Vegan Insider Guide

Vegan Muscle Diet

The vegan muscle diet by Simon is a completely interactive diet that will take into account your favorite foods, goals and personal data to figure out the best diet for you. Simon is a vegan that loves animals, he is also a gym goer that spent hours at the gym all with no results. His style of dieting came about through years of failure, trial, and error. The best part about all of this is that you can choose what you like as foods. It's a software that has an engine which generates the best diet for you depending on your style of eating. It's not some diet that is copy pasted by coaches online with no regard to what you like to eat, your age, your activity level, or your weight. The link will take you through a process that will end with you putting your stats such as age, weight, height, activity level, and the foods you generally like to eat. After a few seconds, the app will give you a full program of the best recipes that take very little time to make with their instructions. It will also take into account your current weight as it can change and will always adapt and adjust to your goals. You can finally build a ton of muscle all while caring about animals and the environment. Read more...

Vegan Muscle Diet Summary


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My Vegan Muscle Diet Review

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Some users might complain that the default interface is more complicated than it needs to be. If you just panicked grab a quick drink and relax because this baby has a full customizable interface.

However, Vegan Muscle Diet is a fairly good program considering the standard and depth of the material it provides. In addition to being effective and its great ease of use, this software makes worth every penny of its price.

Vegan The New Ethics of Eating

Because of the importance and urgency we feel the message of Vegan The New Ethics of Eating holds for the larger world beyond our regular distribution channels, Erik Marcus, the author and copyright holder, and McBooks Press, the publisher, have created this free, downloadable edition. To order copies of Vegan The New Ethics of Eating, or other books on veganism and vegetarianism call toll free at 1-888-266-5711 or visit the McBooks website http Vegan is also available through your favorite bookstore or online bookseller. Erik Marcus and Erik Marcus is a writer and public speaker who is dedicated to the advocacy of vegan and vegetarian diets and is the publisher of the http website. The site features news updated daily, as well as comprehensive information for both vegans and aspiring vegetarians. You can contact Erik Marcus through by sending an e-mail to correspondence For more information about Farm Sanctuary the havens...

Topics Requiring More Research A Coronary Heart Disease in Vegans

There are few data on the long-term health of vegans. The pooled analysis of five prospective studies described above included 27,808 vegetarians, but only 753 of these subjects were vegans.52 Compared with regular meat-eaters in these cohorts, the death rate ratio for CHD in vegans was 0.74 (95 CI 0.46-1.21). The confidence interval for this estimate is wide, so that it is currently impossible to say whether mortality from CHD in vegans differs from that in regular meat-eaters, although the death rate ratio is In terms of coronary risk factors, all studies have shown that vegans have a substantially lower serum total cholesterol concentration than meat-eaters (around 1 mmol l lower) and are also thinner than meat-eaters (by 1 to 2 kg m2). These differences would be expected to cause a substantial reduction in mortality from CHD. No consistent differences in blood pressure or in hemostatic factors have been established. Vegan diets are often low in vitamin B12, which could potentially...

Lipid Differences Between Omnivores And Vegetarian Or Vegans

The elderly vegetarian, particularly the elderly vegan, is in a protective life-style that minimizes ischemic damage, plaque formations, and lipid depositions involved in atherosclerotic disease, hypertension, stroke, or rheumatic heart disease. Plant dietary protein minimizes endogenous cholesterol and triacylglycerol production as previously discussed. Exogenous plant dietary fat supplies a dominance of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids to minimize not only the atherosclerotic diseases, but also several of the rheumatoid states, the mineral problems of osteoporosis, and possibly several types of cancer by the inclusion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA).3,40,41 This protective diet combined with adequate exercise inhibits the initiation of these diseases before they reach the lipid deposition stages by decreasing the initial free radical attack with antiox-idants. For example, in coronary artery disease (CAD), the vegetarian or vegan diet supplies the antioxidant vitamins and...

Protein Differences Between Omnivores And Vegetarians Or Vegans

The percentage of calories contributed by protein in human diets, from vegan to omnivore, can vary from 8 to 18 , with approximately 2 to 10 greater intake of protein by the omnivore subjects vs. the vegetarians. The lowest level of protein intake is in vegans.12 Animal protein is considerably higher in essential amino acids and sulfur amino acid content and promotes a higher rate of growth in a growing animal than will any single dietary plant protein. When two or more dietary plant proteins are combined in a single meal or meals for the day, however, this potential for growth difference is offset in growing children.13,14 The adult vegans in the Haddad et al. dietary study15 had higher serum albumin levels than the omnivore controls, which demonstrated vegan dietary protein adequacy. The vegans demonstrated this while maintaining lower blood urea nitrogen values. Long term, this pattern aids in the reduction of the incidence of chronic renal failure. Additional advantages from the...

