight.4 At the 1998 International Conference on Obesity, the World Health Organization identified obesity as a worldwide epidemic.5 In industrialized and developing countries alike, obesity ranks as one of the top five global health problems.6 One of the more sobering observations is that obesity is increasing rapidly among children and adolescents. The association between childhood obesity and obesity in adulthood indicates a strong relationship. Analysis by Serdula et al.7 indicates that about one third of obese preschool children become obese as adults,...

Introduction To The Problem The Critical Link Between Diabetes And Excess Body Weight

The problem of obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States (see also other chapters by Boan and McMahon), and evidence of its negative impact on health is rapidly accumulating. Excessive body mass, defined as a body-mass index (BMI) over 25 kg m2 (overweight OW) and > 30 kg m2 (obese OB) is linked with an increased risk for a number of serious chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, and some cancers, as well as type 2 diabetes (1-3). The relationship between OW OB and diabetes is exceedingly strong, with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes increasing along with OW OB in a dose-dependent manner (3). In fact, as many as 90 percent of all type 2 diabetic individuals fit the OW OB BMI criteria (4). Thus, OW OB and type 2 diabetes are inextricably linked (5), the term diabesity having been coined by Astrup and Finer (6) to emphasize the close connection between the two disorders. The need to deal with the obesity problem by restoring...

Obesity and Pregnancy

Chile is a good example in terms of the nutrition transition as seen in developing countries 13 . As indicated above, successful private and public programs have practically eliminated undernutrition, but the situation has gone to the other extreme, obesity being the principal problem today. The 2003 National Health Survey showed that 27.3 of all women aged 17-44 were obese, higher than the prevalence observed in men (19.2 ). Figure 20.4 compares the prevalence of obesity related to age in Chilean women obtained by Berrios et al. 14-16 from observations in 1987 and 1992 in Santiago, and from the CARMEN Study in 1998 carried out in Valparaiso 10 , using a body mass index (BMI) of 27.3 kg m2 as a cutoff point. A marked increase in obesity prevalence was seen in the 25- to 34-year-old group, and prevalence consistently increased with age. A recent national survey showed that of women 17 years of age and older, 33 were overweight, and 25 were obese. In other words, less than 50 of the...

Vegetarian Children and Obesity

Body mass index, kg sq m attribute also tends to be present among older vegetarian children and adolescents, although limited research data are available for older children. Lousuebsakul and Sabate21 studied anthropometric data of 870 children aged 7 to 18 years who were attending Seventh-Day Adventist schools in California. One third of them were vegetarian. A vegetarian lifestyle was associated with lower BMI and a decreased tendency to be overweight, especially in adolescent girls. Specifically, age- and height-adjusted analysis showed that vegetarian boys and girls were, on average, 1.4 kg and 1.0 kg, respectively, leaner than their non-vegetarian classmates. Also, BMI values and skinfold measurements were lower among vegetarians. The prevalence of obesity (BMI > 75th percentile of national standards) was lower among vegetarian adolescent girls. In view of the relationship of childhood obesity to adult corpulence,7 the adoption of a vegetarian lifestyle during the school years...

How obese people can BE helped to lose wEIGHT

In considering the treatment of obesity, two different aspects of the problem must be considered The long-term problem of helping the now lean person to maintain desirable body weight. This is largely a matter of education, increasing physical activity and changing eating habits. The same guidelines for a prudent diet (discussed in section 7.3) apply to the slimmed-down, formerly obese, person as to anyone else. The aim of any weight reduction regime is to reduce the intake of food to below the level needed for energy expenditure, so that body reserves of fat will have to be used. As discussed in section 5.2, the theoretical maximum possible rate of weight loss is 230 g per megajoule energy imbalance per week for a person with an energy expenditure of 10 MJ day, total starvation would result in a loss of 2.3 kg week. In Very often, the first one or two weeks of a weight-reducing regime are associated with a very much greater loss of weight than this. Obviously, this cannot be due to...

Dietary components and health

The availability of food in Europe has never been as good as in recent decades. Affluent though European countries are, sub-groups of populations experience the deficiency of minerals and micronutrients that play a vital role in health and development (Serra-Majem, 2001). A significant proportion of European infants and children are today experiencing a low dietary intake of iodine and iron (Trichopoulou and Lagiou, 1997a WHO, 1998). The iodine deficiency leads to several disorders collectively referred to as Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD), with goitre (hyperplasia of thyroid cells), cretinism (mental deficiency) and severe brain damage being the most common. It is estimated that IDD may affect approximately 16 of the European population. Furthermore, inadequate levels of folate have been implicated with a rise in the blood homocysteine levels, leading possibly to increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). European policies address such deficiencies either by recommending the...

