Best Weight Loss Programs That Work

Eat Stop Eat

This book by Brad Pilon explains on both fasting and routine weight training practices whereby fasting takes the center stage. A day of fasting serves to get rid of all those toxic substances in addition to boosting the general bodys metabolism. Brad Pilon has been in this particular field for quite some time and I do trust that the information contained on this book- Eat Stop Eat, are as a result of his huge bank of experience and careful experimentation on the theme. With Eat Stop Eat you can forget about all of these obsessive compulsive eating habits. Your metabolism will not slow down and you will not go into starvation mode. With Eat Stop Eat you will clearly see the research behind why short periods of fasting will Never cause you to go into starvation mode. Your metabolism will stay just as high as it ever was. The goodness about this approach is that its safe and easy to follow especially for anyone who cannot stay away from their favorite meals. You will have access to your meals over the fasting periods and still get the desired result. Read more here...

Eat Stop Eat Summary


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Eat Stop Eat Review

Highly Recommended

The very first point I want to make certain that Eat Stop Eat definitely offers the greatest results.

As a whole, this book contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

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Understanding the Diet Cancer Connection

Even after a cell begins to become cancerous, diet and lifestyle can still help short-circuit the process. Several nutrients have been shown to delay the progression of cancers from one stage to another this gives the body more time to defend itself. Maintaining a healthy weight through diet and regular exercise also helps establish a bodily environment that discourages cancer growth. Scientists have only just begun to investigate how the benefits of a healthy diet may impact cancer survivors. In the meantime, it makes sense to follow a few simple dietary guidelines that can help prevent cancer and possibly guard against its return.

Maintain a healthy weight by eating appropriate portion sizes

You may have nutritional challenges caused by certain cancer treatments. Talk to your physician about what would be a healthy weight for you. If you are underweight, you may wish to include a liquid nutritional product in your diet. If you are unable to eat a large meal at one sitting, try having smaller, more frequent meals throughout the day. If you have experienced unintentional weight gain, talk to your doctor. Any attempt to lose extra pounds should not compromise your recovery from treatment. Try not to skip meals, as it may lead to overeating at the next meal. If you make naturally lowfat vegetables, fruits, whole grains and beans the main part of your diet, you will be less likely to overindulge in fatty meats and sweets.

Definition Of Dietary Environmentalism

Dietary environmentalism is the application of environmentalist reasoning in the domain of diet. Man, like all living creatures, lives in symbiosis with his environment. The delicate equilibrium of life is the result of a perfect balance between the genetics of a species, which determine its morphology and its physiological functions, and its environment. By breathing, man absorbs oxygen, which is essential to his survival and releases carbon dioxide. Thus, any modification of atmospheric composition, a shortage of oxygen, or the pollution or modification of the air can be harmful to our health. This is why atmospheric pollution in large cities is carefully monitored. But breathing only ensures our supply of oxygen. The main exchange of matter and energy between man and his environment comes from food1. Any processing of our natural food is therefore liable to harm the quality of our life if just occasional errors are made, and can endanger our survival as a species if more serious,...

Balancing dietary acids

Simply put, the North American diet is very acidic. From most proteins to many dairy products (especially cheese) to most grains, we take in far more dietary acids than we do bases. And this imbalance between acid and base can cause some serious long-term health and physique problems. You see, when a food is ingested, digested, and absorbed, each component of that food will present itself to the kidneys as either an acid-forming compound or a base-forming one. And when the sum total of all the acid producing and the base producing micro and macronutrients is tabulated (at the end of a meal or at the end of a day), we're left with a calculated acid-base load. If the diet provides more acidic components, it will manifest as a net-acid load on the body. And if it provides more basic components, it will manifest as a net-base load on the body. Every cell of the body functions optimally within a certain pH range (pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of the body). In different...

The Dietary Reference Intakes DRIs

We all need the same nutrients, but the amounts we need depend on our age, sex, and a few other factors. For example, women who are pregnant or breastfeeding need more of most nutrients. The Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, a group of nutritional scientists from the United States and Canada, has established the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), a set of recommendations for nutrient intake. The DRIs are age- and sex-specific. With the exception of fats and carbohydrates (whose requirements depend only on our calorie needs), a separate DRI is set for each of the known nutrients for each of10 different age groups. From the age of 9 years, males and females have separate DRIs, and additional DRIs are set for women who are pregnant or breastfeeding. How did the nutrient recommendations originate Concerned with the need to provide proper nutrition for newly drafted World War II soldiers, many of whom were undernourished, the Department of...

The Dietary Guidelines forAmericans

Research clearly shows that being overweight greatly increases your risk for many diseases, including heart disease, cancer, and diabetes. If you are overweight, combining a healthful eating plan with regular physical activity is the most effective way to lose weight and to sustain the loss (see sidebar Diet and Exercise The Perfect Pair, page 10). If you are at a healthy weight, your goal is to maintain that weight. Chapter 3 (page 47) provides further information on weight control.

The Power of the Food Guide Pyramid

The Food Guide Pyramid, the triangular symbol you see on many food packages, was developed by nutrition experts at the U.S. Department ofAgriculture (USDA) (see below). The Pyramid is an educational tool that translates nutrient requirements into the foods you need to eat and helps you put into action the advice offered by the Dietary Guidelines. In graphic form, the Pyramid displays the variety of food choices and the correct proportions needed to attain the recommended amounts of all the nutrients you need without consuming an excess of calories. The Pyramid divides all foods into six categories, based on the nutrients they contain.

The Food Guide Pyramid

The Food Guide Pyramid was developed by the U.S. Department ofAgriculture. The pyramid incorporates many principles that emphasize a plant-based diet that is low in fat, high in fiber, and rich in important vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients. All of these factors contribute to optimal health and help you to control your weight and to reduce the risk of heart disease and some types of cancer. The arrangement of the food groups in a pyramid shape calls attention to the kinds of foods to eat more of and those to eat in moderation.

Body Mass Index Table

To use the table, find your height in the left-hand column. Move across to find your weight. The number at the top of the column is your BMI. The body has a nearly unlimited capacity to store fat. Excess fat in the abdomen can lead to illnesses, including diabetes, high blood lipid levels, and high blood pressure. It is also associated with an increased risk for coronary artery disease, stroke, and certain cancers. Losing weight will reduce these risks and lessen the strain on the lower back, hips, and knees. The body has a nearly unlimited capacity to store fat. Excess fat in the abdomen can lead to illnesses, including diabetes, high blood lipid levels, and high blood pressure. It is also associated with an increased risk for coronary artery disease, stroke, and certain cancers. Losing weight will reduce these risks and lessen the strain on the lower back, hips, and knees. people whose excess fat is located in their lower body (hips, buttocks, and thighs) seem to have minimal or no...

A brief overview of dietary supplement ingredient regulation in the United States

In 1994 the United States Congress passed the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA, Public law 103-417, October 25, 1994, 103rd Congress). This law modified the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and expanded the definition of dietary supplements to include botanical ingredients, hormones, and a diverse array of related products in addition to vitamins and minerals. The DSHEA also specified the role of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in regulating dietary supplements, mandated the creation of a Presidential Commission on Dietary Supplement Labeling, and authorized the establishment of the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The main elements of the definition of dietary supplements from the DSHEA are listed in Box 1.1. For products that are regulated by the FDA, the 'intended use' of a product or ingredient is the turnkey that determines whether an item is broadly classified as a food or a drug. Dietary supplements, no...

Sales and use of dietary supplements in the United States

The sale and use of dietary supplements in the United States initially grew dramatically after the passage of the DSHEA. Figures of individual and mixtures of botanical supplements drove the market. The growth and demand led to a consolidation of manufacturing and retail corporations as well as new growth in botanical supplements produced by the major pharmaceutical corporations in the US. It is estimated that from 30 53 per cent of Americans or 100 million people use dietary supplements on a regular basis (several times each week) (Aarts, 1998). In 1996 sales of dietary supplements totalled 9.8 billion and represented 51 per cent of the total sales in the nutrition industry in the United States. Sales of dietary supplements in natural food stores comprised 44 per cent of the total, and mass-market retail accounted for 26 per cent of the total with the remainder in direct marketing through the mail or Internet. Overall sales for dietary supplements grew 9 per cent in 1996 (Aarts,...

The Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health

The Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) was authorized at the NIH as part of the DSHEA legislation. This office was formally started in late 1995 with the mandate to serve as a source of research support, inter-government advice, and science-based information on dietary supplements. The ODS has worked extensively with the other NIH institutes, centres and offices to partner in identifying the most fruitful areas for research in dietary supplements and to serve as a source of information for scientists, industry and the public. While the Congressional mandate for the ODS was specified broadly, the office staff needed to take this mandate and transform it into specific achievable goals and objectives. In order to do this, the office assembled over 125 scientists and professionals from academia, government, industry and public-interest groups and held a series of seven strategic planning meetings in autumn and winter 1996 1997. Different individuals were involved in each of the seven...