Minerals And The Elderly Vegetarian Or Vegan

Mineral metabolism in human nutrition still remains a subject that requires extensive study. Even routine mineral evaluation methods are lacking, particularly as an inexpensive sampling technique that will answer adequacy or deficiency questions of whole body content. For the elderly vegetarian or vegan, this chapter will confine the discussion on minerals to a short presentation on calcium metabolism, while placing the emphasis on magnesium and selenium because of their major importance and frequently low intake in the elderly. lead to increased bone resorption, postulated as a risk factor for increased bone loss.3 The high animal protein intake of the omnivore diet causes a high acid load that contributes to both bone and muscle wasting in aging.16,18 The elderly vegan subject avoids this acid load. The LOV use of milk and eggs increases the sulfur load. If vitamin D intake is maintained by supplementation, the elderly vegan should more than maintain bone density, compared with LOVs...

After dietary assessment recommend nutrient supplements for vegan diets which are found to be nutrit

With careful planning, vegetarian diets for infants and children can be nutritionally adequate (Sanders, 1995 Sanders and Reddy, 1994). For vegan infants who are not breastfed, commercially prepared soy-based infant formula is recommended during the first 2 years of life to provide adequate nutrients and energy for growth and development. For older infants, a carefully selected vegetarian diet can meet all the requirements of a growing child however, deficiencies of iron, vitamin B12, vitamin D and energy have been reported in vegetarian children (Sanders, 1995 Jacobs and Dwyer, 1988). The guidelines presented for introducing solid foods (see Transition to Solid Foods) apply to all healthy infants, including vegans. Parents who feed their infant vegan diets in the first 2 years of life may benefit from consultation with a dietitian or nutritionist to ensure the adequacy of their infant's food (nutrient) intake, and to assess the need for nutrient supplements.

Vegancom was established by Erik Marcus to promote vegan diets. Continually updated vegan news, resources, and recipes can be found on the World Wide Web at http To learn more about's work, send a blank or very brief e-mail message using your e-mail account as the return address to info To send a longer message to or Erik Marcus, please e-mail to correspondence

NotSoHealthy Veggie

While a plant-based eating pattern can seem to be the utmost picture of health, if the diet is not well balanced and adequate in all macro- and micronutrients, vegetarians and vegans alike are at risk for nutrient deficiencies. It is well known that these specialized diets do not automatically mean that they are healthy. We know one lacto-ovo vegetarian who has now found that a breakfast of doughnuts and coffee, a lunch of grilled cheese, French fries, and pop, and a dinner of deep-fried falafel or pasta with cream sauce completely complies with his vegetarian choice. We've also come across young athletes who have chosen to follow a vegan diet for ethical reasons but who despise vegetables. As you can imagine, without the guidance of a dietitian, these young athletes are headed for severe Vegan In short, vegetarian and vegan diets can constitute a nutritional disaster if not properly planned.

Have You Had Enough B Today

Getting enough vitamin B-12 can also be an obstacle for strict vegans, simply because B-12 is derived primarily from animal foods. Once again, you lactos and ovolactos are off the hook because dairy and eggs provide enough to satisfy your daily requirements. The vegan gang has to dig a little deeper. Buy food products that are B-12 fortified cereals, breads, some soy-analogs, and possibly tempeh. You might also want to pop a B-12 supplement providing 100 percent of the RDA, just to be safe. Vegans who don't eat dairy and aren't regularly out in the sun should buy foods fortified with vitamin D or speak with their doctors about vitamin D supplementation.

Calcium and Vitamin D

Although calcium absorption increases in pregnancy 43 , low calcium intakes can be problematic. Pregnant women with a habitually low calcium intake (< 500 mg day) experience calcium losses from bone that may adversely affect maternal bone status 44 . In addition, low calcium intakes in pregnancy have been associated with a lower bone mineral content in newborns 45 . Many lacto-ovo vegetarian women have intakes of calcium that meet current recommendations 5, 11 . Vegan women tend to have lower calcium intakes 11, 46, 47 and may benefit from information about non-dairy calcium sources. Table 15.2 groups vegetarian calcium sources by their calcium content to assist in menu planning. For example, a pregnant vegan might choose 16 oz. of calcium-fortified soymilk, 1 cup of collards, and 1 cup of vegetarian baked beans to meet the Adequate Intake (AI) of 1,000 mg day of calcium.

Have You Ever Wondered 104

Lacto-ovo-vegetarian kids generally can get enough nutrients from well-chosen foods alone. In fact, vegetarian eating may encourage more fiber, folate, vitamins A and C, fruits and vegetables, and perhaps fewer sweets, fast foods, and salty snacks, than nonvegetarian eating. For vegan infants, children, and teens, some nutrients may need special attention calcium, iron, zinc, vitamin B12, and vitamin D. If your child is a vegan, offer a variety of foods with adequate amounts of these nutrients. Poor choices can put vegetarian kids at greater risk for nutrient inadequacies and their health consequences. Infants exclusively breast-fed for longer than six months are at risk for iron and vitamin D deficiencies. That's true whether the mom is a vegetarian or not. As a guideline for all infants at this time Healthcare providers may advise an iron-fortified cereal or an iron supplement, and perhaps a vitamin D supplement if the baby's exposure to sunlight is limited. Vegetarian or not, the...