General strategies for obesity prevention

The prevention of obesity in infants and young children should be considered of high priority. For infants and young children, the main preventive strategies are For children and adolescents, prevention of obesity implies the need to In developing countries, special attention should be given to avoidance of overfeeding stunted population groups. Nutrition programmes designed to control or prevent undernutrition need to assess stature in combination with weight to prevent providing excess energy to children of low weight-for-age but normal weight-for-height. In countries in economic transition, as populations become more sedentary and able to access energy-dense foods, there is a need to maintain the healthy components of traditional diets (e.g. high intake of vegetables, fruits and NSP). Education provided to mothers and low socioeconomic status communities that are food insecure should stress that overweight and obesity do not represent good health. Low-income groups globally and...

Changes in Dietary Practices

Throughout the world, the diets of traditional cultures have experienced what has been called the nutrition transition, particularly during the last few decades of the twentieth century. In Mexico and Central America, as elsewhere, this transition has been fueled by globalization and urbanization. Major dietary changes include an increased use of animal products and processed foods that include large amounts of sugar, refined flour, and hy-drogenated fats. At the same time, a decline in the intake of whole grains, fruit, and vegetables has been documented. While the increased variety has improved micronutrient status for many low-income groups, the inclusion of more animal fat and refined foods has contributed to a rapid increase in obesity and chronic disease throughout the region.

Diet physical activity and excess weight gain and obesity

Be directly attributed to their obesity. Eating behaviours that have been linked to overweight and obesity include snacking eating frequency, binge-eating patterns, eating out, and (protectively) exclusive breastfeeding. Nutrient factors under investigation include fat, carbohydrate type (including refined carbohydrates such as sugar), the glycaemic index of foods, and fibre. Environmental issues are clearly important, especially as many environments become increasingly ''obesogenic'' (obesity-promoting). Physical activity is an important determinant of body weight. In addition, physical activity and physical fitness (which relates to the ability to perform physical activity) are important modifiers of mortality and morbidity related to overweight and obesity. There is firm evidence that moderate to high fitness levels provide a substantially reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality and that these benefits apply to all BMI levels. Furthermore, high fitness...

The health risks of obesity

As shown in Figure 6.1, people who are overweight are significantly more likely to die prematurely, and at 50 over desirable weight there is a twofold risk of premature death. Figure 6.4 shows the main causes of premature death that are associated with overweight and obesity, expressed as the ratio of that condition as a cause of death in obese people to the expected rate in lean people. Obesity, and especially abdominal obesity (section 6.2.3), is strongly associated with insulin resistance and the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (section 10.7). This is largely the result of increased circulating concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (released from plasma lipoproteins by lipoprotein lipase section 5.5.6.2). Non-esterified fatty acids decrease muscle uptake and utilization of glucose and may also antagonize insulin action. Weight loss results in a considerable improvement in glycaemic control in patients with early non-insulin-dependent diabetes. In...

Insulin Resistance In Obesity

The metabolic syndrome is a condition characterized by hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, and glucose intolerance, which leads to increased risk of coronary-artery disease and type 2 diabetes. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) indicated that 45 percent of the U.S. population over age 50 has metabolic syndrome, and, because of the increase in the prevalence of obesity, the incidence of the metabolic syndrome has increased by 60 percent over the last decade. Obesity is generally accompanied by insulin resistance, which is manifest as fasting hyperinsulinemia. In addition, an elevated area under the curve for insulin values during an oral glucose-tolerance test is usual for insulin-resistant, obese individuals, and glucose utilization is markedly depressed in euglycemic insulin-clamp studies.58,59 Stimulation of glucose transport by insulin is markedly blunted in muscle of obese individuals.273459'82 This observation likely...

Overweight and obesity

As discussed in section 5.2, if the intake of metabolic fuels (in other words the total intake of food) is greater than is required to meet energy expenditure, the result is storage of the excess, largely as triacylglycerols in adipose tissue. This chapter is concerned with the problems associated with excessive accumulation of body fat overweight and obesity. explain what is meant by desirable body weight, calculate body mass index and determine whether it is within the desirable range or not describe the health hazards associated with overweight and obesity explain the cause and treatment of obesity.

