Biochemistry And Bioavailability Of Carvocrol

CAD, see Coronary artery disease Caffeic acid, 341, 351, 352 Caffeine, 226, 308 Calcium, 309-316

absorption, vitamin D and, 209, 316 balance, factors negatively affecting, 308 bioavailability of food sources of, 209 daily requirements for, 307 excretion, 116, 309 -fortified breakfast cereals, 315 -fortified fruit juices, 316 intake, 377 kidney stones, 256

metabolism, adaptations taking place during pregnancy, 206 plant sources of, 315 in pregnancy, 208 -rich foods, 312 supplements, 314, 316 cAMP-dependent mechanisms, downregulating

LDL receptors, 126 Campylobacter jejuni, 145 Cancer(s)

age- and sex-adjusted relative risks for fatal, among SDAs, 68 antioxidants and prevention of, 26 bladder, 72 breast, 67, 76-77, 222 cells, toxicity to, 266 cervical, 334 colon, 58, 62, 256, 334 colorectal, 56, 65, 335 death, impact of cigarette smoking on, 56 decreased death rates from some types of, 291 esophagus, 334 guidelines, 393 hormone-related, 335 liver, 62

lung, 72, 76-77, 256, 334 modulation, role of dietary fat in, 396 mortality avoidable cases of, 56 breast, 58 colorectal, 58 ovarian, 58 ovary, 65, 75

prevention, dietary guidelines for, 399-401 prostate, 67, 72, 76-77, 346 risk, dietary fiber and, 81 stomach, 65, 75, 334 thyroid, 335 uterine, 65 whole grains and, 82 Cancer risk, vegetarian diets and, 55-90 analysis/interpretation, 74-78 components of vegetarian diets that may be associated with altered cancer risk, 79-85

alternative explanations for low cancer risk in vegetarians, 83-85 dietary fiber and cancer risk, 81-82 fruits and vegetables, 83 soy, isoflavones and breast or prostate cancer risk, 79-81 whole grains and cancer, 82-83 epidemiologic studies of cancer in vegetarian societies, 57-63 new Adventist Health Study, 67-73 public health implications, 85-86 SDA studies outside U.S., 73-74 studies in Seventh-day Adventists, 63-67 Candida albicans, 355 Canola oils, 48 Carbohydrate(s)

differences, between omnivores and vegetarians, 261 intake of during pregnancy, 199 Cardio-respiratory fitness, 182 Cardiovascular disease (CVD), 26, 415 Carotenoids, 42, 324, 391 antioxidant activity of, 334 found in citrus fruits, 339 herbal source of, 353 identification of in plants, 338 plant sources of, 337 Cartesianism, 487 Carvocrol, 354 Carvone, 341, 354 Catalase, 286 Catechins, 354

Cattle, hormone-implanted, 144 CDC, see Centers for Disease Control Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 184 Cereals breakfast, calcium-fortified, 315 fortified breakfast, 286 whole-grains, 28 Cerebrovascular disease, 256, 384 Cervical cancer, 334 Chasteberry, 243

CHD, see Coronary heart disease Cheyne, George, 490 Child-feeding practices by vegetarian parents, 180

Children

Dutch, on alternative diets, 188 growth studies on vegetarian, 178-179 lacto-ovo-vegetarian, 180 macrobiotic, 186 obesity and vegetarian, 92, 99 quantities of soy products received by vegan, 302

Seventh-Day Adventist, 180 vegan, 183 definitions, 175-176

categories of vegetarian diets, 175 developmental age vs. chronological age, 176

types of growth studies, 175-176 review of studies of growth and development of vegetarian infants, children, and adolescents, 176-190 case studies, 176 group studies, 177-180 overview of studies by dietary category, 180-190

China, semi-vegetarian diets of, 38

Chinese vegetarians, low serum total cholesterol observed in, 36 Cholecycstitis, 92 Cholesterol absorption, interference with, 336 association of with CHD mortality, 35, 45 biosynthesis, 255 Christian(s), 469, 512 asceticism, 526 era, 485 thought, 518

vegetarians, 513, 516, 527 Christianity, as social gospel, 488 Chronological age, developmental age vs., 176 Cigarette smoking, 56, 117 Citric acid, 284, 304 Citrus fruits, carotenoids found in, 339 Civil rights, 501 Civil War, 527, 529 CjD, see Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease Cobalamin painless delivery of, 322 therapy, 320 Coconut oil, 258

Colon cancer, 58, 62, 76-77, 140, 256, 334 Colorectal cancer, 56, 58, 65, 335 Compassion, 476

Competition, 289 Complementary proteins, 199 Connecticut Tumor Registry, 69 Conservation tillage, 446 Constipation, 256 Copper-rich manure, 453 Coronary artery disease (CAD), 256, 257 Coronary heart disease (CHD), 34, 92, 350, 382 decreased death rates from, 291 mortality rates, in Western vegetarians, 44 Coronary heart disease, vegetarianism, coronary risk factors, and, 33-54 topics requiring more research, 46-48 CHD in vegans, 46-47 CHD in vegetarian South Asians, 47 n-3 fatty acids, 47-48 vitamin B12 and homocysteine, 47 vegetarianism and coronary heart disease, 43-46

foods, nutrients, vegetarianism, and coronary heart disease, 45-46 intervention trial of low-fat vegetarian diet, 45 observational studies, 43-44 vegetarianism and coronary risk factors, 35-43

established risk factors, 35-41 possible risk factors, 41 -43 Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), 234 Cortisol, elevated levels of, 126 Coumarins, herbal source of, 353 Cowherd, William, 528 Creatine supplementation, 288, 290 Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CjD), 145 Creutzfeldt-Jakob variant, 139 CRH, see Corticotropin-releasing hormone Crop(s)

edible to mankind, 445 production, soils involved in, 446 Cross-sectional growth study, 175 Cryptosporidium, 457 Cultural dietary patterns, 425 Curcumins, plant sources of, 337 CVD, see Cardiovascular disease Cyanosis, 456 Cytochrome P-450, 336 Cytochromes, 302

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