1. Kuczmarski, R.J. Prevalence of overweight and weight gain in the United States. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 55, 495S-502S, 1992.
  2. Ammon, P.K. Individualizing the approach to treating obesity. Nurse Pract., 24(2):27-8, 31-8, 41, Feb 1999.
  3. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 46:199-201, 1997.
  4. James, W.P. and Ralph, A. New understanding in obesity research. Proc. Nutr. Soc., 58(2):385-93, May 1999.
  5. The World Health Organization Report. Released at the 8th International Congress on Obesity in Paris, Aug 31, 1998.
  6. Johnston, J. Doctors warn about an epidemic of obesity., Oct 20 1998.
  7. Serdula, M.K., Ivery, D., Coates, R.J., Freedman, D.S., Williamson, D.F., and Byers, T. Do obese children become obese adults? A review of the literature. Prev. Med., 22(2):167-77, Mar 1993.
  8. Vanltallie, T.B. and Lew, E.A. Estimation of the effect of obesity on health and longevity: A perspective for the physician. In: Obesity Theory and Treatment. Stunkard and Wadden (Eds.), Raven Press, New York, 1993.
  9. Allison D.B., Fontaine, K.R., Manson, J.E., Stevens, J., and VanItallie, T.B. Annual deaths attributable to obesity in the United States, MD. JAMA, 282(16):1519-1522, 1999.
  10. Lean, M., et al. Effect of obesity on health and quality of life quantified. Arch. Intern. Med., 159:837 843, 1999.
  11. Wadden, T.A. and Sternberg, J.A., et al. Treatment of obesity by very low calorie diet, behavior therapy, and their combination: a 5-year perspective. Int. J. Obesity, 13(Suppl.2), 39-46, 1989.
  12. Key, T. and Davey, G. Prevalence of obesity is low in people who do not eat meat, Letter. BMJ, 313:816-817, 1996.
  13. Hardinge, M. and Stare, F. Nutritional Studies of Vegetarians. J. Clin. Nutr, 2(2):73-82, 1954.
  14. Messina, M. and Messina, V. The Dietician's Guide to Vegetarian Diets: Issues and Applications. Aspen Publishers, Gaithersburg, MD, 431-442, 1996.
  15. Fraser, G. Associations between diet and cancer, ischemic heart disease, and all-cause mortality in non-Hispanic white California Seventh-Day Adventists. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 70(3):532S-538S, 1999.
  16. Singh, P.N. and Lindsted, K.D. Body mass and 26-year risk of mortality from specific diseases among women who never smoked. Epidemiology, 9(3):246-54, May 1998.
  17. Appleby, P.N., Thorogood, M., Mann, J.I., and Key, T.J. Low body mass index in non-meat eaters: the possible roles of animal fat, dietary fibre and alcohol. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord, 22(5):454-60, May 1998.
  18. Chang-Claude, J. and Frentzel-Beyme, R. Dietary and lifestyle determinants of mortality among German vegetarians. Intl. J. Epid., 22(2):228-236, 1993.
  19. Key, T., Fraser, G., and Thorogood, M., et al. Mortality in vegetarians and non-vegetarians: a collaborative analysis of 8300 deaths among 76,000 men and women in five prospective studies. Pub. Hlth. Nutr., 1(1):33-41, 1998.
  20. Jacobs, C. and Dwyer, J.T. Vegetarian children: appropriate and inappropriate diets. Am. J. Clin Nutr., 48:811, 1998.
  21. Lousuebsakul, V. and Sabate, J. Dietary patterns and overweight in school-age children. Faseb. J, 8(4):A166, 1994.
  22. Must, A., Jacques, P.F., Dallal, G.E., Bajema, C.J., and Dietz, W.H. Long-term morbidity and mortality of overweight adolescents. A follow-up of the Harvard Growth Study of 1922 to 1935. New Eng. J. Med, 5;327(19):1350-5, 1992.

23 Nicholson, A.S., Sklar, M., Barnard, N.D., Gore, S., Sullivan, R., Browning, S. Toward improved management of NIDDM: A randomized, controlled, pilot intervention using a low fat vegetarian diet. Prev. Med., 29(2):87-91, Aug 1999.