Lipid metabolism in obesity

Obesity is associated with an increased storage of triglycerides in skeletal muscle (IMTG), accumulation of lipid intermediates (long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs, diacylg-lycerols, and ceramides) and subsequent insulin resistance. The question then presents itself Why is there an accumulation of muscle lipids in obesity

Association of Obesity with Diabetes

As extensively discussed in section I of this book, obesity and weight gain clearly seem to be associated with an increased risk of diabetes, although there are some studies that don't show the association (44-46). Each year, 300,000 U.S. adults die of causes related to obesity (44). In 2000, the prevalence of obesity was 19.8 percent among U.S. adults (65.5 percent of men and 47.6 percent of women), which was a 61 percent increase from 1991 (44, 45). Weight gain, excess BMI, waist-hip ratio, and waist circumference are major risk factors for diabetes, with the waist circumference displaying the greatest relative risk (44, 47). In a national sample of adults, for every 1-kilogram increase in measured weight, the risk of diabetes increased by 4.5 percent (44). There seems to be an association between race and modification of diabetes risk by BMI, with African Americans having an increased risk at lower BMIs (i.e., adjusted RR for African Americans for Caucasians, it was 2.83 for men...

Weight Classification Body Mass Index BMI

Underweight Normal Overweight Obesity Class Obesity Class II Obesity, extreme It is often assumed that obesity equals insulin resistance, since overweight people tend to become more insulin sensitive with weight loss.5 However, results from the European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance have shown that only 25 percent of people who are overweight had evidence of insulin resistance.6 Epidemiological evidence suggests that persons in the upper tertile of insulin resistance (measured by insulin-mediated glucose disposal) are at a statistically, significantly increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, or hypertension.7,8

The problems of overweight and obesity

Figure 6.3 shows that in 1998 (the most recent year for which data are available) more than half of all people in Britain were classified as overweight (i.e. BMI > 25) 17 of men and 21 of women were classified as obese (i.e. BMI > 30). Perhaps more seriously, the proportion of people who were classified as obese increased almost threefold in the period 1980 to 1998, and there is no evidence of any reversal of this trend. There has been a similar increase in the prevalence of obesity in most developed countries over the same period. Figure 6.3 The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in UK, 1980 98, from UK Department of Health data. Figure 6.3 The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in UK, 1980 98, from UK Department of Health data. 6.2.1 SOCIAL PROBLEMS OF OBESITY Because society at large considers obesity undesirable, and fashion emphasizes slimness, many overweight and obese people have problems of a poor self-image and low self-esteem. Obese people are...

Dietary Guidelines for Americans

The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) prepared Dietary Guidelines for all Americans 2 years of age and older. (http www.nal.usda.gov fnic dga). The seven guidelines are 2. Balance the food you eat with physical activity -- maintain or improve your weight. Dietary Guidelines for Americans For more specific guidance on food selection, the USDA and the DHHS developed the food guide pyramid in Figure 3-1.

Can Fat Substitutes Help to Reduce Dietary

Fat-modified foods can fit into a healthy eating plan. According to the American Dietetic Association, they offer a safe, feasible, and effective means to maintain the palatability of diets that are controlled in fat or calories. But they are only one of the many tools that can be used to achieve nutrition goals. Foods with fat substitutes should be consumed as part of an overall healthful eating plan, such as that outlined in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. see also Artificial Sweeteners Dietary Guidelines for Americans Fats. Diamond, L. (1997). The Dietary Guidelines Alliance Reaching Consumers with Meaningful Health Messages. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 97(3) 247. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and U.S. Department of Agriculture (2000). Nutrition and Your Health Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 5th ed. Available from

Whos Making the Rules for Dietary Supplements

As mentioned, there are rules that regulate dietary supplements sort of. The Dietary Supplement Health Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 created a definition for a dietary supplement and charged the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with monitoring the safety of a supplement . . . after it reaches the market. The FDA is not responsible for analyzing the contents of a supplement or making sure that the supplement you purchase works. The way the act is designed, the manufacturer is responsible for ensuring that the supplement's label is truthful and not misleading. Manufacturers are also expected to follow the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), which ensures consistency in how the supplement is prepared, packed, and stored. According to the National Institutes of Health's Office of Dietary Supplements, there is no such thing as standardization, as there is no accepted U.S. definition pertaining to dietary supplements. Therefore there is no assurance that each supplement has the same dose...