Dietary Interventions That May Reduce Illness and Death

To date, the most effective dietary intervention for people who already have cardiovascular disease is omega-3-rich fish oil. Evidence for this comes from a high-quality systematic review of randomised controlled trials.14 Advice to increase intakes of long chain omega-3 fats for people with some cardiovascular disease (compared with no such advice) appears to reduce the risk of fatal myocardial infarction (relative risk 0.7, 95 CI 0.6 to 0.8), sudden death (relative risk 0.7, 95 CI 0.6 to 0.9), and overall death (relative risk 0.8, 95 CI 0.7 to 0.9), but not nonfatal myocardial infarction (relative risk 0.8, 95 CI 0.5 to 1.2). The effects of these cardioprotective doses of omega-3 fats appear consistent whether the advice is dietary (eating more oily fish, usually 2 to 3 large portions weekly) or supplemental (taking the equivalent of 0.5 to 1.0 g of a mixture of eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) fatty acids daily). Several systematic reviews have assessed the...

Dietary Interventions That May Alter Risk Factors

It is, of course, useful to know which dietary interventions affect which risk factors. The problem is that the answers are not always entirely consistent with effects on health. The reason is that altering one dietary component may affect many other dietary components While dietary advice has a role to play in normalizing abnormal serum lipids in people with cardiovascular disease, aspects of diet that clearly protect against death and disease should be given greater emphasis than lipid reduction in this group. Dietary changes are likely to result in reductions of total cholesterol of about 5 ,25-27 while statin trials reduce total cholesterol by 18 to 28 therefore, lipid lowering medication is more effective than dietary advice.25 Metabolic ward studies suggest that replacing 60 of saturated fats by other fats and avoiding 60 of dietary cholesterol would reduce serum total cholesterol by 0.8 mmol L (about 13 ), but it appears difficult to maintain this in a normal lifestyle.25...

Results of Dietary Intervention Trials

Three dietary intervention trials conducted in Britain, India, and Italy demonstrated that increased consumption of fish or dietary supplementation with marine n-3 fatty acids significantly reduced the risk of fatal MI.39-41 The Diet and Reinfarction Trial in Britain randomized 2033 men after a first MI into two groups. One group received advice to eat at least two portions of fatty fish per week and the other did not. At the end of the 2-year study period, total mortality in the intervention group was significantly reduced by 29 (mainly due to reduction in CHD mortality). However, there was no difference in myocardial reinfarction incidence. The authors hypothesized that fish consumption may reduce the risk of fatal arrhythmia and therefore mortality from MI without affecting the incidence of recurrent MI.39

Dietary Prevention Of Sudden Cardiac Death

In the absence of a generally accepted definition, SCD is usually defined as death from a cardiac cause occurring within 1 hour from the onset of symptoms.1 The magnitude of the problem is considerable because SCD is a very common, and often the first, manifestation of CHD and accounts for about 50 of cardiovascular mortality in developed countries.1 In most cases, SCD occurs outside a hospital and without prodromal symptoms. We shall now examine whether diet (more precisely, certain dietary factors) may prevent (or help prevent) SCD in patients with established CHD. We will focus our analyses on the effects of the different families of fatty acids, antioxidants, and alcohol.2

Recommended Dietary Allowances

The Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) shown in Table 2-2 and Table 2-3 are the amounts of the vitamins and minerals, respectively, that a healthy person should eat to meet daily requirements. The RDAs are designed to meet the daily requirements for most healthy people. The RDAs are undergoing revisions and new standards are gradually becoming available. These new standards are called the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). The military has also developed a set of allowances known as the Military DRIs (MDRIs) to be used for designing military rations.

Dietary Guidelines for Americans

The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) prepared Dietary Guidelines for all Americans 2 years of age and older. (http fnic dga). The seven guidelines are 2. Balance the food you eat with physical activity -- maintain or improve your weight. Dietary Guidelines for Americans For more specific guidance on food selection, the USDA and the DHHS developed the food guide pyramid in Figure 3-1.

Developments in the availability of dietary energy

Food consumption expressed in kilocalories (kcal) per capita per day is a key variable used for measuring and evaluating the evolution of the global and regional food situation. A more appropriate term for this variable would be ''national average apparent food consumption since the data come from national Food Balance Sheets rather than from food consumption surveys. Analysis of FAOSTAT data shows that dietary energy measured in kcals per capita per day has been steadily increasing on a worldwide basis availability of calories per capita from the mid-1960s to the late 1990s increased globally by approximately 450 kcal per capita per day and by over 600 kcal per capita per day in developing countries (see Table 1). This change has not, however, been equal across regions. The per capita supply of calories has remained almost stagnant in sub-Saharan Africa and has recently fallen in the countries in economic transition. In contrast, the per capita supply of energy has risen dramatically...

Availability and changes in consumption of dietary fat

The increase in the quantity and quality of the fats consumed in the diet is an important feature of nutrition transition reflected in the national diets of countries. There are large variations across the regions of the world in the amount of total fats (i.e. fats in foods, plus added fats and oils) available for human consumption. The lowest quantities consumed are recorded in Africa, while the highest consumption occurs in parts of North America and Europe. The important point is that there has been a remarkable increase in the intake of dietary fats over the past three decades (see Table 3) and that this increase has taken place practically everywhere except in Africa, where consumption levels have stagnated. The per capita supply of fat from animal foods has increased, respectively, by 14 and 4 g per capita in developing and industrialized countries, while there has been a decrease of 9 g per capita in transition countries. Trends in the dietary supply of fat Trends in the...

Diet physical activity and excess weight gain and obesity

Be directly attributed to their obesity. Eating behaviours that have been linked to overweight and obesity include snacking eating frequency, binge-eating patterns, eating out, and (protectively) exclusive breastfeeding. Nutrient factors under investigation include fat, carbohydrate type (including refined carbohydrates such as sugar), the glycaemic index of foods, and fibre. Environmental issues are clearly important, especially as many environments become increasingly ''obesogenic'' (obesity-promoting). Physical activity is an important determinant of body weight. In addition, physical activity and physical fitness (which relates to the ability to perform physical activity) are important modifiers of mortality and morbidity related to overweight and obesity. There is firm evidence that moderate to high fitness levels provide a substantially reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality and that these benefits apply to all BMI levels. Furthermore, high fitness...

General strategies for obesity prevention

The prevention of obesity in infants and young children should be considered of high priority. For infants and young children, the main preventive strategies are For children and adolescents, prevention of obesity implies the need to In developing countries, special attention should be given to avoidance of overfeeding stunted population groups. Nutrition programmes designed to control or prevent undernutrition need to assess stature in combination with weight to prevent providing excess energy to children of low weight-for-age but normal weight-for-height. In countries in economic transition, as populations become more sedentary and able to access energy-dense foods, there is a need to maintain the healthy components of traditional diets (e.g. high intake of vegetables, fruits and NSP). Education provided to mothers and low socioeconomic status communities that are food insecure should stress that overweight and obesity do not represent good health. Low-income groups globally and...

Dietary Requirements for Vitamin A

The Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine has made new recommendations of vitamin A intake by life stage and gender group (Table 2) (246). These Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are reference values that are quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes to be used for planning and assessing diets in apparently healthy people and include Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs), Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), and Adequate Intake (AI) (246). The RDA is defined as the dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97 to 98 percent) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group. The EAR is defined as a nutrient intake that is estimated to meet the requirement of half of the healthy individuals in a life stage and gender group. AI is defined as a recommended intake value based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group (or groups) of healthy people that are...

Whos Making the Rules for Dietary Supplements

As mentioned, there are rules that regulate dietary supplements sort of. The Dietary Supplement Health Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 created a definition for a dietary supplement and charged the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with monitoring the safety of a supplement . . . after it reaches the market. The FDA is not responsible for analyzing the contents of a supplement or making sure that the supplement you purchase works. The way the act is designed, the manufacturer is responsible for ensuring that the supplement's label is truthful and not misleading. Manufacturers are also expected to follow the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), which ensures consistency in how the supplement is prepared, packed, and stored. According to the National Institutes of Health's Office of Dietary Supplements, there is no such thing as standardization, as there is no accepted U.S. definition pertaining to dietary supplements. Therefore there is no assurance that each supplement has the same dose...

Dietary Supplements for Performance Ergogenic Aids

Among the dietary supplements reside a plethora of ergogenic aids. Ergogenic aids are intended to improve athletic performance. Ergogenic aids can be broken down into categories based on their purported effects, from biomechanical to psychological aids, but we'll focus on those that fall under the nutritional aids category. For these we have different types on the market that are intended to provide performance gains in a variety of ways Fat loss

Molecular Targets For Chemopreventive Action Of Dietary Components

This outline of genetic changes can be used as a structure for illustrating the chemopreventive actions of dietary components in cancer prevention. Ample evidence exists to demonstrate that bioactive compounds can act in each of these areas. Table 2.2 cites several examples of molecular targets and representative nutritional factors that can act at these sites.2728 The overview presented in this chapter is by no means a comprehensive catalog of all bioactive compounds, nor of all of their defined mechanisms of actions. Note that most compounds have a pleiotropic action that is, they can act at a number of sites in the carcinogenesis pathway. In addition, many different compounds can act on a single molecular target. We outline one example of a nutrient, the active form of vitamin D, 1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 , with many different mechanisms of cancer preventive action. The activities of many other compounds are further detailed in later chapters. Note that all of the biochemical and...

