Vaccines Have Serious Side Effects

The Revised Authoritative Guide To Vaccine Legal Exemptions

Comprehensive, authoritative information about vaccine exemptions you can trust, from Alan Phillips, J.D., a leading vaccine rights attorney with years of experience helping clients throughout the U.S. legally avoid vaccines in a wide variety of vaccine-refusal settings. Critical details for parents, students, immigrants, healthcare employees, military personnel and contractors, agencies, attorneys and clientsvirtually anyone concerned with legally avoiding vaccines in the United States. This Guide provides and explains: Important background information about the legal system; How state and federal statutes, regulations, constitutions and legal precedent interact to define the boundaries of your legal exemption rights; How to deal with local authorities and to avoid mistakes that cost others their exemption; Where legal technicalities and practical reality differand what to do about it; Continue reading...

The Revised Authoritative Guide To Vaccine Legal Exemptions Overview


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Vaccination Is Not Immunization Vaccine Risks Exposed

Doctor's New E-book Informs Parents About Vaccine Side Effects, The Link To Autism, Swine Flu Scam & More. Ends The Confusion On Whether Or Not To Vaccinate. Many Doctor Testimonials. Here's a look at some of what's covered. . . The disturbing truth: why children are growing sicker, fatter and dumber year after year. The shocking composition of what's really being injected into your child. Think only your children are at risk? Think again. As of 2008, adults are Medicine's newest target, with the Cdc's new Adult Immunization Schedule of 74 vaccines! What is the Germ Theory and why does the medical establishment ignore the errors inherent in it? The implications for your child's health are staggering! Do you know the difference between natural immunity and artificial immunity? 12 deadly reactions to the Dpt vaccine Did you know that the three vaccines contained in this three-in-one injection were never tested together before it was brought to market? In the 1940s. There's more: The truth about autism The evidence is piling up regarding the accine autoimmune brain programming connection and you must not wait another day to get the complete story. The false advertising behind the Mmr (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine If so many doctors are refusing to give it to their children, what is that telling you? The most amazing statistic put forth from a source with no medical axe to grind Metropolitan Life Insurance. According to the ex-commissioner of the Fda, the number of adverse reactions to vaccines are being woefully underreported. If flu shots worked, why do you and your child get them year after year and why do you and your child keep getting the flu? It's all here. . .plus, the worrisome correlation between flu shots, mercury and Alzheimer's disease. What are toxics in vaccines and why are they being used on your child? And are you sure you want these poisonous substances injected into your child? What mandated vaccination really means and how your child can be made exempt if you choose Continue reading...

Vaccination Is Not Immunization Vaccine Risks Exposed Overview

Contents: Ebook
Author: Tim O Shea
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Price: $25.00

Mercury in Vaccines a Brainless Idea From the Very Beginning

Almost from the inception of vaccination programs, manufacturers added a mercury preservative called thimerosal to vaccines. The practice continued until recently, and was stopped only because of the outcry from thousands of concerned parents and numerous experts in the field. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Family Practice did not warn parents or pediatricians that the mercury was dangerous until they were forced to. That mercury was toxic to cells had been known for over sixty years, but manufacturers apparently were more worried about lawsuits stemming from bacterial contamination of vaccines than they were about the toxic effects of mercury in children. After all, mercury was a very effective antibacterial. In 1999 studies began to surface showing that multi-dose vial vaccines, such as the MMR and hepatitis B vaccines, contained enough thimerosal to expose vaccinated children to 62.5 ug of mercury per visit to the pediatrician. This is one hundred...

Early Problems with Vaccines

With the widespread use of inoculations against a variety of diseases, doctors began to see unusual reactions in an increasing number of persons. Many of these reactions were life threatening or left the person severely neurologically injured. The latter reaction could cause a diffuse inflammation of the brain called postvaccinal encephalitis, which could result in blindness, deafness, writhing motor movements, mental retardation, and any number of neurological deficits. These children's brains, when examined at autopsy, resembled the brains of MS patients that is, widespread stripping away of the fatty covering (myelin) of neuron pathways. This is because the vaccine triggers the immune system to attack the brain as if it were a foreign invader. Live viruses used in vaccines are also suspected to be associated with other disorders as well, such as multiple sclerosis, ALS, and autism. Particularly startling is the recent report of two cases of parkinsonism reported in young children...