Definition and Regulation of Dietary Supplements

The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 issued by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defines the term dietary supplement as a product that collectively meets the following requirements 5 The FDA requires that all dietary supplements be labeled as such. However, unlike drugs, dietary supplements do not need approval before they are marketed. The manufacturers and distributors of supplements are responsible for ensuring their safety and making sure that label claims are accurate and truthful. For more information concerning the regulation of dietary supplements marketed within the United States, the reader is referred to the FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition help-line (1-888723-3366) or their website (http www.cfsan.fda.gov list.html).

A brief overview of dietary supplement ingredient regulation in the United States

In 1994 the United States Congress passed the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA, Public law 103-417, October 25, 1994, 103rd Congress). This law modified the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and expanded the definition of dietary supplements to include botanical ingredients, hormones, and a diverse array of related products in addition to vitamins and minerals. The DSHEA also specified the role of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in regulating dietary supplements, mandated the creation of a Presidential Commission on Dietary Supplement Labeling, and authorized the establishment of the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The main elements of the definition of dietary supplements from the DSHEA are listed in Box 1.1. For products that are regulated by the FDA, the 'intended use' of a product or ingredient is the turnkey that determines whether an item is broadly classified as a food or a drug. Dietary supplements, no...

Food and Dietary Supplement GMPs

Spirulina is regulated as food and as a dietary supplement. The latter is a subset of food and falls under FDA's regulation. As discussed earlier, Spirulina is produced under FDA GMPs for food. The FDA has recently released a separate regulation for dietary supplement GMP. Nevertheless, some companies have already attained dietary supplement GMP certification through the industry's (Natural Products Association) certification program. The two facilities in the United States are subject to inspection by federal, state, and local regulatory bodies.

Regulation of Dietary Supplements

Congress passed the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), which President Bill Clinton signed into law the same year. One provision of DSHEA clarified the definition for dietary supplements outlined above. DSHEA also mandated the establishment of the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) within the National Institutes of Health. The ODS coordinates research on dietary supplements and acts as a clearinghouse for regulatory issues. It also maintains an excellent resource for consumers, the International Bibliographic Information on Dietary Supplements (IBIDS), which is a database that contains citations published in scientific journals on the topic of dietary supplements. The public can access IBIDS on the ODS website. DSHEA established a new regulatory framework for supplement safety and for the labeling of dietary supplements by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Dietary supplements are regulated under food law, but with certain provisions that...

Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act DSHEA and Spirulina

Spirulina is sold in health food stores and similar outlets as a dietary supplement. There appears to be a lack of understanding about their regulatory status. Until 1994 dietary supplements were regulated as foods by FDA. However, with passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), Congress amended the food regulations to include several provisions that apply only to dietary supplements and dietary ingredients of dietary supplements. As a result of these provisions, dietary ingredients used in dietary supplements are no longer subject to the premarket safety evaluations required of other new food ingredients or for new uses of old food ingredients. They must, however, meet the requirements of other safety provisions. FDA defines a dietary supplement as a product (other than tobacco) that is intended to supplement the diet that bears or contains one or more of the following dietary ingredients a vitamin, a mineral, an herb or other botanical, an amino...

Introducing Dietary Supplements

The vitamin pill you may pop each morning is a dietary supplement. So are the calcium antacids many American women consider standard nutrition. Echinacea, the herb reputed to short-circuit your winter cold, is, and so is the vanilla-flavored meal-in-a-can liquid your granny chug-a-lugs every afternoon just before setting off on her daily mile power walk. The FDA classifies each of these as a dietary supplement because they meet the agency's definition any pill, tablet, capsule, powder, or liquid you take by mouth that contains a dietary ingredient. Of course, that raises another question What's a dietary ingredient Answer Dietary supplements may be single-ingredient products, such as vitamin E capsules, or they may be combination products, such as the nutrient-packed protein powders favored by some athletes.

The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of

Dietary supplement usage in the United States has increased significantly since the passage in 1994 of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA, pronounced Dee-shay). This legislation defined dietary supplements as distinct from food and drugs, and it allowed them to be sold without a prescription. The passage of DSHEA provided consumers with the right to purchase dietary supplements that they felt would help them attain their personal health goals. At the same time, DSHEA transferred to consumers the responsibility for making informed choices about the supplements that they used. In contrast to prescription and over-the-counter drugs, where effectiveness and safety must be demonstrated prior to marketing of the drugs, premarket approval is not required of manufacturers of dietary supplements. As a result, there is a greater potential risk that dietary supplements may be ineffective, or even harmful, as compared with drugs. The dietary supplements industry is not...

Dietary Intake of Vitamin D

Since the primary source of vitamin D is synthesis in the skin, very little survey data are available regarding dietary vitamin D intake. As the widespread use of sunscreens and public health recommendations to avoid sun exposure limits this endogenous source of vitamin D, most people necessarily rely on vitamin D from either dietary or supplemental sources. Although dietary sources may provide an amount to meet the currently published 1997 recommendations for vitamin D, they fall short of meeting the suggested requirement proposed in recent studies 49, 53 . A supplemental source of vitamin D is likely required to meet these latter proposed recommendations, at least in the winter months when sun exposure is limited.

Definitions of dietary supplements

The DSHEA defines dietary supplements for regulatory purpose within the United States. The Office of Dietary Supplements at the NIH needed to implement research priorities using this definition and yet in some manner group the wide array of supplement ingredients available in the marketplace into more manageable categories. A definition was needed that also could be interpreted more readily in terms of research projects. An operating definition was requested in meetings with the NIH Institute Directors and other agencies who expressed difficulty in understating whether or not specific ingredients would be supported in the research and education programmes developed by the ODS. The resulting operating definition and categorization of dietary supplement ingredients was developed in collaboration with the staff of the Office of Special Nutritionals at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), who had oversight for dietary supplement regulatory affairs, and a large group of ad hoc advisers...

Dietary Reference Intakes DRIs

To help you determine whether you are getting the right balance of nutrients, the government has established the dietary reference intakes (DRIs). The recommendations for vitamins and minerals exceed the average nutrition requirements of nearly all people, including athletes. The DRIs have several subgroupings Recommended dietary allowance (RDA) is the amount per day that should decrease the risk of chronic disease. Another measurement of intake you've likely seen is the daily value (DV), which is a compilation of DRIs used for food labels. The DV is intended to help people get a perspective on their overall dietary needs. Source Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes. Landover, MD National Academy Source Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes. Landover, MD National Academy

Blood vs Dietary Cholesterol

Confused about cholesterol You're not alone Actually, the term itself refers to two different types. Blood, or serum, cholesterol circulates in the bloodstream. Dietary cholesterol comes from food. Cholesterol also comes from foods and beverages of animal origin eggs, meat, poultry, fish, and dairy foods. Animals produce cholesterol, but plants don't. A diet high in cholesterol is one factor that elevates blood cholesterol levels for some people. That's why the Dietary Guidelines advise Consume less than 300 milligrams of cholesterol a day. Dietary cholesterol doesn't automatically become blood cholesterol. Saturated fat and trans fats in your food choices have a more significant effect on blood cholesterol levels than dietary cholesterol alone does.

Recommended Nutrient Intakes and Dietary Supplement

Although during pregnancy a number of metabolic adaptations are orchestrated to support both increased maternal and fetal needs for many nutrients, the body's requirements for some nutrients cannot be met without increased dietary intake. Indeed, available evidence indicates that dietary requirements for 14 of the 21 essential micronutrients increase during pregnancy. These nutrients comprise seven vitamins, five minerals, and choline 6 . As such, it is important to increase one's intake of these nutrients to prevent deficiencies. It is also important during this period of the lifespan to not consume too much of each nutrient to reduce risk for levels of intake that may be harmful. The Institute of Medicine's (IOM) Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are considered to be the gold standard in recommendations for nutrient intake, and having a basic knowledge of this set of dietary reference standards is important for understanding nutrient requirements and potential impacts of dietary...

Dietary Diversification and Modification

Dietary diversification and modification, which can include home gardening, food processing techniques, reducing consumption of foods that inhibit non-heme iron absorption, and increasing consumption of foods that enhance non-heme iron absorption, serve as methods to increase dietary intake and bioavailability of iron (Table 22.5) 62, 63 . Nutrition education about home gardening of micronutrient-rich foods, and drying of meats and fish, for example, can potentially improve micronutrient content of the diet. Increasing iron-rich flesh food consumption serves as an ideal dietary solution to improving iron intake however, flesh foods are expensive and certain cultural or religious beliefs might preclude the intake of these foods 63 . Iron in food exists in two forms non-heme iron and heme iron. Plant foods and dairy products contain non-heme iron and flesh foods, such as meat and fish, contain heme iron, which is much more bioavailable than non-heme iron. Efficiency of heme iron...

Dietary Reference Intakes

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are a set of nutrient reference values. They are used to help people select healthful diets, set national nutrition policy, and establish safe upper limits of intake. DRIs include four sets of nutrient standards Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), Adequate Intake (AI), and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). Starting in the mid-1990s, DRIs began to replace RDAs and Recommended Nutrient Intakes for Canadians, which had been the standards for the United States and for Canada, respectively. Not only is it important to know how much of a nutrient is needed for good health, it is also critical to know how much of a nutrient is too much. The UL is the highest intake of a nutrient that does not pose a threat to health for most people. Intake higher than the UL can cause adverse health effects, especially over time. see also Dietary Assessment Recommended Dietary Allowances Nutrients. Food and Nutrition Information Center,...

Controversies Surrounding the Use of Dietary Supplements

Public Health and School of Medicine, writes that DSHEA modifies the regulatory environment so that it becomes possible, even likely, that products will be marketed that inadvertently harm people (Zeisel, p. 1855). Zeisel believes that the DSHEA legislation makes it easy for small enterprises to market products without investing the time and money needed to prove their product's safety and efficacy. He contrasts the development of a new dietary supplement to that of a new drug or food additive, for which there is a formal process to evaluate safety. A manufacturer developing a new drug or food additive must conduct safety studies following FDA procedures. Results must be submitted to the FDA for review and approval before the ingredient or drug can be sold to the public. This is not the case for dietary supplements, however, because under DSHEA they are legally in a class by themselves. The FDA must simply be notified of the new product, and the notification must provide information...

The Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health

The Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) was authorized at the NIH as part of the DSHEA legislation. This office was formally started in late 1995 with the mandate to serve as a source of research support, inter-government advice, and science-based information on dietary supplements. The ODS has worked extensively with the other NIH institutes, centres and offices to partner in identifying the most fruitful areas for research in dietary supplements and to serve as a source of information for scientists, industry and the public. While the Congressional mandate for the ODS was specified broadly, the office staff needed to take this mandate and transform it into specific achievable goals and objectives. In order to do this, the office assembled over 125 scientists and professionals from academia, government, industry and public-interest groups and held a series of seven strategic planning meetings in autumn and winter 1996 1997. Different individuals were involved in each of the seven...

Dietary Requirements for Vitamin A

The Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine has made new recommendations of vitamin A intake by life stage and gender group (Table 2) (246). These Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are reference values that are quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes to be used for planning and assessing diets in apparently healthy people and include Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs), Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), and Adequate Intake (AI) (246). The RDA is defined as the dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97 to 98 percent) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group. The EAR is defined as a nutrient intake that is estimated to meet the requirement of half of the healthy individuals in a life stage and gender group. AI is defined as a recommended intake value based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group (or groups) of healthy people that are...

Dietary Intake of Folate

Prior to folic acid fortification of the food supply in North America in 1998, a reduction in maternal folate stores during lactation was observed and was likely due to poor dietary folate intakes 64-67 . Since implementation of the fortification program, significant improvements in blood folate status of reproductive age women, including pregnant and lactating women, have been described 68, 69 . Dietary folate intakes from unfortified foods during lactation, however, remain suboptimal for approximately one third of women as demonstrated in a sample of well-nourished lactating Canadian women 70 . On average in this study, natural food folate provided 283 71 mcg day folate, while folic acid from fortified foods supplied approximately 125 35 mcg day folic acid. The investigators concluded that without mandatory folic acid fortification, 98 of lactating women would not have met their requirements for folate from diet alone 70 .

Dietary Supplements Defined

Dietary supplements are neither food nor drugs. Instead, they're products taken orally that contain a dietary ingredient meant to supplement the diet, not substitute for healthful foods. According to the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), approved in 1994, the term dietary supplements refers to a broad range of products vitamins, minerals, herbs or other botanicals, and amino acids, as well as substances such as enzymes, hormones, concentrates, extracts, and metabolites. Many misconceptions surround dietary supplements. What do you think about using them Many misconceptions surround dietary supplements. What do you think about using them Misconceptions about dietary supplements are rampant. Even though consumers with these beliefs buy supplements, every statement is false 1. Fact No dietary supplement can fix an ongoing pattern of poor food choices. Supplements may supply some vitamins and minerals, but not all the substances that food supplies for your optimal...