The RDAs Recommended Dietary Allowances

The Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) are standards set by an expert committee known as the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences National Research Council. These recommendations list the average daily requirements for a variety of nutrients (in other words, vitamins and minerals) and are intended for healthy people.

The DRIs Dietary Reference Intakes

Because scientific knowledge regarding diet and health has increased, the Food and Nutrition Board has recently expanded its framework and developed the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for several vital nutrients. It is forecasted that over the next three to four years additional groups of nutrients including phtyoestrogens, antioxidants and phytochemicals will also be slated for review toward DRI development. These new DRI standards include the RDAs as goals for intakes, plus three new reference values the estimated average requirement (EAR), the tolerable upper limit (UL), and the adequate intake (AI). On the two reference charts provided here, you'll notice that some nutrients are listed as DRIs, some as RDAs, an some as AIs a bit confusing but all you'll need to understand is the actual recommended amount.

Whats the Best Diet Anyway

If you're looking for a quick fix, this chapter is not going to help you. The bottom line is that people should lose weight eating the very same healthy foods that they will continue to eat after they have lost the weight that is, moderate amounts of carbs coming from whole grains, fruits and vegetables, low-fat dairy, and lean sources of protein foods. Makes perfect sense, right To lose weight forever, you must work on changing your eating behavior forever. Read through and try my bubble plan. You've got nothing to lose except some unwanted pounds and perhaps a lifetime of professional dieting.

Stop talking about your weight

This can lead to utter obsession with bodyweight. You see, what you give attention to grows. Keep focusing on your weight, and your weight will grow. Make the shift from concentrating on the end result to focusing on YOU and the changes you need to make to have a healthy body image - and how inspired, motivated, and energized you'll be. Set your fitness goals, and then become emotionally involved with THEM as you were your weight.

Speed the weight lossfat loss process

However, not all aerobic activities are the same. Some programs are better than others, especially for weight control. The general recommendation for aerobic fitness (NOT weight loss) is 20-40 minutes of moderate activity 3-5 times a week. If you're talking weight loss, you're looking at a different picture. People who have lost weight - and kept it off - exercise more than that. To burn off one pound of fat, you need to have a 3500 calorie deficit between exercise and diet (MOST of the expended calories are to come from exercise) during the course of a week. So you're looking at reducing your calorie intake by a little over a hundred calories a day, and the rest from exercise.

Things You Can Do Now To Start Losing Weight

You've wrestled with the same 10-20 pounds for years. You weighed and measured foods like a chemist, tried everything from low fat to high-protein. And here you are again, struggling to zip up your favorite pair of jeans. You know it's time to get serious about slimming down, but at this point, you just can't make a major dieting effort.

The Pros And Cons Of Losing Weight

People have a variety of reasons to lose weight. If you've failed at the weight loss game in the past, try this idea on for size write out a pros cons balance sheet for losing weight. Take a sheet of paper and divide it into 4 squares. The first two squares going across will have Pros of Losing Weight in one and Cons of Losing Weight. The bottom two squares will have Pros of NOT Losing Weight and Cons of NOT Losing Weight.

Match Yourself With One Of These Exercise Scenarios to Help You Lose Weight

You'd think that 30 minutes would be enough exercise for one day. After all, that's how long aerobics videos last, how aerobic machines are generally programmed, how long you have time at your lunch hour to break a sweat. Even our Surgeon General recommends 30 minutes of physical activity daily. So if 30 minutes a day is the ticket, why are so many people having trouble losing weight

Adding Fiber to Your Diet

All plant foods, including fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains, contain fiber. Therefore, as you will see from the suggestions provided here, it is very easy to add fiber to your diet. There is one word of caution, however it is best to add fiber to your diet gradually. A rapid increase in fiber intake can cause stomach and intestinal distress, including gas, bloating, and diarrhea conditions that sometimes may be wrongly associated with a gluten reaction. But if you increase fiber intake gradually, you reduce the chance of developing these symptoms. High-Fiber Fruits. According to Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005, the most recent edition of a guide published jointly by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and Department of Agriculture, a person requiring 2,000 calories a day should consume 2 cups (four servings) of fruit each day. A -cup serving of fruit is equivalent to xh cup of fresh fruit or V cup of dried fruit. Dietary Fiber High-Fiber Vegetables....

Adding Calcium to Your Diet

You can get enough calcium in your diet even if you follow a vegetarian or vegan diet, are lactose intolerant, follow a low-fat diet, or just don't eat dairy products. A combination of the foods listed in this section will enable you to get enough calcium in your diet while suiting your particular needs. Milk Products. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005 recommends that adults drink 3 cups of fat-free or low-fat milk or consume the equivalent each day. One cup of milk is equivalent to 1 cup of yogurt, 11 ounces of hard natural cheese, 2 cups of cottage cheese, 1 cup of frozen yogurt, or 11 cups of ice cream. Consuming three servings of milk products each day does not have to add a lot of calories and fat to your diet if you choose low-fat products most often. For example, consuming 1 cup of 1 percent milk, 1 cup of low-fat plain yogurt, and ounces of low-fat cheddar cheese provides you with 914 milligrams of calcium (and only 330 calories).

Weight Loss and Dieting

If you have gained some unwanted weight since being diagnosed with celiac disease, dieting may seem like a logical option, but it probably is not the answer. Weight loss in America is big business. As a country, we spend billions of dollars trying to lose weight. While many individuals succeed at shedding pounds, only a very small percentage of those who lose weight through dieting are able to maintain their weight loss. Many of those who regain the pounds make further attempts to lose weight. This yo-yo dieting, as it is called, may contribute to several health problems. Yo-yo dieting may result in a higher risk of heart disease and diabetes. When fat is regained after dieting, it may be stored around the abdomen. Abdominal fat storage, in contrast to fat stored in the leg or hip region, appears to be a risk factor in the development of certain diseases. Yo-yo dieting also may increase your percent of body fat. When you lose weight through dieting, you lose both fat and muscle...

How to Improve Your Diet

Now that you have compared what you should be eating with what you actually are eating, you can start making changes to improve the nutritional quality of your diet. By taking a critical look at your food record, you have identified where you should make adjustments in your eating. You may have found that you need to increase or decrease servings from the various food groups. For example, you may be consuming too many ounces of meat and not enough cups of vegetables. If so, you need to increase your vegetable intake and decrease your meat intake. To help maintain an appropriate intake of calories, it is important that when adding food to your meal plan, you take something else away, assuming you are now eating enough. For example, if you need to increase your fruit and milk intake but are on target with the other food groups, you will need to look at your intake of discretionary calories. These are calories you need to maintain your weight but don't necessarily need for nutrients....

Recommendations for carbohydrates fats dietary fiber and alcohol

What nutrients are missing from the RDA list of essentials Carbohydrates, fiber, fat, and alcohol. The reason is simple If your diet provides enough protein, vitamins, and minerals, it's almost certain to provide enough carbohydrates and probably more than enough fat. Although no specific RDAs exist for carbohydrates and fat, guidelines definitely exist for them and for dietary fiber and alcohol. In 1980, the U.S. Public Health Service and the U.S. Department of Agriculture joined forces to produce the first edition of Dietary Guidelines for Americans (see Chapter 16). This report has been modified many times. The latest set of recommendations, issued in the spring of 2005, sets parameters for what you can consider reasonable amounts of calories, carbohydrates, dietary fiber, fats, protein, and alcohol. According to these guidelines, as a general rule, you need to i Balance your calorie intake with energy output in the form of regular exercise. Check out Chapter 3 for specifics on how...

Introducing Dietary Supplements

The vitamin pill you may pop each morning is a dietary supplement. So are the calcium antacids many American women consider standard nutrition. Echinacea, the herb reputed to short-circuit your winter cold, is, and so is the vanilla-flavored meal-in-a-can liquid your granny chug-a-lugs every afternoon just before setting off on her daily mile power walk. The FDA classifies each of these as a dietary supplement because they meet the agency's definition any pill, tablet, capsule, powder, or liquid you take by mouth that contains a dietary ingredient. Of course, that raises another question What's a dietary ingredient Answer Dietary supplements may be single-ingredient products, such as vitamin E capsules, or they may be combination products, such as the nutrient-packed protein powders favored by some athletes.

Examining Why People Use Dietary Supplements

Many people consider vitamin and mineral supplements a quick and easy way to get nutrients without so much shopping and kitchen time and without all the pesky fat and sugars in food. Others take supplements as nutritional insurance (for more on recommended dietary allowances of vitamins and minerals, see Chapter 4). And some even use supplements as substitutes for medical drugs. In general, nutrition experts, including the American Dietetic Association, the National Academy of Sciences, and the National Research Council, prefer that you invest your time and money whipping up meals and snacks that supply the nutrients you need in a balanced, tasty diet. Nonetheless, every expert worth his or her vitamin C admits that in certain circumstances, supplements can be a definite plus.

Dietary Fiber The Non Nutrient in Carbohydrate Foods

Dietary fiber is a group of complex carbohydrates that are not a source of energy for human beings. Because human digestive enzymes cannot break the bonds that hold fiber's sugar units together, fiber adds no calories to your diet and cannot be converted to glucose. Ruminants (animals, such as cows, that chew the cud) have a combination of digestive enzymes and digestive microbes that enable them to extract the nutrients from insoluble dietary fiber (cellulose and some hemicelluloses). But not even these creatures can pull nutrients out of lignin, an insoluble fiber in plant stems and leaves and the predominant fiber in wood. As a result, the U.S. Department of Agriculture specifically prohibits the use of wood or sawdust in animal feed. But just because you can't digest dietary fiber doesn't mean it isn't a valuable part of your diet. The opposite is true. Dietary fiber is valuable because you can't digest it

Controlling Your Weight

During the past two decades, as the number of overweight Americans has bounced upward like a rubber ball, the incidence of obesity-related conditions such as Type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease also has risen. The challenge (as always) is to set, reach, and hold a healthful weight. Three chapters in the new Dietary Guidelines (Adequate Nutrients within Calorie Needs, Weight Management, and Physical Activities) lay out some clear, um, guidelines.

The brand new USDA Food Guide Pyramid

By the time USDA HHS got around to revising the Dietary Guidelines for 2005, it was pretty clear that the original food pyramid hadn't done its proposed job of teaching most Americans how to choose foods that provide sufficient nutrients without piling on the pounds. Like the original Food Guide Pyramid, this new version is made up of sections representing the foods in your daily diet from left to right, grains, vegetables, fruit, oils, milk, and meat beans. Like the building blocks on the original Food Guide Pyramid, the six bands on this one say pick lots of different kinds of foods to build a better diet. The different sizes of the sections suggest that you should consume more of some foods than others. The steps going up the side of the pyramid say, Physical activity matters, so get moving

Dietary and supplemental sources

To select a natural diet that is high in MCFAs and low in LCFAs would be very difficult, boring, and unhealthy. While MCFAs appear in several natural foods, there is not a class of foods that is high in MCFAs while being low in LCFAs and balanced in other nutrients. While some foods are higher in one FA than another, both groups of FAs are intermingled in a variety of natural foods. Also, MCTGs do not contain the essential fatty acids (EFAs) linoleic and linolenic. Both EFAs are long-chain FAs with 18 carbons. Linoleic has two double bonds and linolenic has three. A diet without EFAs would cause severe deficiencies incompatible with life. It can be noted in Table 3.3 that MCFAs are not found in abundance in most foods. Coconut oil and palm kernel oil are two plant oils that are high in MCFAs, but note that these FAs are also saturated. The lack of MCFAs in everyday foods creates an argument for taking supplements containing MCFAs, if there is sufficient reason for increasing intake....

Dietary Protein Intake

The level of dietary protein intake influences protein metabolism in response to exercise. During and after endurance exercise, the provision of extra protein (beyond requirement) resulted in an increase in leucine oxidation68,96,97 and in one study appeared to attenuate muscle FSR.10 The latter study measured mixed-muscle FSR in response to three different protein intakes (0.8, 1.8, 3.6 g kg day) in endurance-trained athletes and found that FSR was lowest at the highest protein intake level,10 yet whole-body leucine oxidation was greatest (a nutrient excess).97 Our group has shown that the provision of dietary protein at levels above requirement (e.g., 2.8 vs. 1.8 g kg day) resulted in an exponential increase in amino acid oxidation with no further increase in protein synthesis in male strength athletes.53 In addition, the provision of dietary protein at 2.6 g kg day during resistance exercise training in young males doing weight training did not confer any strength or mass benefits...

Dietary protein requirements for athletes

In most countries there are no specific allowances for an effect of physical exercise on protein requirements. It is sometimes stated that these are not required because all athletes consume more energy and subsequently achieve adequate protein intakes. Others have argued that moderate exercise does not increase the requirement for dietary protein,6680145 and therefore there is no need to provide specific protein requirements for athletes. However, these studies were undertaken using exercise intensities that would be considered recreational by most standards. Clearly, an elite athlete is performing daily exercise at a much higher intensity and for a longer duration than the novice. Therefore, it is critical to quantify the state of training and the daily volume for any study looking at protein requirements in athletes. Although most athletes consume enough protein to cover any potential increase in dietary need, there are individuals who may not even meet minimal requirements, and it...

Dietary and supplemental sources of bcaas

The human adult daily maintenance requirement for total BCAA intake is estimated to be 68 to 144 mg kg (10 to 22 of the maintenance protein requirement).43 Among the athletic population, several groups of athletes can be identified that consume relatively large amounts of BCAAs. The BCAAs can be obtained from one of four possible sources whole food proteins, protein supplements, solutions of protein hydrolysates, and free amino acids. The reasons why athletes can have quite high intakes of BCAAs include having high dietary protein intakes and consuming protein and amino acid supplements.

From Dietary Protein Intake

The BCAAs, leucine, isoleucine, and valine, represent 3 of the 20 amino acids that are used in the formation of proteins. Thus, on average, the BCAA content of food proteins is about 15 of the total amino acid content. If we take an average man with a sedentary lifestyle, his daily energy intake will be about 10 MJ day, and let us say that 15 of this will come from protein. Thus, he consumes about 1500 kJ as protein, which is equivalent to about 63 g. Therefore, his intake of BCAAs is about 9.5 g. Contrast this with a Tour de France cyclist the energy intake of these elite athletes has been measured as averaging around 25 MJ day over a 2- to 3-week period.44,45 The proportion of protein in the diet may be a little less, as much of the extra energy consumed is in the form of carbohydrates, but even so, the protein content of the diet is still about 12 of the total energy content. Thus, the elite cyclist consumes about 3000 kJ as protein, which is equivalent to 126 g of protein, which...

Dietary intake Food Sources

Dietary sources rich in glutamine include all foods that are rich in protein, particularly milk protein and meats. Three ounces (85 g) of meat, chicken, or fish contains 3 to 4 g of glutamine. Plant foods such as spinach, parsley, and cabbage are also sources of glutamine. Table 14.2 provides some examples of food sources of

Dietary Intake Assessment and Nutritional Status in Special Populations of Female Athletes

Female athletes may be more restrictive in their dietary intake than male athletes, placing them at greater risk for nutritional deficiencies and impaired performance and health. Beals and Manore 34 evaluated the diet and nutritional status of female athletes with subclinical eating disorders (n 24), compared with those of controls (n 24). The group with subclinical eating disorders had significantly lower energy intake than the control group (1989 kcal d versus 2300 kcal d P .004) however, energy expenditure did not differ between groups. Average micronutrient intake and iron, zinc, magnesium, vitamin B12, and folate status did not differ between groups (and were within normal limits). Athletes in both groups used vitamin-mineral supplements, which likely improved nutritional status. Aside from disordered eating, many female athletes are vegetarians for various reasons, which also could affect nutritional intake and status. Janelle and Barr 35 compared the nutrient intakes of...

Advances in medical therapy and its role in dietary therapy

Administrators, physicians, clergy and community representatives often reviewed individual patient records and made recommendations about who was eligible to receive dialysis. While dietitians did not participate to a great extent in the decision-making process, it was the dietitian who was often the last health care provider to see those patients who were not eligible to receive dialysis. Severely restricted diet instructions were provided to these patients upon discharge from the hospital to minimize the gastrointestinal side effects of uremia to the extent possible. The goal of these diets was to provide time for the patients to finalize their affairs. By 1972, the United States Congress passed legislation allowing Medicare to cover 80 of the cost of dialysis treatment two to three treatments per week became the routine. In 1974, Burton outlined specific modifications required for the various forms of treatment and stages of kidney disease (16,17). These papers were published in...

Collecting Dietary Intake Data with Different Tools

The 24-h recall helps the patient to remember his her food intake on the previous day and to quantitate it (46-52). The interviewer needs to be trained to recall the patient's exact food intake. Accurate quantification is essential. Providing food models, bowls, and plate and picture charts are helpful for collecting accurate intake data. This tool assesses the actual intake of the patient. However, the 24-h recall is not sufficient to describe the patient's usual dietary pattern because it covers a short time. The recall usually takes 20-30 min to complete, but it may take longer if many different foods, ethnic foods, or mixed dishes with various ingredients are consumed. The 24-h recall is the most commonly used dietary tool in the United States, and it is used in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (48-49) and the Nationwide Food Consumption Surveys of Food Intake by Individuals. The interviewer can conduct a 24-h recall on random...