Are Vitamin and Mineral Needs Greater During Infancy

Complementing breast-feeding with a vitamin D-fortified infant formula can assist in meeting an infant's needs. Because the iron content of breast milk is relatively low, the introduction to solid foods between ages 4 to 6 months becomes very important in supplying this nutrient. Iron-fortified cereals are very good choices. Many pediatricians will recommend an iron supplement for infants during their first few months of life. Again, complementing breast-feeding with an iron-fortified infant formula can assist in meeting an infant's needs. Furthermore, infants fed a vegan or other meat-restrictive diets would need a vitamin B12 supplement.

Have You Ever Wondered

What about nutrient supplements The same advice applies to all pregnant women, vegetarian or not. In addition, a vitamin B12 supplement-and perhaps a vitamin D supplement if sunlight exposure is limited-are advised for vegan women. Some vegetarian women also may need zinc or calcium supplements if their food choices come up short. Vegetarian women usually consume more folate than nonvege-tarian women still, a folic acid supplement or folic-acid-fortified foods are advised. For more guidance, see The Vegetarian 'Mom'in chapter 20.

Feeding Healthy Children

The most beautiful children I have met or seen have been children raised on raw plant foods. They are alert, content, happy, and eager to explore life. The world's most famous childcare specialist Dr. Benjamin Spock recommended, in the seventh edition of his famous book Baby And Child Care, breast-feeding until solid foods were introduced. He specifically recommended a vegetarian diet at that point and, beyond age two, a vegan diet with an emphasis on raw plant foods. Dr. Spock's own vegetarian diet had given him a new lease on life. He wanted the seventh edition of his book to be in the forefront of linking animal foods and disease.

Weight Loss And Vegetarian Diets

Data showing that vegetarians tend to have lower body weights and BMI scores than those who do not abstain from meat are quite consistent. There are, however, virtually no appropriate studies evaluating the use of vegetarian diets for weight loss. Nicholson et al.23 reported that, in a very small 12-week pilot intervention study of type 2 diabetic patients, those on a low-fat vegan diet lost a mean of 7.2 kg, compared with those on a conventional low-fat diet where the weight loss averaged 3.8 kg. This study is flawed regarding its weight loss component in that the diets were not isocaloric.

Mary Frances Picciano and Michelle Kay McGuire

Summary National surveys indicate that as many as 97 of women living in the United States are advised by their health care providers to take multivitamin, multimineral (MVMM) supplements during pregnancy, and 7-36 of pregnant women use botanical supplements during this time. Although there is evidence of benefit from some of these preparations, efficacy has not been established for most of them. This chapter reviews some of the most commonly used prenatal supplements in terms of the evidence for their need, efficacy, and safety. Specifically, MVMM, folate, vitamin B6, vitamin A, vitamin D, iron, zinc, magnesium, and iodine are discussed, as are several botanicals. Data indicate that, in general, evidence for benefit gained from taking prenatal MVMM supplements is not well established except for women who smoke, abuse alcohol or drugs, are anemic, or have poor quality diets. Because of folate's well-established effect on decreasing risk for neural tube defects, it is recommended that...

Deficient in the Big Guns

Besides being at risk for micronutrient deficiencies, vegetarians and vegans also can be at risk for a certain macronutrient deficiency, the macronutri-ent being protein. When eating a properly balanced diet, the active vegetarian or vegan has no reason to experience protein malnutrition. One should be aware, however, that as stated before, not all proteins are equal and close attention should be paid to protein sources. By combining various plant sources throughout the day, essential amino acid needs can be met. For further thoughts on protein sources for vegetarians, refer to the following table.

Figure Vegetarian Dishes From Around The World

Vegetarians may be lacto vegetarians, lacto-ovo vegetarians, or vegans. 3. Vegetarian diets can be nutritionally adequate when varied and adequate in kcalories (except for vegan diets, which need supplementation with vitamin B12). Most vegetarians get enough protein, and their diets are typically lower in fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol.

Accessory Growth Factors

While the diet of an older vegetarian may not contain all nutrients in sufficient quantities, it does contain a greater dietary variety compared with those elderly subjects on the omnivore diet who appear to be lacking in many B vitamins and the antioxidant fat soluble vitamins.81 However, there are two obvious exceptions to this generality for the vegetarian or vegan that deserve special emphasis.

Dietary Guidelines

The vegetarian label encompasses a wide variety of dietary and life-style values and practices. For the purposes of this chapter, the term vegetarian refers to a diet that avoids flesh foods such as meat, poultry, and fish but may include dairy products or eggs. The term vegan applies to a diet composed entirely of plant foods. Vegetarian and vegan diets emphasize plant foods such as grains, legumes, nuts, vegetables, and fruits. Plant-rich diets are those that include a generous proportion of plant foods and relatively small amounts of animal foods, whether meat, poultry, seafood, eggs, or dairy products. Plant-rich diets such as those consumed by traditional populations in Mediterranean countries or the Far East are sometimes referred to as vegetarian-like diets. Table 15.2 Vegan, Vegetarian and Mediterranean Dietary Patterns compared to the Dietary Guideline Recommendations14-18 Vegan

Counseling The Vegetarian Mother

Current evidence supports the position of the American Dietetic Association that a well-planned vegetarian or vegan diet can provide the nutrients needed for a successful pregnancy.21 Pregnant vegetarians should receive that assurance along with advice regarding sources for the nutrients usually obtained from any food groups they do not consume. This implies that the health professional will be knowledgeable or will refer the woman to a dietitian who is knowledgeable about alternative nutrient sources that are acceptable to various vegetarian philosophies.