Brief History of Vaccines

Vaccines have saved millions of lives over the last one hundred years, but less well-recognized is the impact of improved nutrition and sanitation methods in reducing diseases often long before vaccine programs were implemented. Thanks to earlier work by medical giants like Edward Jenner, Louis Pasteur, Koch, and von Behring, a new method of preventing some infections was now available, which Pasteur named vaccination. In the eighteenth century, Jenner devised a way to protect people from the scourge of smallpox. As a humble country practitioner in the small town of Gloucestershire, England, he observed that by inoculating someone with the cowpox virus you could confer immunity against the more deadly smallpox virus. As a result of his discovery, which was initially rejected by the arrogant Royal Medical Society, millions of lives were saved every year thereafter. The process was later refined by Louis Pasteur, who discovered that when bacteria were allowed to grow over a long period...


Because depression of immunity accompanies aging (especially cell-mediated immunity responsible for protection from viruses, bacteria and other nasties), the elderly also are more likely to experience reactivation of quiescent tuberculosis and herpes zoster, and have a reduced response to vaccination.513 not respond to vaccination by proper immunity. This means they have been exposed to the risk of complications from the vaccine without gaining any benefit. Few are aware that the success rate for flu vaccinations in the elderly is less than 50 percent, and that each vaccine contains the dubious bonus of mercury and aluminum doses that persist in the nervous system for decades. Our evidence-based doctors, who seem to know little of the relationship between vaccination safety, immunity, and nutrition, never suggest nutritional supplementation. In fact, an elderly person's best protection is improved nutrition not vaccination as we shall see.

What Really Caused the Disappearance of Infectious Epidemics

Vaccine proponents love to display the dramatic successes that widespread vaccination had in eradicating many of the infectious diseases. While there is little question that vaccination programs were responsible for the eventual control of many of these diseases, most had already begun to decline drastically before widespread vaccination. Neil Z. Miller, in a fascinating examination of the vaccine problem, discovered that most of the epidemic infectious diseases were declining drastically before mass inoculations were introduced.207 For example, the measles death rate from 1915-1958 fell by 95 percent in both the US and the UK before the vaccine program was implemented. Pertussis death rates fell by 75 percent and diphtheria by 90 percent before immunization. Polio had fallen 47 percent in the US and 55 percent in the UK before 1953, the year the Salk vaccine was introduced. So what could account for the dramatic fall in infectious disease rates before vaccinations It has been...

Prophylactic and therapeutic immunization

Lysates with cholera toxin (CT) as adjuvant resulted in 76-96 of protection. Others challenged the same models using H. pylori antigens such as Vac-A, Cag-A, catalase or urease B subunit. On the basis of the results of clinical therapeutic vaccination trials, it is likely that several antigens are needed for a subunit vaccine in humans. Several groups administered the vaccine to infected animals for therapeutic and not for prophylactic use. Oral vaccination of H. felis-infected mice with either bacterial sonicate or H. pylori urease B subunit plus CT cured approximately half of the mice. Several groups have now developed murine models of H. pylori infection. Eradication in 70-92 was achieved by using recombinant Cag-A or Vac-A as oral antigens, respectively. Recently, a clinical trial tested an oral therapeutic vaccine consisting of recombinant H. pylori urease apoenzyme coupled with Escherichia coli LT in A different approach was based on the development of attenuated recombinant...

So What Can I Do to Protect Myself and My Family

Now that you have seen the terrible damage that even low doses of mercury can create in the body, you are probably wondering what you can do to reduce your risk. First of all, you should limit your exposure as much as possible avoid amalgam fillings, refuse vaccinations that contain mercury (thimerosal), stop eating fish high in mercury, and do not live near a coal-burning facility. If you already have amalgam fillings, and you are not presently pregnant or nursing, you should have them removed by a dentist trained in the safe removal of amalgam. The fillings cannot just be removed by any dentist rather a special protocol must be followed by a dentist with the proper equipment and training, and by a nutritionist or physician trained in proper mercury removal techniques. As for vaccinations, parents should insist that their children receive only vaccines without thimerosal. Manufacturers are slow in producing mercury-free vaccines, but as a parent you should insist they be free of this...

History of the National Institutes of Health

In 1887, the NIH began in Staten Island, New York, as a one-room federal laboratory within the Marine Hospital Service (MHS). At the time, it was called the Laboratory of Hygiene. The MHS was responsible for preventing the spread of infectious disease in the United States. For example, the staff at the MHS examined passengers on arriving ships for signs of communicable diseases such as cholera and yellow fever. By 1891, the federal government required the MHS to take on the additional responsibilities of developing and testing vaccines. That year, the service was relocated to Washington, D.C., and renamed the Hygienic Laboratory. In 1902, Congress passed the Biologics Control Act to regulate vaccines sold in the U.S. This resulted in the Hygienic Laboratory adding divisions in chemistry, pharmacology, and zoology, all on a meager annual budget of 50,000. After ten years, this enterprise, now called the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS), was further authorized to study chronic diseases...

Overview and Conclusions

It is clear, from the foregoing discussions, that there is significant evidence, both experimental and clinical, to indicate that certain strains of probiotic organisms can modulate the immune system of the host. The two major impacts that have been demonstrated so far include immunostimulation and immunoregulation. Immunostimulation involves an elevation of immune function(s) to a heightened state of responsiveness, and may provide an important role in conditions where an elevation of immune function is not achievable by conventional means or in boosting responses among individuals with sub-optimal immunity. Experimentally, several strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium have been shown to boost humoral antibody responses to experimentally administered T-cell-dependent antigens (Portier et al., 1993 Perdigon et al., 1995 Gill et al., 2000). In human studies, Lactobacillus GG has been shown to enhance the humoral immune response to orally administered rotavirus and Salmonella...

Clinical Application and Intervention Strategies

The interactions between nutrition, the immune system and infection have much clinical and public health significance (Chandra, 1992). The fact that changes in immune responses occur early in the course of nutritional deficiency has led to the suggestion that immunocompetence can be used as a sensitive functional indicator of nutritional status. In patients with obvious primary or secondary malnutrition, the number of T lymphocytes is a useful measure of response to supplementation therapy. Anergy and other immunological changes correlate with poor outcome, in both medical and surgical patients, if impaired immunity is considered in association with hypoalbuminaemia (Chandra, 1983a,b,c). Opportunist infections occur more frequently among those patients with cancer who are also malnourished. The incidence of complicating infections can be reduced if appropriate preventive and therapeutic nutritional management is carried out in patients with leukaemia. It has been postulated that...

Pathophysiology transmission and progression of HIV disease

Infant feeding practices may significantly influence the way in which these non-intestinal factors interact exclusive breast feeding results in a greater volume of milk being ingested and hence increases the HIV load presented to the infant gut. However, it also increases the protective breast-milk factors reaching the infant and that promote the development and maintain the integrity of the mucosa and which may have direct anti-HIV effects.13 Exclusive breast feeding is associated with fewer breast health problems, e.g. clinical and subclinical mastitis that are associated with increased breast-milk viral load.14 Infant feeding practices also contribute to the establishment of different enteric microflora that might significantly affect the priming or responses of intestinal lymphoid cells or dendritic cell.15-17 This could, theoretically, modify adherence or facilitate infection of HIV, although this interesting concept has not been explored to date. Innate responses such as...

Control of Infectious Diseases

Given the close relationship between some infectious diseases and vitamin A deficiency, the control of diseases such as measles (598) and diarrheal diseases would likely reduce the risk of xerophthalmia among infants and preschool children. Thus, programs aimed at more effective measles vaccines, prevention of diarrheal diseases, and malaria control would likely have an effect on reducing xerophthalmia. Treatment of intestinal parasites such as Ascaris lumbricoides may help to improve the vitamin A status of children who consume a diet high in provitamin A carotenoids (1036,1037).

Enteric infections in HIVinfected children

Studies in sub-Saharan Africa show that rotavirus is a common cause of diarrhea in HIV-infected children.105 It is not, however, found more commonly, shed for longer or associated with greater clinical severity than in children uninfected by HIV in similar settings nor do children with more advanced HIV disease demonstrate any additional susceptibility.106 Rotavirus was not associated with changes in viral load or CD4 counts in a small study in Malawi.107 The pending availability of two new live oral rotavirus vaccines highlights the importance of understanding the relationship, and potential interaction, between these two viral infections. Clinical trials are necessary to ensure that any vaccine is safe and immunogenic in this population.

Immune Suppression and Inflammation

Vitamin A deficiency may affect both the concentrations of secretory IgA on mucosal surfaces and specific IgA responses in the gut. In vitamin A-deficient chickens, the concentrations of total IgA were lower in the gut than in control animals (391). Vitamin A-deficient BALB c mice that were challenged with influenza A had a lower influenza-specific IgA response than control mice (392). Vitamin A-deficient mice had significantly lower serum antibody responses against epizootic diarrhea of infant mice (EDIM) rotavirus infection compared with pair-fed control mice (393). An impaired ability to respond with IgA antibodies to oral cholera vaccine was demonstrated in vitamin A-deficient rats (394). Vitamin A treatment prevented the decline in IgA in the intestinal mucosa of protein-malnourished mice (395). Recent studies in IL-5 receptor-knockout mice suggest The hallmark of vitamin A deficiency is an impaired capacity to generate an antibody response to T-cell-dependent antigens (444,461),...

Probiotics and infectious diseases

There is clear evidence that certain probiotic LAB strains are able to potentiate pathogen-specific antibody responses, both in animal models and in humans. Yasui et al. (1999b) have demonstrated that mice immunized with influenza vaccine and fed Bifidobacterium breve (strain YIT4064) as a probiotic developed enhanced virus-specific antibody responses and showed greater protection against respiratory challenge than non-probiotic-fed mice. In addition, some studies have confirmed an increase in innate and lymphoid cell-mediated events in pathogen-infected mice, which may contribute to enhanced disease resistance. Shu et al. (2000) have recently shown that the probiotic B. lactis HN019 could enhance pathogen-specific antibody responses in S. typhimurium-infected mice, as well as promoting increased peritoneal cell phagocytosis and splenic lympho-proliferative potential correlation analyses indicated that elevated immune function in probiotic-fed mice corresponded with reduced pathogen...

Bacterial infections

Ment of rich countries to finance sanitation campaigns to treat and prevent diarrheal diseases in endemic areas has been a key limiting factor in tackling the burden of gastrointestinal diseases. Nevertheless, bacterial genome sequencing and better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in the onset of diarrhea, particularly concerning the elaboration of toxin (Figure 10.1), are finally leading to preventive interventions, such as enteric vaccines, that may have a significant impact on the magnitude of this human plague.

Effect on productive mucosal immunity development

Numerous studies of the effect of breast-feeding on secretory immunity have been performed with salivary IgA measurements as a read-out system. Discrepant observations have been made, probably to some extent reflecting different cytokine levels in the milk as discussed above. The influence of contaminating the saliva sample with milk SIgA, shielding of the suckling's mucosal immune system by maternal SIgA antibodies, and altered growth and composition of the infant's gut flora have been discussed as additional uncontrollable variables (Brandtzaeg et al., 1991). However, the balance of accumulated data suggests that breast-feeding promotes the post-natal development of secretory immunity (Wold and Hanson, 1994 Brandtzaeg, 1998), apparently even in the urinary tract (Newman, 1995) and there are reports of enhanced secretory, as well as systemic, immune responses to oral and parenteral vaccines in breastfed babies (Hahn-Zoric et al., 1990 Pabst and Spady, 1990).

Trends in Health Status

The world's poorest populations continue to suffer from malnutrition, childhood infections, poor maternal and perinatal health, and high fertility. A total of 2 million deaths in children occur annually due to vaccine-preventable diseases 200 million children under the age of five still suffer from malnutrition and anemia and 30 percent of the world is still without safe water and sanitation. Furthermore, 120 million couples still lack options in family planning. Because of poor maternal health services, close to half a million women die each year from pregnancy-related causes.

Constraints on innovation

There has been a de facto European Union moratorium on the approval of GMO products since October 1998. Eighteen products have already been approved under the general EU Directive (90 220 CEE) whilst 14 are pending approval. Five Member States have temporarily banned already approved GM products, which is permitted under the Directive. Two new EU labelling regulations have been drafted but have not been implemented because of a lack of testing methodologies, certifying labels and inspection procedures. The ultimate intention is to ensure that products can be labelled GM free to enable consumers to make an informed choice. It has been argued that products labelled as containing products derived from GM will convey negative messages to consumers. This is likely to be so in the absence of benefits that are clearly seen by consumers. This will occur if plants are used as factories for the production of vaccines and pharmaceutical products. However, it is unclear at present where these...

Evaluation of Human Immune Response

Until recently, methods for evaluating the human immune system were derived largely from experimental approaches designed to analyse deficits in host defence in specific clinical settings. With the advent of molecular approaches, immune function has been studied more directly and has led to clarification of specific pathways. As a result, the molecular basis of primary and acquired immune deficiency syndromes is better understood. In addition, the development of vaccines and the study of the natural response to infectious exposure have expanded exponentially in the wake of the HIV crisis, leading to the development of increasingly targeted methods of measuring the immune response. While assessment of the humoral immune response at the level of specific antibody is now well standardized and often routine, evaluation of the complex interactions that are needed to produce specific antibody and the idio-typic interactions that govern this remains a specialized research endeavour. The...

Potential contraindications to breastfeeding

Cytomegalovirus and rubella have been found in milk of infected mothers. The presence of these viruses in human milk is not considered a contraindication to breastfeeding since in the term infant they cause asymptomatic infections (Goldfarb, 1993). If present in the mother, hepatitis B is most likely to be transmitted during delivery, although it has been isolated from breast milk. For the nursing mother who acquires hepatitis while nursing, an important preventative measure for the infant is prompt immunization with the hepatitis B vaccine. Breastfeeding can then be encouraged. Although herpes simplex virus is unlikely to be shed into breast milk, breastfeeding would be contra-indicated in women who have active herpetic lesions on or near the nipple (Sullivan-Bolyai

Future challenges and opportunities in food allergy

There are other exciting potential therapies for food allergies, some of which have been subject to clinical trials in humans.172 The area of immunotherapy is well established for systemic allergies such as bee-sting allergy, and has depended on increasing the dose of antigen gradually until an allergy-suppressing Th1 response is made. For food allergies, the use of small peptides, foods with altered protein sequences, DNA immunizations and IgE-blocking agents represent future targets for immunotherapy. For small peptide vaccines, an antigenic peptide is sequenced and synthetic 10-20 amino acid portions are then produced, covering the entire protein sequence. While able to block IgE binding sites, they are not long enough to cross-link IgE on mast cells. Food proteins can also be engineered, which are able to bind to T cells but not mast cells. In recent studies, the major peanut proteins Ara h1, ara h2 and ara h3 have been purified, their T-cell and IgE-binding domains elicited, and...

Critical role of breastfeeding

Immune Componeent Breastfeeding

When much of the transferred maternal IgG has been catabolized around 2 months of age, the infant becomes still more dependent on antibodies from breast milk for specific humoral immunity. At least 90 of the pathogens attacking humans use the mucosae as portals of entry mucosal infections are in fact a major killer of children below the age of 5 years, being responsible for more than 14 million deaths of children annually in developing countries. Diarrhoeal disease alone claims a toll of 5 million children per year, or about 500 deaths every hour. These sad figures document the need for mucosal vaccines against common infectious agents, in addition to the importance of advocating breast-feeding. Convincing epidemiological documentation suggests that the risk of dying from diarrhoea is reduced 14-24 times in nursed children (Hanson et al., 1993 Anon., 1994). Indeed, exclusively breast-fed infants are better protected against a variety of infections (Pisacane et al., 1994 Wold and...

HOT topic Organic Foods

Raised animals may not be given hormones to promote growth or antibiotics for any reason (unless an animal is sick or injured, in which case the animal can't be sold as organic). Preventive management practices, including the use of vaccines, are used to keep animals healthy. Also, livestock may be given allowed vitamin and mineral supplements. All organically raised animals must have access to the outdoors, including access to pasture. They may be temporarily confined only for reasons such as health and safety.

Vitamin E and immune function

(Baehner et al., 1977) this latter effect is most probably due to a vitamin E-induced decrease in production of free radicals and related reactive species. In laboratory animals, vitamin E deficiency decreased spleen lymphocyte proliferation in response to mitogens, NK-cell activity, specific antibody production following vaccination and phagocytosis by neutrophils (for a review, see Meydani and Beharka, 1998). Vitamin E deficiency also increases susceptibility of animals to infectious pathogens (for references, see Meydani and Beharka, 1998 Han and Meydani, 1999). Vitamin E supplementation of the diet of laboratory animals enhances antibody production, lymphocyte proliferation, NK-cell activity, and macrophage phagocytosis (for references, see Meydani and Beharka, 1998). Dietary vitamin E promoted resistance to pathogens in chickens, turkeys, mice, pigs, sheep and cattle (for references, see Meydani and Beharka, 1998 Han and Meydani, 1999) some of these studies report improved...

Mercury The Silent Killer

Many of us are being exposed to levels of mercury that have been demonstrated to significantly affect the nervous and immune systems and other biological structures. For instance, children and adults are being exposed to mercury in a multitude of ways through vaccines, medications, broken thermometers, antiseptics, industrial usage, contaminated fish, and dental amalgams. Mercury use is so widespread in certain industries that many workers are occupationally exposed every day to this toxic metal (see Figure 3.1). Most of us will also recall that when we were sick as children and running a fever, our parents would frighten us with stories of a horrible death if we bit into the mercury thermometer in our mouths. It was true entire households have been poisoned when mercury from a broken thermometer was vacuumed up.

What You Can Do

Step One Reduce or Eliminate Vaccines This step will depend on where you live, since vaccine laws vary from state to state. My state, Mississippi, has the most stringent vaccination laws in the country. There are no religious or philosophical exemptions allowed and medical exemptions are difficult to have approved. Even worse, combined vaccines cannot be broken up and given separately. This has nothing to do with anything medical it is pure politics. If you are from a more friendly state, ask your pediatrician to give the mixed vaccines, such as the MMR and DPaT separately, spaced apart by at least six months. If possible, refuse any live-virus vaccines altogether. Spacing vaccines significantly reduces the risk of complications, even with live-virus vaccines. Do not pay any attention to your pediatrician's assurances that the vaccines are safe. They are just accepting the word of their medical unions, such as the American Academy of Pediatrics. The live polio vaccine was finally...

Vitamin A

We've known for years that successful vaccination depends on adequate vitamin A intake.515 Attempts to vaccinate African children who suffered from vitamin A deficiencies resulted in a very high mortality rate. The same tragedy occurred when vaccinations were forced on aboriginal populations in Australia. One more devastating side effect of vaccination is the potential for encephalitis (called postvaccinal encephalomyelitis), a condition in which the immune system mistakenly attacks the coverings of neural pathways in the brain and spinal cord. Studies have shown that when vitamin A is given to an animal, either before or after vaccination, the severity of the disorder is greatly reduced.516 There is also compelling evidence that the incidence of autism may be reduced by adequately supplementing children with vitamin A.


Although available data do not convincingly incriminate a single, persistent pathogen as a universal cause of IBD, the role of infectious agents is still considered a strong possibility as a trigger for the development of IBD. Many infectious agents including Mycobacterium, Chlamydia, Listeria monocytogenes, cell-wall-deficient Pseudomonas species and reovirus have been proposed as the causative organism of Crohn's disease. Paramyxovirus (measles virus) has been implicated etiologically in Crohn's disease as a cause of granulomatous vasculitis and microinfarcts of the intestine.74 However, the tissue evidence for persistent measles infection in patients with Crohn's disease remains controversial.75,76 One Swedish study demonstrated an increased incidence of Crohn's disease but not ulcerative colitis among individuals born during measles epidemics 77 however, two other studies from the UK failed to establish an association between the development of Crohn's disease and birth during...

H Feed restriction

Now maturing very early and since their mature body size has been decreased, the need for restriction occurs less frequently. A major concern with restriction programs is maintenance of flock uniformity. With a mild restriction program, birds can be allowed to 'run-out' of feed one day per week and usually this will do little harm to uniformity. If it is necessary to impose a greater degree of feed restriction on a daily basis, then it is important to ensure rapid and even feed distribution, as subsequently discussed for broiler breeders (Chapter 5). Feed restriction should be relaxed if birds are subjected to any stresses such as beak trimming, vaccination, general disease challenges or substantial reduction in environmental temperature. An alternative management procedure for overweight birds is to schedule an earlier light stimulation and move to layer cages (see Figure 3.4).

Pasteur Louis

Hailed as the founder of microbiology, Louis Pasteur contributed immensely to the fields of medicine and food safety. He invented pasteurization, which prevents food spoilage, and he developed the technique of vaccination. Bettman Corbis. Reproduced by permission. Hailed as the founder of microbiology, Louis Pasteur contributed immensely to the fields of medicine and food safety. He invented pasteurization, which prevents food spoilage, and he developed the technique of vaccination. Bettman Corbis. Reproduced by permission.

Nephrotic Syndrome

The patients with nephrotic syndrome are at risk for thrombotic complications, infections, cardiovascular disease, and skeletal abnormalities. Management of nephrotic syndrome includes salt and water restriction in edematous patients, ACE-Is or ARBs for proteinuria and control of hypertension, low protein diet to improve serum albumin level, proteinuria, and renal function, vaccination to prevent infection from encapsulated organisms, prevention of thrombosis by avoiding prolonged immobilization and volume depletion, and control of hyper-lipidemia. Anticoagulation is recommended in high-risk patients. Immunosuppressive therapy is reserved for patients with primary renal diseases. Elimination of the secondary cause usually improves nephrotic syndrome.

Type Diabetes

In addition to the genetic contributions of type 1 diabetes, it is becoming evident that additional factors, such as environmental influences, are also involved in the development of the disease. Such factors include viruses, such as enteroviruses, rotavirus, and rubella (257,258). Nevertheless, even though Finland has effectively eradicated rubella through vaccination, it has one of the highest incidences of type 1 diabetes. This therefore supports the hygiene hypothesis, which proposes that environmental exposure to microbes early in life promotes innate immune responses that suppress atopy and autoimmunity. To address the role of environmental factors in type 1 diabetes, large-scale studies are required. For this purpose, the international consortium Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY http www.niddk.nih. gov patient TEDDY TEDDY.htm) has been established so as to follow large number of babies with high-risk HLA genotypes during early life and thus identify...


With the advent of vaccines and antibiotics, many people in developed countries had become complacent about infectious diseases. However, the increase in acts of worldwide terrorism has caused food security to become a major concern for the food industry and for public health officials. Deliberate biological or chemical contamination of food or water remains the easiest method for widespread terrorism, according to the CDC, and since everyone eats, all are open to an attack. Bioterrorism and the emergence of strains of diseases that have become resistant to antibiotic therapy (such as vaccine medicine that promotes immune system resistance by stimulating pre-existing cells to become active


This information may be of practical relevance, while awaiting the development of safer vaccines that will hopefully be effective, for normal or compromised immune function. Vaccine development Rotavirus After more than 15 years of basic research and clinical trials, a live-attenuated rhesus rotavirus-tetravalent vaccine (RRV-TV), was licensed by the Food and Drug Administration. However, the lifespan of the RRV-TV was short. After initial marketing and after nearly 1.5 million doses already administered in 9 months, the Centers for Disease Control withdrew the vaccine recommendation because of the possible association of the vaccine with intestinal intussusception, and the RRV-TV was removed from the market.104 This event represented a major drawback and introduced new complications in producing a safe and effective vaccine for children, particularly in the developing world, where the vaccine is mostly needed to reduce high mortality rates. Recent epidemiological surveillance of...


While this chapter does not nearly cover the scope of the vaccine problem, I do want to alert parents that their children are in danger, and that they must speak out if their children and grandchildren are to be protected. The vaccine program is being led by irresponsible people wearing dollar-shaped blinders. They portray themselves as protectors of the nation's children while they have done more harm over the past thirty years to children than have all of the diseases they seek to eradicate. We live in an age of insanity.