Needs for Further Research on Dietary Assessment and CKD

There are several critical needs for improving dietary intake assessment in CKD (26,35,82,83). They include finding simple ways for patients to record their intakes frequently and easily so that usual intakes can better be assessed. It is difficult for patients not to change their intake, at least for the first few days while they are keeping food records multiple records are likely to be more representative of true intake. Additionally, in CKD, especially in the later stages of the disorder, intakes vary considerably from day to day and they are only assessed occasionally. Thus, a true picture of actual intake over the long term is very difficult to obtain. Also, true intake is more likely to be A second challenge is to find better ways to document underreporting of intake, which occurs strikingly in obese patients, but in all patients. Over-reporting is also a problem among patients who are frequently ill because they fail to report intakes on such days. It is also important to...

Food and Dietary Supplement GMPs

Spirulina is regulated as food and as a dietary supplement. The latter is a subset of food and falls under FDA's regulation. As discussed earlier, Spirulina is produced under FDA GMPs for food. The FDA has recently released a separate regulation for dietary supplement GMP. Nevertheless, some companies have already attained dietary supplement GMP certification through the industry's (Natural Products Association) certification program. The two facilities in the United States are subject to inspection by federal, state, and local regulatory bodies.

How Would Weight Gain from Overeating Affect Body Composition

When we eat more energy (calories) than we use, much of it will be stored and we will gain weight. Remember, our ability to store carbohydrate (as glycogen) is limited to about 300 to 500 grams and body protein content is based upon the protein needs of our body, not how much protein we eat. This means that the more carbohydrate and protein we eat, the more we will use for energy during the hours that follow and throughout the day. This will decrease our use of fat as a fuel source. In addition, some of the energy in the carbohydrate and protein we eat will be used to make fat. So when we eat too many calories, less body and food fat is used for energy and a little fat is made as well. Subsequently, more and more body fat will accumulate over time. More than 80 percent of the weight gain from overeating is fat the rest is supportive materials such as bone, muscle, and connective tissue.

When We Gain Weight Is It All

By virtue of expanding fat cells and of simply being a larger person, the absolute amount of body protein, mineral, and water also increases. For example, if a person's body weight increases by 10 pounds (approximately 4.5 kilograms) because of overeating, the amount of protein in the body may increase by to V pound (approximately V to 1 kilogram). The accumulation of non-fat, supportive substances may account for as much as 20 percent of our weight gain from chronic overeating. However, since the increase of these nonfat substances like protein is small relative to the increase in fat, their percentage of our total body weight will still decrease. Body fat percentage can climb upward of 70 percent of total body weight in morbidly obese people. This latter situation would leave only about 30 percent for all other body components.

Can Drugs Help People Lose Weight

The short answer is more than likely. There are a couple of ways for substances such as these to work. Approved weight-loss drugs target appetite suppression (Sibutramine and Rimonibant) or reducing fat digestion (Orlistat). Amphetamines (for example, fenfluramine (Pondimin) and dexfenfluramine (Redux), which increase energy expenditure, were taking off the market in the 1990s because of risk of serious cardiovascular side effects. See the FAQ Highlight Weight Loss Drugs and Supplements at the end of the chapter for more details.

Can Frequent Dieting Have Derogatory Effects

Many people are on a dieting roller coaster. Some starve or semi-starve themselves for several days to weeks and then eat excessively for a period of time. This is sometimes called yo-yo dieting. During the period of drastic energy restriction, the body will deplete its glycogen stores and rely heavily upon stored fat and protein to power metabolic activities. Since protein is largely derived from lean body tissue, such as skeletal muscle, this practice tends to reduce muscle mass and in turn decrease basal metabolism. This can result in a decrease in RMR calories and a greater likelihood of gaining weight when we return to eating an unrestricted amount of energy. Furthermore, it may be that the activity of some of the enzymes involved in making fat from excessive carbohydrates and amino acids may be slightly higher once we begin to eat again. Therefore, we have ultimately set ourselves up for a potentially quick return of body weight, especially body fat.

Are There Medical and Social Concerns with Childhood Obesity

Overweight children are fraught with many of the same concerns as adults. Socially, overweight and obese kids are subject to teasing and other negative peer interactions leaving them prone to feeling isolated. Medically, the incidence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in overweight children continues to climb along with the diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia and hypertension. Sadly, about 40 percent of obese children and 70 percent of obese adolescents maintain their obese status into adulthood. In addition, obese children who achieve a healthier weight before becoming adults are more prone to obesity during adulthood than children who never were obese. This is a huge concern as we are all aware of the low success rates of weight reduction and maintenance in adults.

Example Recommended Calorie Intakes for Weight Reduction by Body Weight and Body Mass Indexa

The optimal macronutrient (fat protein carbohydrate) distribution for weight reduction has not been resolved but is currently a matter of active debate (26). In recognition of the high caloric density of dietary fat and its relatively low satiety value compared to isocaloric amounts of carbohydrate and protein, a low-fat diet has been most typically employed for WR in diabetes, as well as in the general OW OB population. However, the recent success of high-protein high-fat low-carbohydrate diets for WR has called this conventional approach into question.

Low Carbohydrate and Other Nontraditional Dietary Approaches

Among the general public, as well as those with type 2 diabetes, there has been a recent increased interest in the use of low-carbohydrate diets for OW OB intervention. Klein et al. (8) summarizes five randomized trials in adults (34-38), comparing subjects assigned to a low-fat diet ( 25 percent to 30 percent Kcal from fat and 55 percent to 60 percent Kcal from carbohydrate) to subjects randomly assigned to a low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat diet ( 25 percent to 40 percent of Kcal from carbohydrate). Subjects on the low-carbohydrate diet lost more weight in the short term (six months) but not the long term (12 months). In addition, glycemic control was found to be better (35, 37) and some serum lipids were improved. While these studies may offer promising dietary alternatives for those who are OW OB, additional studies of long-term safety and efficacy are needed before low-carbohydrate diets are recommended as a WR strategy for OW OB individuals with type 2 diabetes. Other...

Insulin Resistance In Obesity

The metabolic syndrome is a condition characterized by hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, and glucose intolerance, which leads to increased risk of coronary-artery disease and type 2 diabetes. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) indicated that 45 percent of the U.S. population over age 50 has metabolic syndrome, and, because of the increase in the prevalence of obesity, the incidence of the metabolic syndrome has increased by 60 percent over the last decade. Obesity is generally accompanied by insulin resistance, which is manifest as fasting hyperinsulinemia. In addition, an elevated area under the curve for insulin values during an oral glucose-tolerance test is usual for insulin-resistant, obese individuals, and glucose utilization is markedly depressed in euglycemic insulin-clamp studies.58,59 Stimulation of glucose transport by insulin is markedly blunted in muscle of obese individuals.273459'82 This observation likely...

Blunted Muscle Insulin Signal Transduction in Obesity

In our in vitro human-muscle preparations we have not been able to study muscle contraction, but stimulation of transport by hypoxia occurs by the same signaling pathway as contraction stimulation by insulin and hypoxia are additive, but stimulation by contraction and hypoxia are not additive.20 The finding that stimulation of transport by hypoxia was normal in muscle of obese patients seems to confirm that the glucose-transport system is intact in insulin-resistant muscle.7 Likewise, we have observed that stimulation of transport by alkaline conditions was normal in muscle of obese patients,19 suggesting that several stimuli can stimulate transport in insulin-resistant muscles. Another line of evidence that a defect in insulin signaling causes insulin resistance comes from our experiments with serine threonine and tyrosine protein phosphatase inhibitors. These experiments were based on the fact that insulin initiates a cascade of tyrosine and serine threonine kinase activations....

Weight Classification Body Mass Index BMI

Underweight Normal Overweight Obesity Class Obesity Class II Obesity, extreme It is often assumed that obesity equals insulin resistance, since overweight people tend to become more insulin sensitive with weight loss.5 However, results from the European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance have shown that only 25 percent of people who are overweight had evidence of insulin resistance.6 Epidemiological evidence suggests that persons in the upper tertile of insulin resistance (measured by insulin-mediated glucose disposal) are at a statistically, significantly increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, or hypertension.7,8

The Role Of Exercise In The Management Of Obesity

The current public-health recommendation for physical activity is for individuals to participate in 30 minutes of moderately intense physical activity on most days of the week.31 The reason that people do not lose weight with increased exercise alone is because they usually also increase their food intake. Therefore, exercise combined with energy restriction is recommended based on the rationale that physical activity will result in an increase in total energy expenditure. It appears that the key factor that explains the relationship between exercise and weight is the adoption of an active lifestyle to prevent weight gain and weight regain. Despite recommendations of exercise for prevention of weight gain and improvement of cardiovascular fitness and insulin sensitivity, the major challenge is adoption of a regular exercise pattern. Recent studies on the effectiveness of intermittent exercise (multiple 10- to 15-minute exercise sessions daily) suggest that intermittent exercise is a...