  1. Gilbody, S.M., Kirk, S.F., and Hill, A.J. Vegetarianism in young women: another means of weight control? Int. J. Eat Disord, 26(1):87-90, Jul 1999.
  2. Smith, C.F., Burke, L.E., and Wing, R.R. Vegetarian and weight-loss diets among young adults. Obes. Res, 8(2):123-9, Mar 2000.
  3. Kahn H.S., Tatham, L.M., Rodriguez, C., Calle, E.E., Thun, M.J., Heath, C.W., Jr. Stable behaviors associated with adults' 10-year change in body mass index and likelihood of gain at the waist. Am. J. Public Hlth., 87(5):747-54, May 1997.
  4. Van Horn, L. Fiber, lipids, and coronary heart disease. A statement for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee, American Heart Association. Circulation, 95(12):2701-2704, 1997.
  5. Wolever, T.M. and Jenkins, D.J. What is a high fiber diet? Adv. Exp. Med. Biol, 427:35-42, 1997.
  6. Levin, N., Rattan, J., and Gilat, T. Energy intake and body weight in ovo-lacto vegetarians. J. Clin. Gastroenterol., 8(4):451-3, 1986.
  7. Levine, A.S., Tallman, J.R., Grace, M.K., Parker, S.A., Billington, C.J., and Levitt, M.D. Effect of breakfast cereals on short term food intake. Am. J. Clin. Nutr, 50(6):1303-7, 1989.
  8. Delargy, H.J., O'Sullivan, K.R., Fletcher, R.J., and Blundell, J.E. Effects of amount and type of dietary fibre (soluble and insoluble) on short-term control of appetite. Int. J. Food Sci Nutr., 48(1):67-77, 1997.
  9. Tiwary, C.M., Ward, J.A., and Jackson, B.A. Effect of pectin on satiety in healthy US Army adults. J. Am Coll Nutr., 16(5):423-8, 1997.
  10. Baer, D.J., Rumpler, W.V., Miles, C.W., and Fahey, G.C., Jr. Dietary fiber decreases the metabolizable energy content and nutrient digestibility of mixed diets fed to humans. J. Nutr., 127(4):579-86, 1997.
  11. McCarty, M.F. The unique merits of a low-fat diet for weight control. Med-Hypotheses. 20(2): 183-97, 1986.
  12. Toth, M.J. and Poehlman, E.T. Sympathetic nervous system activity and resting metabolic rate in vegetarians. Metabolism, 43(5):621-5, 1994.
  13. Campbell, T.C. and Chen, J. Presented at Conference on the Role of Diet and Caloric Intake in Aging, Obesity, and Cancer, Reston, VA, October 28, 1998.
  14. Slattery, M.L., McDonald, A., Bild, D.E., Caan, B.J., Hilner, J.E., Jacobs, D.R., Jr., and Liu, K. Associations of body fat and its distribution with dietary intake, physical activity, alcohol, and smoking in blacks and whites. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 55(5):943-9, 1992.
  15. Rolland-Cachera, M.F., Deheeger, M., Akrout, M., and Bellisle, F. Influence of macronutrients on adiposity development: a follow up study of nutrition and growth from 10 months to 8 years of age. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord, 19(8): 573-8, Aug 1995.
  16. Alfieri, M., Pomerleau, J., and Grace, D.M. A comparison of fat intake of normal weight, moderately obese and severely obese subjects. Obes. Surg., 7(1):9-15,


  1. Miller, W.C., Lindeman, A.K., Wallace, J., and Niederpruem, M. Diet composition, energy intake, and exercise in relation to body fat in men and women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 52:426-30, 1990.
  2. Prentice, A.M. Manipulation of dietary fat and energy density and subsequent effects on substrate flux and food intake. Am. J. Clin. Nutr, 67: 535S-541S, 1998.
  3. Blundell, J.E., Lawton, C.L., and Hill, A.J. Mechanisms of appetite control and their abnormalities in obese patients. Horm-Res., 39 Suppl. 3: 72-6, 1993.
  4. Maffeis, C., Pinelli, L., and Schutz, Y. Fat intake and adiposity in 8- to 11-year-old obese children. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord, 20(2):170-4, 1996.
  5. Doucet, E. and Tremblay, A. Food intake, energy balance and body weight control., Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 51(12):846-55, 1997.
  6. Harvey-Berino, J. The efficacy of dietary fat vs. total energy restriction for weight loss. Obes. Res., 6(3):202-7, 1998.
  7. van Marken Lichtenbelt, W.D., Mensink, R.P., and Westerterp, K.R. The effect of fat composition of the diet on energy metabolism. Z. Ernahrungswiss., 36(4):303-5, 1997.
  8. Cha, M.C. and Jones, P.J. Dietary fat type and energy restriction interactively influence plasma leptin concentration in rats. J. Lipid Res., 39(8):1655-60, Aug


Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment