Vegetarian Diets Descriptions And Trends

Ratzin-Turner, and Jack E. Brown II. Definition of III. Types of Vegetarian IV. Historical and Sociological V. Demographics and VI. Publication Trends in the Scientific In response to basic questions, this chapter defines who a vegetarian is and what the major forms of the vegetarian diet comprise. It also reports trends of acceptance of this dietary practice in industrialized nations as well as publication trends of vegetarian nutrition articles in the biomedical...

References

Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 5th ed. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000. 2. Monsen, E.R. New Dietary Reference Intakes proposed to replace the Recommended Dietary Allowances. J. Am. Diet. Assoc., 96, 754, 1996. 3. Welsh, S., Davis, C., and Shaw, A. Development of the food guide pyramid. Nutr. Today, 27, 12, 1992. 4. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Human Nutrition Information Service. The Food Guide Pyramid. Home and Garden Bulletin No....

The Sacredness Of Life

The ancients must have early observed that life was distinct from physical material. Death often occurred even when the body appeared intact and whole. Life was thus seen as something that empowered the body, a spirit that animated and gave rise to motion and consciousness. If this was true of humans, why might it not also be true of the beasts That life is sacred stems from two complementary belief systems one maintains that each living creature possesses a soul or spirit that continues to...

Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance

People with diabetes (both non-insulin-dependent and insulin-dependent) or with impaired glucose tolerance have a higher risk of CHD than people with normal glucose tolerance.34 Some of this association is due to the coexistence of glucose intolerance with low HDL cholesterol, high blood pressure, and obesity, but hyperglycemia also increases CHD risk independently of these other risk factors.42 Vegetarian diets do not have a well-defined effect on glucose tolerance. Western vegetarian diets...

Adolescents

Reports in the medical literature of vegetarian infants suffering from malnutrition are rather exceptional. These case studies must be interpreted with caution, because they are often not typical for vegetarians as a whole. When such cases of under- or malnutrition are more closely examined, it appears that usually the infants have not been weaned into a varied balanced vegetarian diet, but rather into a more restricted vegetarian regimen.5,14-18 The issues of potential risks of particular...

Summary And Conclusions

This chapter reviewed the multiple studies on growth and development of children and adolescents on various vegetarian diets. Case studies of malnutrition in children on various alternative diets have not been discussed, because it is evident that these are incidental and do not necessarily represent ubiquitous nutritional deficiencies in these various types of vegetarian populations. To ensure a practical approach based on type of diet, the multiple investigations on vegetarian children have...

Protein Differences Between Omnivores And Vegetarians Or Vegans

The recommended daily allowance for dietary protein intake appears to be the same for the elderly as for young adults, at 0.75 g kg of body weight for both age groups.10 This is surprising, because the protein content of the adult body diminishes with age, with apparent exchanges of fat for muscle. Changes in muscle mass are related to whole-body protein turnover and changes in the rate of protein synthesis. The recent work by Campbell et al.,11 recommends 1.0 gm kg of protein daily to maintain...

Potential Explanations For The Antiobesity Effect Of A Vegetarian Diet

While data indicate that vegetarians may weigh less than other population subsets, it does not necessarily follow that it is their avoidance of meat that is responsible. Vegetarians are also more likely to adopt other healthy life-style habits, such as regular exercise and reduced alcohol consumption, that also impact their lack of obesity. There is some evidence, however, that eating more vegetables and abstaining from meat does play a significant role in their leaner profiles. A study by Kahn...

Herbs

Many of the commonly used herbs contain phytochemicals, such as the carotenoids, flavonoids, terpenoids, phytosterols, saponins, and phenolic acids, which are similar to those found in fruit, vegetables, and whole grains, and also those associated with disease prevention (see Table 14.4). The therapeutic value of many of these herbs owe their health-promoting properties to the phytochemicals they contain.152 Table 14.4 Phytochemicals in Common Herbs also Found in Vegetables, Fruit and Whole...

Legumes

A number of studies have shown that legumes, such as beans and lentils, lower blood cholesterol levels, improve blood sugar control, lower triglyceride levels, and lower the risk of heart disease.74-76 While beans are good sources of polyunsaturated fat, folic acid, potassium, copper, and soluble fiber, they also contain a variety of important phytochemicals such as flavonoids, protease inhibitors, saponins, phytates, and phytosterols that have cardio-protective and cancer-preventive...

The Effect Of A Vegetarian Diet On Performance

Vegetarian dietary practices have been associated with many health benefits, including reduced death rates from ischemic heart disease, diabetes, and certain forms of cancer,2,5-8 and decreased risk of obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension.2,9-11 Vegetarians, compared with non-vegetarians, typically have a higher intake of fruit and vegetables, dietary fiber, antioxidant nutrients, phytochemicals, and folic acid, with a lower intake of saturated fat and cholesterol,12-15 each of which has been...

The Pubertal Transition And Menarche

Menarche, the first menstrual bleeding, is understood by many to signal the onset of a woman's reproductive life. Yet, as will be described herein, the pubertal transition takes place over several years, with menarche occurring not at the onset, but relatively late in the process. Moreover, in most cases, women are not fertile (i.e., capable of becoming pregnant) until some period of time after menarche. This section will examine whether vegetarianism affects the pubertal transition, first by...

The Reproductive Years

The time between menarche and menopause, during which reproduction is possible, spans a period of almost 40 years in women. Although the presence of menstrual bleeding is often equated with the ability to conceive, establishing a pregnancy actually depends on the presence of a normal ovarian cycle (i.e., a normal ovulatory menstrual cycle). If vegetarianism affected women's reproduction, it would necessarily affect the characteristics of the ovarian cycle. To provide background information for...