Association of Obesity with Diabetes

As extensively discussed in section I of this book, obesity and weight gain clearly seem to be associated with an increased risk of diabetes, although there are some studies that don't show the association (44-46). Each year, 300,000 U.S. adults die of causes related to obesity (44). In 2000, the prevalence of obesity was 19.8 percent among U.S. adults (65.5 percent of men and 47.6 percent of women), which was a 61 percent increase from 1991 (44, 45). Weight gain, excess BMI, waist-hip ratio, and waist circumference are major risk factors for diabetes, with the waist circumference displaying the greatest relative risk (44, 47). In a national sample of adults, for every 1-kilogram increase in measured weight, the risk of diabetes increased by 4.5 percent (44). There seems to be an association between race and modification of diabetes risk by BMI, with African Americans having an increased risk at lower BMIs (i.e., adjusted RR for African Americans for Caucasians, it was 2.83 for men...

Dietary Fiber and Cancer Risk

Since the original suggestion by Denis Burkitt that dietary fiber might protect against colon cancer,48 numerous case-control and a few cohort studies have investigated this relationship. Most, but not all, have supported the original hypothesis of a protective role for fiber in the etiology of colon cancer. A recent review reported that 11 out of 17 case-control studies found an inverse relationship between dietary fiber intake and colorectal cancer.49 Another review and meta-analysis (based on 5255 patients with colorectal cancer) also found a significant inverse relationship between dietary fiber and colorectal cancer risk. An overall relative risk of 0.53 comparing those in the highest quintile with those in the lowest quintile was calculated it persisted after controlling for adjustment for other nutrients and for vitamin C and beta-carotene).50 The conflicting results from case-control and cohort studies are difficult to reconcile. Recall bias is a serious limitation in the...

Obesity As A Public Health Problem

Obesity is rapidly becoming the scourge of modern society. Presently, at least 34 of the U.S. population is obese (20 or more above their ideal weight) and more than 55 weigh in excess of ideal.1,2 This represents the highest prevalence ever recorded in the United States.3 Nor is the problem unique to Americans. It is estimated that there are now 250 million obese adults in the world (7 of the total population), with many more overweight.4 At the 1998 International Conference on Obesity, the World Health Organization identified obesity as a worldwide epidemic.5 In industrialized and developing countries alike, obesity ranks as one of the top five global health problems.6 One of the more sobering observations is that obesity is increasing rapidly among children and adolescents. The association between childhood obesity and obesity in adulthood indicates a strong relationship. Analysis by Serdula et al.7 indicates that about one third of obese preschool children become obese as adults,...

Vegetarian Children and Obesity

Body mass index, kg sq m attribute also tends to be present among older vegetarian children and adolescents, although limited research data are available for older children. Lousuebsakul and Sabate21 studied anthropometric data of 870 children aged 7 to 18 years who were attending Seventh-Day Adventist schools in California. One third of them were vegetarian. A vegetarian lifestyle was associated with lower BMI and a decreased tendency to be overweight, especially in adolescent girls. Specifically, age- and height-adjusted analysis showed that vegetarian boys and girls were, on average, 1.4 kg and 1.0 kg, respectively, leaner than their non-vegetarian classmates. Also, BMI values and skinfold measurements were lower among vegetarians. The prevalence of obesity (BMI > 75th percentile of national standards) was lower among vegetarian adolescent girls. In view of the relationship of childhood obesity to adult corpulence,7 the adoption of a vegetarian lifestyle during the school years...

Dietary Guidelines

Dietary guidelines are designed to provide advice for healthy individuals regarding diet and related life-style practices to promote healthful eating and reduce the risk of disease.1 Dietary guidelines differ from nutrient standards such as the Reference Dietary Intakes (RDI) and Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA),2 or food guides such as the Food Guide Pyramid.3,4 Nutrient standards define the reference points for average daily intake of essential nutrients food guides provide a framework for selecting kinds and amounts of foods of different types that together provide a nutritionally adequate diet and dietary guidelines give advice on consumption of types of food or food component related to a public health concern. The guidelines are intended to be population-based recommendations for health promotion and disease prevention. The dietary guidelines concept was first introduced by Atwater over a century ago. He indicated that food production at the time provided a relative excess...

Dietary components and health

The availability of food in Europe has never been as good as in recent decades. Affluent though European countries are, sub-groups of populations experience the deficiency of minerals and micronutrients that play a vital role in health and development (Serra-Majem, 2001). A significant proportion of European infants and children are today experiencing a low dietary intake of iodine and iron (Trichopoulou and Lagiou, 1997a WHO, 1998). The iodine deficiency leads to several disorders collectively referred to as Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD), with goitre (hyperplasia of thyroid cells), cretinism (mental deficiency) and severe brain damage being the most common. It is estimated that IDD may affect approximately 16 of the European population. Furthermore, inadequate levels of folate have been implicated with a rise in the blood homocysteine levels, leading possibly to increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). European policies address such deficiencies either by recommending the...

Dietary sources supplementation and fortification

The soil is deficient in a particular mineral, or where the diet is deliberately restricted to a limited number of food types, that problems of mineral deficiencies occur. Some food sources are better than others as sources of minerals. Plant foods are generally poor in iron and zinc, with the exception of certain dark green vegetables such as spinach. Dairy products are generally an excellent source of calcium. Red meat and offal, such as liver, are the best dietary sources of easily absorbed iron. Many of the trace elements are found in relatively high concentrations in fish and other seafoods. Table 4.3 lists some of the best food sources of a number of the essential minerals. As is indicated in the table, there are some unusually good sources of a number of these minerals. Milk, for example, is often an excellent source of iodine because of the presence of residual iodine-containing compounds used to sterilise dairy equipment. Tea is a major source of manganese in the UK diet. An...

Dietary Recommendations

No Dietary Reference Intakes has been set for total fat in our diets except for infants. (The AI for infants is 31 grams fat per day for age 1 to 6 months and 30 grams fat per day for age 7 to 12 months). There is not enough scientific data to determine the level at which inadequacy or disease prevention occurs. However, Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs) were set for total fat as follows. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2005) and the American Heart Association's Dietary Guidelines both recommend a diet for healthy Americans that

Dietary Recommendations For Protein

The 2002 Dietary Reference Intake report established Acceptable Macronu-trient Distribution Ranges (AMDR) for protein. Adults should get from 10 to 35 percent of total kcalories from protein. The AMDR for children from 1 to 3 years old is 5 to 20 percent of kcalories, and for children 4 to 18 years old it is 10 to 30 percent. Tolerable upper intake levels for protein and individual amino acids could not be set due to inadequate or conflicting data.

Figure Body Mass Index Chart

Locate the height of interest in the left-most column and read across the row for that height to the weight of interest. Follow the column of the weight up to the top row that lists the BMI. BMI of 19-24 is the healthy weight range, BMI of 25-29 is the overweight range, and BMI of 30 and above is in the obese range. Healthy Weight Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults, Healthy Weight Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults, Another way to measure obesity is to determine the percentage of your body that is fat. For men, a desirable percentage of body fat is under 25 percent for women, under 35 percent. Body fat is most often measured by using special calipers to measure the skinfold thickness of the triceps and other parts of the body. Because half of all your fat is under the skin, this method is quite accurate when performed by an experienced professional. Other methods of estimating body fatness include underwater weighing and bioelectrical impedance.

Health Implications Of Obesity

An estimated 300,000 deaths per year may be attributable to obesity. Individuals who are obese have a 50 to 100 percent increased risk of premature death from all causes compared with individuals with a healthy weight. Obese persons have more than 10 times the risk of type 2 diabetes and 3 times the risk of coronary heart disease of those who are lean. Conditions aggravated by obesity include arthritis, varicose veins, and gallbladder disease. In addition, surgery is riskier for obese individuals. Obesity creates a psychological burden that in terms of suffering may be its greatest adverse effect. In American and other Westernized societies there are powerful messages that people, especially women, should be thin and that to be fat is a sign of poor self-control. Negative attitudes about the obese have been reported in children and adults, health-care professionals, and the overweight themselves. People's negative attitudes toward the obese often translate into discrimination in...

Helping Your Overfat Child

Paul felt at a loss about how to help Sarah lose weight. I told him that childhood weight issues are complex and a topic of debate among parents and pediatricians alike. We know that restricting a child's food intake does not work. Rather, restricting kids' food tends to result in sneak eating, binge eating, guilt, shame the same stuff that adults encounter when they blow their diets. But this time, the parents become the food police an undesirable family dynamic. Despite Paul's best intentions to prevent creeping obesity, I warned Paul against putting Sarah on a diet, depriving her of French fries, or banning candy. Dietary restrictions don't work not for adults and not for kids. If diets did work, then the majority of people who have dieted would all be lean, and the obesity epidemic would not exist. Diets for children cause more problems than they solve. They disrupt a child's natural ability to eat when hungry and stop when content. Instead, the child overcompensates and stuffs...