Adding Calcium to Your Diet

You can get enough calcium in your diet even if you follow a vegetarian or vegan diet, are lactose intolerant, follow a low-fat diet, or just don't eat dairy products. A combination of the foods listed in this section will enable you to get enough calcium in your diet while suiting your particular needs.

Vitamin Mineral supplementation of breastfed infants

The quality of the breastfeeding mother's diet is important for her health and energy, but has a variable effect on milk production and on milk composition (Riordan and Auerbach, 1993). Minerals and fat-soluble vitamin (A,D,E,K) levels in breast milk are minimally influenced by recent maternal diet as these can be drawn from storage in the body. Water-soluble vitamins (eg. ascorbic acid, nicotinic acid, thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxine, B12) are readily influenced by the maternal diet (Riordan and Auerbach, 1993 Atkinson, 1992). However, if the mother is well nourished, there is no need for supplementation. Only if a mother eats a very restricted diet (e.g. vegan) should supplemental nutrients be recommended to ensure adequate nutrient intake for her and adequate delivery of vitamins to the breastfed infant. With the exception of vitamin D, vitamin and mineral supplementation of breastfed term infants in the first 6 months is not recommended.

Habitual Intakes Of Protein For Athletes

Coaches, trainers, and athletes are apt to question whether a vegetarian diet can provide adequate protein to meet the increased dietary needs of highly trained athletes 56 . Concerns may stem from the ability of a vegetarian diet to provide all essential amino acids (EAA) in the diet. Because a vegetarian diet is a plant-based diet, the quality of the ingested protein may be questioned. All EAA and nonessential amino acids can be supplied by plant food sources alone, provided that a variety of foods are consumed, and energy intake remains adequate to meet these needs 56 . Of particular concern, however, are individuals who avoid all animal protein sources (ie, vegans) because plant proteins may be limited in amino acids containing lysine, threonine, tryptophan, or sulfur 57 . If the diet is too restricted, suboptimal mineral and protein intake is possible. Although most vegetarian diets meet or exceed dietary recommendations for protein, they often provide less protein than do...

Diseasespecific Guidelines

The relationship between diet and coronary heart disease is more complex than one that simply considers the influence of dietary saturated fat and cholesterol on blood lipid levels. Processes such as plaque formation, thrombosis, endothelial function, and antioxidant status may be influenced by a number of dietary components and interactions. Vegetarian diets that include small amounts of non-fat or low-fat dairy products, or vegetarian diets based entirely on plant foods (vegan) may provide greater overall benefits that go beyond those obtained by simply reducing fat or saturated fat. The impact of fatty acids on thrombosis is unclear. A higher proportion of omega-3 relative to omega-6 inhibits platelet aggregation and thrombus formation. Although fish consumption is somewhat protective, fish oil supplements may not provide a beneficial effect.67 Omega-3 fatty acids are lower in erythrocyte, platelet, and serum phospholipids of vegetarians, especially vegans, who also show increased...

Nutritional Requirements

Dan Glickman

Vegan person who consumes no animal products, including milk and honey Protein is a vital dietary component for preschoolers and toddlers, as it is needed for optimal growth. Enough protein should be consumed every day to allow for proper development. Protein deficiencies are rare in the United States, since most U.S. children consume plenty of protein each day. When protein malnutrition does occur, it is usually seen in those from low-income homes, those who follow a strict vegan diet excluding all animal sources, and those with multiple food allergies.

What I Learned From the Yaqui Medicine

He has followed a vegan diet since birth, as taught to him by his mother (overturning the false idea that indigenous peoples are not vegetarians or vegans). Only 3 times in his life has he eaten animal foods (raw rattlesnake twice as a ceremonial experience and turtle soup once). He can identify thousands of herbs.