Perspective On Us Food Guides

An in-depth discussion of the development of U.S. food guides has been recorded by others.3-6 This discussion is limited to characterizing the balance of animal- and plant-based proteins during the 20th century. In the early 1900s, human life span was around 50 years of age and infectious disease was the leading cause of death. Also, malnutrition was widely documented among many young men registering for military service as well as those in lower socioeconomic groups. For most of the 1900s,...

Fruits and Vegetables

The term vegetarian implies a lifestyle characterized by a diet rich in vegetable intake. A recent review based on 206 human epidemiologic studies and 22 animal studies concluded that fruits and vegetables were effective in the prevention of several forms of cancer including stomach, esophagus, lung, oral cavity, pharynx, endometrium, pancreas, and colon.62 Twenty cohort studies (perhaps offering the strongest type of evidence) were reviewed and indicated that fruit and vegetable consumption...

F

FAO, see Food and Agricultural Organization absorption, dietary fiber and, 103 and oils, 431 dietary, role of in cancer modulation, 396 intake, 376 dietary, 104 during pregnancy, 199 unrefined plant foods, 430 Fatigue, 237 Fatty acids elevated levels of, 126 in vegetarian diets, 200 Female athlete triad, 289 Ferritin levels, in vegetarian vs. non-vegetarian runners, 285 phosphate, 449 production, 442 Ferulic acid, 341 Fish children, 189 oils, 43, 259 Fishing, freshwater, 444 Flavonoid s , 391...

Carbohydrate Differences Between Omnivores And Vegetarians Or Vegans

Starch or complex carbohydrates, and both soluble and insoluble fiber, are carbohydrate molecules made up of the monosaccharide glucose. Free sugars of glucose, fructose, and sucrose a disaccharide made up of glucose and fructose , along with starch, are the main source of energy in human diets, accounting for some 40 to 80 of human energy intake.75 In the starches and the fibers, the alpha- and beta-linkages at the glycoside carbon largely regulate whether the human digestive tract can digest...

Foods Nutrients Vegetarianism and Coronary Heart Disease

It is likely that the reduction in CHD among vegetarians is, at least partly, due to a lower serum cholesterol concentration caused by a lower dietary intake of saturated fat and cholesterol. Unfortunately, none of the five prospective studies of mortality in vegetarians has complete information on serum cholesterol concentrations in all subjects, therefore, it is currently impossible to investigate whether the difference in CHD between vegetarians and non-vegetarians can be statistically...

Body Mass Index

Figure 5.2 Distribution in five categories of BMI of vegetarians and non-vegetarians of the Adventist Health Study cohort. Figure 5.2 Distribution in five categories of BMI of vegetarians and non-vegetarians of the Adventist Health Study cohort. in men Figure 5.3 . A higher proportion of meat eaters than non-meat eaters were overweight or obese 21 vs. 10 of men and 13 vs. 8 of women , whereas a lower proportion of meat eaters had a BMI lt 20kg m2 9 vs. 17 of men and 18 vs. 33 of women . No...

The Process Of Developing The Loma Linda University Vegetarian Food Guide

In 1995, an international group of scientists, academicians, and medical practitioners with expertise in vegetarian nutrition was identified to assist in the process of developing a de novo vegetarian food guide with a graphic. Emphasis was placed on selecting individuals who would represent diverse vegetarian traditions and practices. Those organizing the alliance were involved with program planning for the Third International Congress on Vegetarian Nutrition, scheduled in 1997.35 At the two...

Biochemistry And Bioavailability Of Carvocrol

CAD, see Coronary artery disease Caffeic acid, 341, 351, 352 Caffeine, 226, 308 Calcium, 309-316 absorption, vitamin D and, 209, 316 balance, factors negatively affecting, 308 bioavailability of food sources of, 209 daily requirements for, 307 excretion, 116, 309 -fortified breakfast cereals, 315 -fortified fruit juices, 316 intake, 377 kidney stones, 256 metabolism, adaptations taking place during pregnancy, 206 plant sources of, 315 in pregnancy, 208 -rich foods, 312 supplements, 314, 316...

Vegetarianism In Antiquity

The term vegetarianism was coined relatively recently in the mid-1800s when abstinence from meat began to take on the form of an organized movement. As a practice, however, it dates to quite early times in Western society, at least to Pythagoras, the Greek natural philosopher of the 6th century BC, who founded a religious community in southern Italy in which vegetarianism is supposed to have been part of the rule of life. Pythagoras' rejection of the eating of meat seems to have been based on...

The Food Of The Gods And The Diet Of Paradise

Common to virtually all religious doctrines is a belief in a deity or deities that transcend humankind in thought, power, and practice. Spirituality demands a supernatural constituent that is worthy of worship and often fear. This requires that there be a difference, as well as a distance between the human subject and the divine overlord. While the envisioned differences have often taken strange and grotesque forms, the gods have always been anthropomorphized to some extent. This allows for...

Summary

This chapter has emphasized that a plant protein diet will give the elderly an advantage in reducing meal insulin response, which in turn decreases fat synthesis cholesterol and triacylglycerols . The inclusion of casein from milk as an animal protein represents a disadvantage to those on the LOV diet. The inclusion of plant fat in the diet significantly aids in keeping the body content of cholesterol and triacylglycerols at a low level. A plant diet is higher in complex carbohydrate than the...