Increasing Your Weight

Theoretically, to gain 1 pound (0.45 kg) of body weight per week, you'd need to consume an additional 500 calories per day above your typical intake. Some people are hard gainers and require more calories than other people do to add weight. In one landmark research study (Sims 1976), 200 prisoners with no family history of obesity volunteered to be gluttons. The goal was to gain 20 to 25 percent above their normal weights (about 30 to 40 pounds 14 to 18 kg ) by deliberately overeating. For more than half a year, the prisoners ate extravagantly and exercised minimally. Yet only 20 of the 200 prisoners managed to gain the weight. Of those, only 2 (who had an undetected family history of obesity or diabetes) gained the weight easily. One prisoner tried for 30 weeks to add 12 pounds (5 kg) to his 132-pound (60 kg) frame, but he couldn't get any fatter. Among my clients, I've observed that hard gainers are good fidgeters. They twiddle their fingers, swing their legs back and forth while...

Losing Weight Without Starving

Weight loss is far more complex than the simple recommendation to just eat less and exercise more. Both serious athletes and fitness exercisers struggle to either lose weight or keep off the weight they have lost. Why is weight loss so difficult Does the body adapt to a reduced calorie intake Does dieting ruin your metabolism Or do dieters just have poor compliance The answer, to date, seems to be that most people have trouble with compliance it's hard to eat less food (Heymsfield et al. 2007). As a result of the abundance of yummy food that pervades our environments, flabby thighs and big butts (either real or perceived) haunt many active people. Hence, they work extra hard to burn calories and trim excess body fat. Although some of them successfully lose weight and attribute that loss to their exercise programs, others express frustration that they don't shed an ounce of fat despite consistent workouts. As Sarah, an avid runner and newspaper editor, complained, I've been running for...

Counting Calories Correctly

Most of my dieting clients are afraid to eat real meals. They believe that eating, let's say, a tuna sandwich makes people fat. Eating diet foods, such as rice cakes and carrots, feels safer. The problem is that self-created diets commonly allow too few calories and too limited a selection of (boring) foods. The dieter ends up becoming too hungry and craves calorie-dense foods (Gilhooly et al. 2007). As a result, he or she blows the diet and regains any lost weight, plus more. I calculate for my clients an appropriate calorie budget so that they know how much is OK to eat to maintain or lose weight. Just as you know how much money you can spend when you shop, you might find it helpful to know how many calories you can spend when you eat. A calorie, or more correctly, a kilocalorie, is a measure of energy. It is the amount of heat needed to raise one liter of water by one degree Celsius. (If you need to convert kilocalories to kilojoules, you can do so by multiplying the number of...

Gestational weight gain recommendations

Although the need for appropriate weight gain during pregnancy has long been recognized, recommendations for weight gain have changed over the years as new data have become available. The changes in recommended ranges for gestational weight gain are summarized in Table 2.1. Prior to 1970, it was standard obstetric practice to restrict gestational weight gain to between 18 and 20 lb (8-9 kg) 2 . Overeating was believed to cause large babies and, as a consequence, more difficult deliveries. In 1970, the Food and Nutrition Board's Committee on Maternal Nutrition 6 recommended a higher gestational weight gain, 20-25 lb (9-11.5 kg). The increase was based on new evidence that low weight gain was related to increased risk of delivering low-birth-weight infants, with those infants at increased risk of mortality and developmental problems. This recommendation was followed by heightened interest in helping pregnant women achieve appropriate weight gain and nutrient intake. For example, the US...

Calorie recommendations and weight gain during pregnancy

Calorie recommendations for the pregnant bariatric patient include approximately 300 kcal day above maintenance guidelines for bariatric surgery. As with protein, calorie recommendations may vary between institutions. Typically, 1 year after surgery, individuals consume approximately 1,200 kcal day, so this would result in a caloric recommendation of 1,500 kcal day for pregnant bariatric patients. These are general guidelines, and each patient should be monitored for appropriate weight gain during pregnancy to ensure she is getting adequate caloric intake. Weight gain during pregnancy after bariatric surgery is variable, as with any pregnancy. There are no published guidelines for pregnancy weight gain in bariatric patients. Therefore, the guidelines set forth by the Institute of Medicine should be used (Table 6.2) 28 . The postoperative BMI should be used to determine the appropriate weight category. Even when weight gain is normal and expected during pregnancy, some patients may...

Adolescent barriers to healthy eating

Practically speaking, knowledge of nutrients and their value is often not sufficient to encourage teenagers to consume the appropriate foods. Motivational approaches are often necessary to enable diet-related behavior change and to assist the teen in overcoming environmental obstacles and other barriers to healthy eating. Teens are frequently not involved in either food purchase or preparation in the household. Their financial situation may preclude the purchase of fruits and vegetables. For those who obtain supplemental food from the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program, often purchases are expended before the month is over. Also, school lunch choices for those still attending school are widely varied from system to system, and the optional food line may be overwhelmed with high-fat content items, providing relatively few healthy choices. For example, in northeast Ohio, one local school system provides a basic healthy lunch (based on the US Food and Drug Administration FDA...

Community Based Nutrition Programs

In addition, each community should have some way to access the WIC program. Many adolescent patients will be eligible for WIC services. To be eligible, the pregnant adolescent must meet specific residency, income, and nutritional risk criteria as specified by WIC. To qualify based on nutritional risk, the adolescent must have a medically-based risk such as anemia, be underweight (less than 100 pounds) or overweight (over 200 pounds), have a history of pregnancy complications or poor pregnancy outcomes, or have other dietary risks such as failure to meet the dietary guidelines for any food groups or have inappropriate nutrition practices, e.g., pica. The WIC fact sheet states in part 31 In most WIC state agencies, WIC participants receive checks or vouchers to purchase specific food each month that are designed to supplement their diets. A few WIC state agencies distribute the WIC foods through warehouses or deliver the foods to participants' homes. The foods provided are high in one...

Recommendations for weight gain during pregnancy

Guidelines for weight gain during pregnancy aim to promote adequate, but not excessive, weight gain for optimal fetal development. Weight gain is highly correlated with infant birth weight making optimal weight gain during pregnancy important to fetal outcomes 1 . For a thorough discussion of optimal weight gain for pregnancy, the reader is referred to Chap. 2, Optimal Weight Gain, in Part 1 of this book. In brief, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) developed guidelines for maternal weight gain based on aggregate data examining fetal outcomes and associated maternal conditions 1 . These guidelines, adapted by both the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG) and the American Dietetic Association (ADA), use maternal body mass index (BMI, kg m2) prior to conception (Tables 13.1, 13.2) as a starting point for recommended weight gain during pregnancy 1-4 . Although these guidelines are available to women during pregnancy, educational programs regarding how to follow these...

Definition and Regulation of Dietary Supplements

The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 issued by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defines the term dietary supplement as a product that collectively meets the following requirements 5 A product (other than tobacco) intended to supplement the diet or contain one or more The FDA requires that all dietary supplements be labeled as such. However, unlike drugs, dietary supplements do not need approval before they are marketed. The manufacturers and distributors of supplements are responsible for ensuring their safety and making sure that label claims are accurate and truthful. For more information concerning the regulation of dietary supplements marketed within the United States, the reader is referred to the FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition help-line (1-888723-3366) or their website (http list.html).

Recommended Nutrient Intakes and Dietary Supplement

Although during pregnancy a number of metabolic adaptations are orchestrated to support both increased maternal and fetal needs for many nutrients, the body's requirements for some nutrients cannot be met without increased dietary intake. Indeed, available evidence indicates that dietary requirements for 14 of the 21 essential micronutrients increase during pregnancy. These nutrients comprise seven vitamins, five minerals, and choline 6 . As such, it is important to increase one's intake of these nutrients to prevent deficiencies. It is also important during this period of the lifespan to not consume too much of each nutrient to reduce risk for levels of intake that may be harmful. The Institute of Medicine's (IOM) Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are considered to be the gold standard in recommendations for nutrient intake, and having a basic knowledge of this set of dietary reference standards is important for understanding nutrient requirements and potential impacts of dietary...

Weight gain and birth weight in vegetarian pregnancy

Vegetarians as a group tend to be leaner than do nonvegetarians, with vegans tending to have a lower BMI than other vegetarians 16, 17 . This suggests that vegetarian women tend to begin pregnancy with a lower BMI than do nonvegetarians. Standard weight gain recommendations should be used for vegetarians 18 . Weight gain of pregnant lacto-ovo vegetarians and vegans is generally adequate 14, 19, 20 . Birth weights of infants of vegetarian women have been frequently shown to be similar to those of infants born to nonvegetarian women and to birth weight norms 19-22 . Low birth weights have been reported in some macrobiotic populations 23, 24 . These low birth weights appear to be due to low maternal weight gain secondary to inadequate energy intake 23, 24 . Use some refined foods (i.e., enriched grains, fruit juices) if dietary fiber intake is high

Sources of Calcium in the Diet

Approximately two thirds of dietary calcium intake in the United States is from fluid milk and other dairy products 35 . Nondairy sources include calcium-fortified orange juice, and rice or soy beverages. Salmon with bones and some green leafy vegetables such as broccoli may also contribute to the intake of calcium however, in general these sources contain less calcium per serving than do milk and dairy products (Table 18.4). The calcium bioavailability of nondairy foods is variable 36, 37 . For most solid foods, the bioavailability of calcium is inversely associated with its oxalate content. For example, the calcium bioavailability from foods high in oxalates such as spinach and rhubarb is low, whereas it is high in foods with low concentrations of oxalates such as kale, broccoli, and bok choy 38 . Supplemental sources of calcium come in a variety of preparations, both liquid and solid. Calcium from carbonate and citrate are the most common forms of calcium supplements 39 . Ingestion...

Recommended Dietary Intake for Vitamin D

Due to the very small and insignificant amounts of vitamin D secreted in human milk, it has historically been concluded that there is no evidence that lactation increases maternal requirements for vitamin D. Therefore, the current recommended adequate intake remains similar to nonlactating adults and is set at 200 IU day 21 . Since the establishment of this recommended dietary intake of vitamin D in 1997, concerns about the wide spread prevalence of vitamin D deficiency have surfaced in the medical and scientific literature. Furthermore, the basis of these recommendations was made prior to the use of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D as an indicator of vitamin D status. To date, there is no scientific literature available pertaining to the minimum vitamin D intake needed to maintain normal concentrations of maternal circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D. The appropriate dose of vitamin D during lactation appears to be greater than the current dietary reference intake of 200 IU day....

Dietary Intake of Vitamin D

Since the primary source of vitamin D is synthesis in the skin, very little survey data are available regarding dietary vitamin D intake. As the widespread use of sunscreens and public health recommendations to avoid sun exposure limits this endogenous source of vitamin D, most people necessarily rely on vitamin D from either dietary or supplemental sources. Although dietary sources may provide an amount to meet the currently published 1997 recommendations for vitamin D, they fall short of meeting the suggested requirement proposed in recent studies 49, 53 . A supplemental source of vitamin D is likely required to meet these latter proposed recommendations, at least in the winter months when sun exposure is limited.

Sources of Vitamin D in the Diet

Only a few foods are natural sources of vitamin D. These include liver, fatty fish such as salmon, and eggs yolks. Cod liver oil is an excellent source of vitamin D, containing approximately 1,360 IU tablespoon. The major dietary sources of vitamin D, however, are vitamin D fortified foods including milk (100 IU per 8-oz. serving), some orange juices (100 IU per 8-oz. serving), and some margarines (60 IU tablespoon). Breakfast cereals, breads, crackers, cereal grain bars and other foods may be fortified with 10-15 of the recommended daily value for vitamin D. Supplemental vitamin D is available in two distinct forms, vitamin D2 and vitamin D3. Vitamin D3, however, has proven to be a more potent form, with a 70 greater increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations 59 .

Recommended Dietary Intake for Folate

The bioavailability of naturally occurring folates in food and synthetic forms of the vitamin is thought to differ considerably. A folic acid supplement taken on an empty stomach is thought to be 100 bioavailable compared to about 50 for naturally occurring food folate (Table 18.5) 62 . In an effort to take into account the different bioavailability of folate from natural versus synthetic sources, folate requirements are now expressed as dietary folate equivalents (micrograms of DFE) micrograms of food folate + (1.7 x mcg of folic acid). The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for folate published by the US Institute of Medicine for breastfeeding women aged 14-50 years is 500 mcg DFEs per day. The scientific evidence necessary to establish an RDA is more robust than that for an adequate intake level. An RDA is the average daily dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97-98 ) healthy individuals. The RDA of 500 mcg DFEs per day is the...

Dietary Intake of Folate

Prior to folic acid fortification of the food supply in North America in 1998, a reduction in maternal folate stores during lactation was observed and was likely due to poor dietary folate intakes 64-67 . Since implementation of the fortification program, significant improvements in blood folate status of reproductive age women, including pregnant and lactating women, have been described 68, 69 . Dietary folate intakes from unfortified foods during lactation, however, remain suboptimal for approximately one third of women as demonstrated in a sample of well-nourished lactating Canadian women 70 . On average in this study, natural food folate provided 283 71 mcg day folate, while folic acid from fortified foods supplied approximately 125 35 mcg day folic acid. The investigators concluded that without mandatory folic acid fortification, 98 of lactating women would not have met their requirements for folate from diet alone 70 .

Sources of Folate in the Diet

Natural rich sources of folate are green leafy vegetables as well as citrus fruit juices, liver, and legumes. After folic acid fortification of the food supply, the category bread, rolls, and crackers became the single largest contributor of total folate in the American diet, contributing 16 of total intake, surpassing natural vegetable folate sources 71 . Table 18.6 presents data on the major dietary contributors of folate in the diets of a sample of pregnant and lactating Canadian women 70 . Orange juice was the largest source of total dietary folate (11.1 ), while enriched pasta products were the second largest contributor (8.8 ). Based on the US Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) Dietary Guidelines and MyPyramid, or Canada's Food Guide for Healthy Eating, the grains food group provided 41 of total dietary folate 19, 20 . Thus, women avoiding white bread and enriched pasta to lose weight may be at particular risk of low folate intake.

Dietary Intake of Vitamin B

Low dietary vitamin B12 intakes during lactation typically occur when either the mother is a strict vegetarian or in a developing country where the usual consumption of animal products is low. Since the frequent consumption of animal foods is common in North America, median vitamin B12 intake from food in the general adult population in the United States of 3-4 mcg day and Canada of 4-7 mcg day are well above recommended levels 62 . Nonetheless, there are data to suggest the prevalence of suboptimal vitamin B12 deficiency may be higher than previously appreciated in reproductive age females. For example, House et al. 78 reported that 44 of a large sample of pregnant women in the province of Newfoundland in Canada (n 1,424) had serum vitamin B12 concentrations during the first trimester of pregnancy below a commonly used cut-off value indicative of below-normal or deficient vitamin B12 status (< 130 pmol l). Koebnick et al. 79 reported a 22 prevalence of low serum vitamin B12, and...

Recommended Dietary Intake for Iron

Iron-deficiency anemia during pregnancy, particularly in the third trimester, is common in both developed and developing countries, and is well described in the literature 5, 81-88 . While less well characterized, due to the net maternal iron deficit accrued during pregnancy (RDA 27 mg day), available evidence suggests a high prevalence of maternal iron deficiency early postpartum, despite women meeting dietary recommendations for lactation. The recovery of iron stores and alleviation of iron deficiency during this period is important, as low maternal iron status is related to fatigue, depression, decreased work capacity, and decreased ability of the mother to care for her newborn infant 89-91 .

Sources of Iron in the Diet

Two types of iron are present in the diet heme and nonheme iron. Heme iron is obtained from animal sources such as meat, poultry, and fish, and is about 20-30 absorbed. Non-heme iron, present in plant foods, iron fortificants, and iron supplements, is less bioavailable with absorption of 5-10 81 . Dietary factors such as vitamin C and the presence of meat, fish or poultry can enhance the absorption of non-heme iron, while phytates found in legumes, grains and rice, polyphenols (in tea, coffee, and red wine) and vegetable proteins, such as those in soybeans, can inhibit non-heme iron absorption. Iron sources obtained from a typical Western diet consisting of abundant animal foods and sufficient sources of vitamin C were estimated to be approximately 18 bioavailable the bioavailability of iron from a vegetarian diet is approximately 10 81 . As a result, the requirement for iron is 1.8 times greater for vegetarians. The average iron content of fruit, vegetables, breads, and pasta ranges...

Recommended Dietary Intake for LCPUFAs

Currently, there are no specific recommendations for DHA, EPA, or ARA intake in North America 7 . There are, however, very specific recommendations for ALA and linoleic acid. For nonpregnant nonlactating women, the US Institute of Medicine recommends an adequate intake level of 1.1 g day ALA or an acceptable macronutrient distribution range of 0.6-1.2 energy. For pregnant and lactating women, they recommend 1.4 g day. They do make the recommendation that up to 10 of this range can be consumed as DHA and or EPA. At a workshop on the Essentiality of and Recommended Dietary Intakes (RDIs) for Omega-6 and Omega-3 Fatty Acids held by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 1999, attendees recommended that pregnant and lactating women consume 300 mg day of DHA 125 . For nonpregnant nonlactating women, the US Institute of Medicine recommends an adequate intake level of 12 g day linoleic acid or an acceptable macronutrient distribution range of 5-10 energy. For pregnant and lactating...

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