Biochemistry And Bioavailability Of Carvocrol

Dutch, on alternative diets, 188 growth studies on vegetarian, 178-179 lacto-ovo-vegetarian, 180 macrobiotic, 186 obesity and vegetarian, 92, 99 quantities of soy products received by vegan, 302 Seventh-Day Adventist, 180 vegan, 183 definitions, 175-176 Competition, 289 Complementary proteins, 199 Connecticut Tumor Registry, 69 Conservation tillage, 446 Constipation, 256 Copper-rich manure, 453 Coronary artery disease (CAD), 256, 257 Coronary heart disease (CHD), 34, 92, 350, 382 decreased death rates from, 291 mortality rates, in Western vegetarians, 44 Coronary heart disease, vegetarianism, coronary risk factors, and, 33-54 topics requiring more research, 46-48 CHD in vegans, 46-47 CHD in vegetarian South Asians, 47 n-3 fatty acids, 47-48 vitamin B12 and homocysteine, 47 vegetarianism and coronary heart disease, 43-46

The Effect Of A Vegetarian Diet On Performance

Modern-day research comparing physical fitness performance in vegetarians and non-vegetarians began in the 1970s. Cotes et al.22 compared thigh muscle width, pulmonary function measures, and the cardiorespira-tory response to submaximal cycle ergometry exercise in 14 vegan and 86 non-vegetarian women. Ventilation responses during rest or exercise did not differ between the groups, and thigh muscle width was similar. The authors concluded that the lack of animal protein did not impair the physiological response to submaximal exercise.

Vitamin and Minerals at a Glance

This B vitamin is necessary for DNA synthesis and for the formation and function of red blood cells deficiencies can lead to anemia. Because of its role in oxygen-bearing red blood cells, it has been suggested that additional B12 might improve performance in athletic events in which oxidative metabolism is important. However, there is no evidence that B12 supplements or injections improve performance. And B deficiency among athletes is rare. Since B12 is found only in animal-based products, vegan athletes need to take B12 supplements or include B12-fortified foods in their diets. Supplementing with large doses of other vitamins, such as vitamin C, may actually decrease vitamin B12 availability and lead to a B12 deficiency.

Summary And Conclusions

To ensure a practical approach based on type of diet, the multiple investigations on vegetarian children have been assembled in three groups of studies, i.e., Seventh-Day Adventist children, studies on vegan children, and studies on macrobiotic children. Of course, as Dwyer et al.49 also pointed out, the patterns of animal food avoidance in vegetarians may vary considerably from group to group. This is true within a particular category of vegetarians, such as lacto-ovo-vegetarians, as well as between the different types. A pure vegetarian or vegan diet does not seem to preclude optimal growth and development, provided a well-planned and balanced plant-based diet is followed with appropriate supplements of fortified foods. Even with careful balance, both the parents and the physician should be aware that growth might be slower than expected. This, however, does not mean that this slow growth can be equated per se with poor health. A macrobiotic diet is far more restrictive than a...

Nutritional Adequacy of Vegetarian Diets

Vegetarian diets can be nutritionally adequate when varied and adequate in kcalo-ries (except for vegan diets, which need supplementation with vitamin B ). Most vegetarians get enough protein, and their diets are typically lower in fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol. 1. Vitamin B12. Vitamin B- 2 is found only in animal foods. Lacto-ovo vegetarians usually get enough of this vitamin unless they limit their intake of dairy products and eggs. Vegans definitely need either a supplement or vitamin B12-fortified foods such as most ready-to-eat cereals, most meat analogs, some soy beverages, and some brands of nutritional yeasts. 2. Vitamin D. Milk is fortified with vitamin D, and vitamin D can be made in the skin with sunlight. Generally, only vegans without enough exposure to sunlight need a supplementary source of vitamin D. Some ready-to-eat breakfast cereals and some soy beverages are fortified with vitamin D. 3. Calcium. Lacto vegetarians and lacto-ovo vegetarians generally don't have...

Meat and micronutrients Iron in meat

Groups at risk of vitamin Bj2 deficiency include vegans and strict vegetarians, because vitamin Bj2 is exclusively of animal origin, and the elderly, because their ability to absorb this vitamin from the diet diminishes with age (Allen and Casterline, 1994 Swain, 1995 Baik and Russell, 1999 Drake et al, 1999a). In the past some vitamin B12 was provided from the soil of poorly cleaned foods. This may in part explain the apparent absence of deficiency in some vegan groups. Today, with the emphasis on good food hygiene practices, this source can no longer protect against deficiency in vulnerable individuals. Vegans are recommended to take vitamin B12 supplements since the quantity consumed from foods fortified with the vitamin is too low (Jones, 1995 Draper, 1991 Sanders and Reddy, 1994). The RNI for vitamin Bj2 among the elderly is 1.5 mg day (Department of Health, 1991). A 100g portion of lean trimmed beef contains 2 mg vitamin B12, thus supplying all their daily needs for this...

Special Concerns For Athletes On Vegetarian Diets

Have intakes that fall below the added demands created by heavy exertion.39-65 Most athletes are able to meet these extra demands without protein supplementation by keeping dietary protein intake near 15 of total energy intake.65 The vegan athlete can achieve optimal protein intake by careful planning, with an emphasis on protein-rich plant foods such as legumes, nuts and seeds, and whole grain products.