Dietary Supplements for Performance Ergogenic Aids

Among the dietary supplements reside a plethora of ergogenic aids. Ergogenic aids are intended to improve athletic performance. Ergogenic aids can be broken down into categories based on their purported effects, from biomechanical to psychological aids, but we'll focus on those that fall under the nutritional aids category. For these we have different types on the market that are intended to provide performance gains in a variety of ways Fat loss

The efficiency of utilization of dietary protein

Model predictions (Moughan and Smith, 1984) for the utilization of dietary crude protein and lysine (the first limiting amino acid) for a range of commercial pig grower diets, given to 50 kg live weight gilts (Pdmax 115 g day-1) at two food intake levels (see Moughan, 1984, for details) are given in Table 11.3. The predictions show that the different diets, formulated for optimal growth, actually support very different rates of daily body protein deposition and illustrate the low and variable efficiencies of utilization. At the higher feeding level only three of the formulated diets supported maximal protein growth. The efficiency of utilization of dietary crude protein intake (Pe) ranged from 20 to 42 at the lower level of meal intake and from 22 to 34 at the higher level. On average the ingested dietary protein was utilized with an efficiency close to 30 . The equivalent of around 70 of the ingested nitrogen was excreted from the pig's body. Part of this inefficiency can be...

Dietary Fiber and Cancer Risk

Since the original suggestion by Denis Burkitt that dietary fiber might protect against colon cancer,48 numerous case-control and a few cohort studies have investigated this relationship. Most, but not all, have supported the original hypothesis of a protective role for fiber in the etiology of colon cancer. A recent review reported that 11 out of 17 case-control studies found an inverse relationship between dietary fiber intake and colorectal cancer.49 Another review and meta-analysis (based on 5255 patients with colorectal cancer) also found a significant inverse relationship between dietary fiber and colorectal cancer risk. An overall relative risk of 0.53 comparing those in the highest quintile with those in the lowest quintile was calculated it persisted after controlling for adjustment for other nutrients and for vitamin C and beta-carotene).50 The conflicting results from case-control and cohort studies are difficult to reconcile. Recall bias is a serious limitation in the...

Dietary Intake Assessment and Nutritional Status in Female Athletes

There seems to be more research on the dietary intake of female athletes than male athletes, probably because of a higher prevalence of disordered eating among women, especially in sports that require a specific body weight to compete or in sports that also highly value esthetics. Ziegler and colleagues 17 evaluated 18 female competitive figure skaters, 14 to 16 years old, during preseason, the competitive season, and off-season using 3-day dietary records. Energy intake was below energy needs, although energy intake did not differ significantly over the three seasons. Nonetheless, throughout the competitive season, 78 , 50 , and 44 of the skaters had intakes less than 67 of the RDA for folate, iron, and calcium. The biochemical indicators of nutritional status were within normal limits, although long-term assessments are required to evaluate the impact of the less-than-adequate intake of the aforementioned nutrients. Ziegler and colleagues 17 emphasized the need for nutrition...

Table Effect of dietary copper on egg cholesterol and copper accumulation in yolk and manure

Naber (1993) in a review of factors influencing egg vitamin content concluded that feed vitamin content has the greatest and most widespread influence on egg vitamin content. Using data from studies that reported diet vitamin level and feed intake on the one hand, and egg output, i.e. egg weight and production on the other, Naber calculated the efficiency of vitamin transfer into eggs as a function of intake (Table 4.40). The transfer efficiency of vitamin A was very high (up to 80 ), but this dropped markedly when the dietary level was raised to four times requirement. This is an indication of the possibility of egg enrichment with vitamin A, even though this trend declines at high levels of diet vitamin enrichment. The transfer of dietary vitamin B12 into eggs was as efficient as for riboflavin, pantothenic acid and biotin, e.g. about 50 with dietary levels at one to two times requirement. Unlike riboflavin, however, this level of transfer efficiency continued in the case of vitamin...

Lose 10 Pounds Naturally

Lose 10 Pounds Naturally

Studies show obesity may soon overtake tobacco as the leading cause of death in America. Are you ready to drop those extra pounds you've been carrying around? Awesome. Let's start off with a couple positive don't. You don't need to jump on a diet craze and you don't need to start exercising for hours each day.

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