Vegetarian Nutrition References

Rauma, A.L., Nenonen, M., Helve, T., and Hanninen, O. Effect of a strict vegan diet on energy and nutrient intakes by Finnish rheumatoid patients. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 47, 747, 1993. 37. Sanders, T.A., Ellis, F.R., and Dickerson, J.W. Haematological studies on vegans. Br. J. Nutr., 40, 9, 1978. 75. Lau, E.M., Kwok, T., Woo, J., and Ho, S.C. Bone mineral density in Chinese elderly female vegetarians, vegans, lacto-vegetarians, and omnivores. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 52, 60, 1998. 111. Outila, T.A., Karkkainen, M.U., Seppanen, R.H., and Lamberg-Allardt, C.J. Dietary intake of vitamin D in premenopausal, healthy vegans was insufficient to maintain concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone within normal ranges during the winter in Finland. J. Am. Diet. Assoc., 100, 434, 2000. 120. Bar-Sella, P., Rakover, Y., and Ratner, D. Vitamin B-12 and folate levels in long-term vegans. Isr. J. Med Sci., 26, 309, 1990. 122. Campbell, M., Lofters, W.S., and Gibbs, W.N....

Lesson My Personal Diet

Perhaps I was predestined to be a raw-foodist. My ethnic heritage comes from Persia where there is a long history of raw-foodism and veganism. In fact, in the Persian language (Farsi) there is a specific term for a raw-foodist Khom Gia Khori (raw plant eater). This term is about as popular in Persia as the word vegan in the United States.

Dietary Pattern And Pregnancy Outcome

The first comprehensive study of pregnant vegetarians, including dietary intake, nutritional status and health history, was reported by Hardinge et al. in 1954.2 Although vegans were included in the larger study of which this was a part, none was pregnant consequently, comparisons were made between lacto-ovo-vegetarians (LOVs) and omnivores. There was no difference in height, weight, or weight gained during pregnancy and there were no serious delivery complications in either group. Birth weights and lengths were not significantly different. Nearly 20 years passed before Thomas and Ellis compared pregnancy outcome in 14 vegans (28 pregnancies) with 18 controls (41 pregnancies) in England.3 There were no significant differences in live births, still births, toxemia of pregnancy, or infant birth weight. More recently, a tendency toward lower birth weight in term infants was reported in British vegans.4 * Vegetarian as used in this chapter includes all types of vegetarian diets that may...


Vegetarian diets normally contain substantial amounts of potassium, folic acid, magnesium, manganese, copper, fiber, vitamins C, E, and K, and vitamin A (carotenoids). Since the different types of vegetarian diets are quite varied in their composition, nutrient concerns will vary from one to another. Appropriately planned vegan or LOV diets can be nutritionally adequate. However, there are significant nutritional concerns regarding vegetarian diets such as a strict macrobiotic diet. Lacto-ovo-vegetarians and vegans tend to consume sufficient protein in their diets. Even though vegetarians consume iron in a less bioavailable form (non-heme iron), the consumption of a well-balanced vegetarian diet is not associated with any greater risk of iron deficiency. Vegetarian females, especially vegans, tend to have a lower zinc intake and possibly a lower zinc status than omnivores. However, the zinc intake of vegetarian males, both LOV and vegan, appears to be adequate. Female vegans should be...

Vegetarian Diets

Vegetarianism is a general term encompassing diets that contain no food of animal origin (vegan) and plant-based diets that contain dairy products (lactovegetarian) or dairy products and eggs (lacto-ovovegeta-rian). Although meat is a concentrated source of energy, protein, iron, and zinc, it is not an absolute dietary requirement for humans. Lacto-ovovegetarian diets provide optimum nutrition if foods are carefully chosen. However, strict vegans need to be particularly careful when choosing foods or they may not obtain enough of several important micronu-trients. The potential deficiencies in vegetarian diets are as follows. Vitamins B12 and D are found only in animal products. Although certain vegetarian foods (such as miso, tempeh, seaweeds, and spi-rulina) have been recommended as potential sources of vitamin B12, they contain only compounds that resemble vitamin B12 but that are not active.35 Therefore, strict vegan diets need to include a vitamin B12 supplement and or plant...


Vegetarian athletes have a limited choice of protein sources, especially if they are vegan. These athletes would almost require the inclusion of soy protein in their diet to be able to consume an adequate protein intake. While it appears that soy protein may not be the ideal choice for maximal muscle PS, it has been shown to be viable as a sole source of dietary protein. Studies have been conducted where soy protein was used to replace other protein sources without negative effects on the subjects.66-73 However, these tests were conducted in nonexercising individuals. As shown by Phillips, soy protein may not be the optimal choice for athletes and those seeking increased muscle mass. Additionally, because both resistance and cardiovascular exercise alone can decrease cardiovascular risks,74 the benefits of including soy in the diet of an athlete may not be worth the potential decrease in attained muscle mass. However, sedentary persons may notice less of the diminished effect of soy...

Energy Intake

Vegetarians may be similar in weight to the general populace or weigh somewhat less.16 This is particularly true of vegans, who may weigh as much as 10-20 less than omnivores or LOVs.2,17 This may, in part, be due to dietary factors such as the higher intake of plant foods, which contain much more fiber and are usually less energy dense than animal food products, as well as the somewhat lower fat intake. Thus, some vegetarians may enter pregnancy at a lower weight for height and may need more careful monitoring of weight status. Birth weight among macrobiotic infants was positively associated with maternal weight gain in pregnancy, as it was in the recent study of LOVs.5,18 Although studies have reported birth weight of infants born to vegetarians, little is known about maternal energy intake and gestational weight gain in such populations. Energy intake was reported to be low in Hindu vegetarian women however, there was no evidence that it was lower than in Muslim women.14 Weight...


Vegetarians in Western countries typically fall into three main categories lacto-ovo-vegetarians (LOVs), vegans, or other vegetarians. LOVs use dairy products and eggs, but do not use meat, fish, or poultry. Many individuals, such as Seventh-Day Adventists, have been following LOV diets since the mid-1800s. They are less likely to have low intakes of vitamin B12 and calcium than other vegetarians. Those who follow traditional Western vegan diets use a wide variety of fruits, grains, nuts, legumes, and vegetables, but do not use meat, fish, poultry, eggs, or dairy products. This usually corresponds to a lower intake of saturated fat and cholesterol than for omnivores or LOVs. Consequently, vegans have a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease.2 Vegan diets are generally adequate except for the need for vitamin B12 supplementation. Some evidence suggests that female vegans may need to carefully plan their calcium intake to ensure optimal bone mass. This may necessitate the use of...


Two main categories of vegetarian diets can be distinguished. Neither meat, fish, nor poultry are consumed in these categories. The most lenient of the two is the lacto-ovo-vegetarian (LOV) diet, which allows for milk, dairy, and egg consumption. Lactovegetarians (LV), on the other hand, consume milk and dairy products, but do not eat eggs. The pure or strict vegetarian diet, usually referred to as the vegan diet, contains no food derived from animals. Often, the macrobiotic diet is ascribed to the vegan category of diets. However, followers of this largely spiritually based regimen may occasionally use some lean fish and meat. Typical macrobiotic dietary items such as unpolished rice and other whole grain cereals, seaweeds, soya products, and miso soup are eaten regularly, whereas fresh fruit and salads are avoided or used sparsely. This explanation is important because, in the last three decades, the numerous published studies examining the growth and development of vegetarian...

Omega Fatty Acids

Unsupplemented vegetarian diets contain little and vegan diets contain virtually no DHA or EPA these omega-3 fatty acids are mainly found in oily fish. Vegetarians' limited intakes of EPA and DHA are reflected in blood and breast milk concentrations. Lacto-ovo vegetarians and vegans, including pregnant women 22 have lower blood concentrations of EPA and DHA than have nonvegetarians 68-70 . Breast milk concentrations of EPA and DHA reflect the amounts present in the mother's diet and are lower in breast milk of vegetarian and vegan women 71, 72 . microalgae-derived DHA either in liquid or vegan gelatin capsules. Eggs from hens fed DHA-rich microalgae are another potential source of DHA and have been effectively used to increase the DHA intake of pregnant women 79, 80 . Other foods that have been fortified with microalgae-derived DHA include soymilk, energy bars, yogurt, and veggie burgers 81 . One expert panel has recommended a DHA intake of 300 mg day in pregnancy and lactation 82 .


Lacto-ovo-vegetarian noun a person who does not eat animal flesh, poultry or fish but does eat eggs and milk products. i> vegetarian, vegan lactovegetarian noun a person who eats vegetables, grains, fruit, nuts and milk products but not meat or eggs. i vegetarian, vegan

Vitamin B

Since vitamin B12 is well conserved in the body, it is difficult to become deficient from dietary factors alone, unless a person is a strict vegan and consumes a diet devoid of eggs and dairy for several years. Deficiency is usually observed when B12 absorption is hampered by disease or surgery to the stomach or ileum, damage to gastric mucosa by alcoholism, or prolonged use of anti-ulcer medications that affect secretion of intrinsic factor. Age-related decrease in stomach-acid production also reduces absorption of B12 in elderly persons. These groups are advised to consume fortified foods or take a supplemental form of vitamin B12. vegan person who consumes no animal products, including milk and honey


To heal the eyes, stop eating cooked fasts - especially animal fats. Large molecules of cooked fat, devoid of their lipase enzyme, can lodge in the fine capillaries of the eyes creating blockages and weakening the eye's fine-tuned motor muscles. John McCabe, in his excellent resource book Surgery Electives, cites a 1995 study of 2,000 people which linked the consumption of (cooked) saturated fat to blindness. He also concludes that a vegan diet can improve some vision imparities.


Legumes are an important source of protein for vegetarians, especially vegans. The protein in legumes is considered incomplete, however, and needs to be eaten in combination with whole grains to make a complete (high-quality) protein (e.g., green beans, lentils, and rice navy beans and barley soybeans and sesame seeds red beans and rice). Such combinations vegan person who consumes no animal products, including milk and honey


While lacto-ovo vegetarians include dairy products and eggs in a plant-based diet, vegans consume a plant-based diet exclusively. Some studies have shown that an exclusively plant-based diet may actually be detrimental to bone health. Bone density at the lumbar spine and femoral neck was measured using dual-photon absorptiometry in 258 postmenopausal Taiwanese vegetarian women.26 The vegans were found to be at a higher risk of exceeding lumbar spine fracture threshold and of being classified as having osteopenia of the femoral neck. They had lower protein intake than the lacto-ovo vegetarians, suggesting that total protein intake may be an important predictor of bone density. Similar findings were reported among premenopausal vegans.27 Vegans in this study not only had lower protein intake than LOV and non-vegetarians, but also had the lowest calcium to protein ratio among the three groups. Not all studies comparing vegetarians distinguish between vegans and LOV. Cross-sectional...

Diet And Evolution

Obviously different blood groups, races, and ethnic groups share different affinities for natural foods (e.g. northern Europeans tend to like green apples, southern Europeans tend to like red apples). Each group has different enzymatic capabilities to digest their traditional cooked staples. So there is a partial truth in the blood-type theory however, the blood-type theory makes no distinction between raw or cooked foods, nor dos it address blood type O's who thrive on a vegetarian, vegan, or raw-food diet - indicating a flaw in its reasoning.

Vitamin D

Vegetarians have been shown to have a lower mean intake of vitamin D and a lower mean serum vitamin D level. In a study of Finnish women, the dietary intake of vitamin D in vegans was found to be insufficient to maintain blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone within normal ranges during the winter.111 Both LOV and vegan premeno-pausal women had vitamin D intakes significantly lower than the omnivores. The vegans had significantly lower (12 ) bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar region of the spine than the omnivores, and the vegans' spinal BMD tended to be lower than the LOVs. In addition, BMD in the neck of the femur tended to be lower in the vegans. The higher levels of parathyroid hormone found in the vegans would indicate that low vitamin D levels had a negative effect on their BMD. The serum vitamin D levels of the vegans were lower, and their parathyroid hormones higher, throughout the year. The researchers concluded that vitamin D supplementation or...

Lesson Teeth

One of the ways anthropologists date human fossils is by looking at skull teeth. The more modern the fossil, the more tooth decay. Analyses of striations on fossilized teeth show no decay or premature wear when homonids ate a raw-vegan diet. Most paleontologists agree that tooth decay coincided with the discovery of fire and accelerated with the advent of agriculture.

Ann Reed Mangels

Summary A vegetarian diet, defined as an eating style that avoids meat, fish, and poultry, can be healthful and nutritionally adequate for a pregnant woman. Some vegetarians, called vegans, avoid dairy products and eggs as well as meat, fish, and poultry. Vegan diets can also be healthful and nutritionally adequate for pregnancy. Vegetarian diets can provide numerous long-term health benefits including a lower risk of cardiovascular disease, some forms of cancer, and hypertension. Key nutrients for vegetarian pregnancy include protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin D, vitamin B12, iodine, and omega-3 fatty acids. Vegetarian women should also be counseled to follow standard weight gain recommendations. A vegetarian or vegan diet can meet requirements for all of these nutrients although in some instances, fortified foods or supplements can be especially useful in meeting recommendations. The nutrient content of supplements targeted to pregnant vegetarians should be evaluated to make sure...


Antioxidant intake of the vegetarian or vegan diet, as part of every meal, appears to promote a longer life-span for elderly subjects.9 The necessity of supplemental vitamin B12 and vitamin D for the elderly vegetarian or vegan might be construed as a problem, but less so than for the elderly omnivore, who has a longer list of required supplemental vitamins and minerals. The mineral advantage, in terms of a lower calcium requirement for elderly vegans, is possibly the biggest advantage of all, if they also have supplemental vitamin D. of the vegetarian or vegan lifestyles,115 and the vegan elderly have been noted to have elevated immune capability vs. omnivores.15,34 Dietary guidelines for the elderly emphasize consumption of high-quality, nutrient-rich foods.116 Table 11.2 illustrates the recognition that age-related changes in body composition and physiology change the elderly subjects' nutrient requirements.116 The elderly vegan can, for the most part, meet these demands with...


Vegetarian categories nine out of 23 studies deal with lacto-ovo-vegetarian (LOV) subjects,19'21-23'25'27'28'37-38 five with vegan subjects,20-2639-41 three with macrobiotic (Mbiot) subjects1-2-24-47 and six with macrobiotic and LOV subjects.6-11 Vegan Vegan Vegan Vegan Vegan lifelong 15 children did not mind eating non-vegan foods 2. vegan 2. Vegan Children In the '80s, two studies of vegan children who lived on The Farm, a strict vegetarian commune near Summertown, Tennessee, were reported in the scientific literature.26,39 With the exception of margarine, white sugar, infant A much larger study of 404 vegan children aged 4 months to 10 years in this community of plant-food eaters was conducted by researchers from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and The Farm.26 Eighty-three percent of these children had been vegans after weaning, eating no animal products at all. The results of this study show that most of the height, weight, and weight-for-height data were within the 25th and...

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