Escherichia coli

Travelers' diarrhea.43 The development of vaccines against ETEC has received a great deal of attention because of its disease burden. Oral vaccines for ETEC are being developed by five different strategies, including killed whole cells, toxoids, purified fimbriae, living attenuated strains and live carrier strains elaborating ETEC antigens. A killed whole-cell Vibrio cholerae vaccine given with cholera toxin B (CTB) provided 67 protection against LT-producing ETEC diarrhea for 3 months.44 A formalin-inactivated whole-cell oral vaccine consisting of ETEC strains bearing colonization factor antigens (CFAs) in combination with CTB has entered field trial.45 Because of the severity of disease, there has been a recent focus on vaccine development for EHEC infection. Efforts have concentrated on three approaches parenteral toxoids and live oral carrier strains elaborating the B subunit of Shiga toxin 74 vaccines expressing the adhesin intimin, designed to prevent intestinal colonization 75...


Viral diarrhea still represents a major threat to childhood health, worldwide. It has an immense, but distinct, impact in poor and rich countries, being responsible for a substantial number of deaths in the former and of heavy money loss in the latter. Rotavirus is the leading agent and its pathophysiology involves multiple mechanisms, several of which are triggered by NSP4 entero-toxin. Diarrhea is the hallmark of viral diarrhea and is usually self-limiting. However, it may run a severe course and have a fatal outcome in children with malnutrition or immune impairment and in those who have no access to rehydration. Diagnosis is usually based on clinical grounds, and investigations are not necessary. Treatment is based on carbohydrate and electrolyte solution administered through the oral or parenteral route. Selected probiotics may be effective in reducing the duration of symptoms, whereas, in severe cases in which rotavirus is involved, oral administration of human serum...


All cancers caused by cigarette smoking and heavy use of alcohol could be prevented completely. Approximately 30 percent of all cancers worldwide are due to tobacco use. Many of the skin cancers could be prevented by protection from sunlight. Certain cancers that are related to infectious exposures, such as HBV, HPV, HIV, and Helicobacter could be prevented through behavioral changes, vaccines, or antibiotics. Research shows that about 30 to 40 percent of all cancers worldwide are due to dietary factors and lack of physical activity, including obesity, and could therefore have been prevented. By making changes in regard to diet, exercise, healthy weight maintenance, and tobacco use, the incidence of cancer around the world could be reduced by 60 to 70 percent.


HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) was identified in 1983 by the French scientist Luc Montagier and his staff at the Pasteur Institute in Paris. Ever since that discovery, scientists have been searching for ways to treat those infected with HIV, and to produce a vaccine to prevent its spread. While new antiviral treatments have been developed, a vaccine has yet to be found. HIV causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), an unpredictable condition that may progress over many years and is characterized by a slow deterioration of the immune system. Once an individual becomes infected (HIV has infected the target cells) it takes a week or more before the virus is spread throughout the body's blood and lymph system. The immune system responds by turning out HIV antibodies in about six to eighteen weeks. The progression of HIV infection to AIDS may take several years. In the initial period, prolonged (2-4 weeks) flu-like symptoms may appear. This is followed by an asymptomatic period...

Antibody responses

The hallmark of vitamin A deficiency is an impaired capacity to generate an antibody response to T-cell-dependent antigens (Smith and Hayes, 1987 Semba et al., 1992, 1994 Wiedermann et al., 1993a, b) and T-cell-independent type 2 antigens, such as pneumococcal polysaccharide (Pasatiempo et al., 1989). Antibody responses are involved in protective immunity to many types of infections and are the main basis for immunological protection for most types of vaccines. Depressed antibody responses to tetanus toxoid have been observed in vitamin A-deficient children (Semba et al., 1992) and animals (Lavasa et al., 1988 Pasatiempo et al., 1990). Vitamin A deficiency appears to impair the generation of primary antibody responses to tetanus toxoid, but, if animals are replete with vitamin A prior to a second immunization, the secondary antibody responses to tetanus toxoid are comparable to those of control animals (Kinoshita et al., 1991). These findings suggest that formation of immunological...

F Water quality

Such contamination is usually an indication of run-off from animal wastes or fertilizers leaching into the water system. Although the standard for human water supply is 10 to 20 ppm of nitrate nitrogen, higher levels can usually be tolerated by animals. Levels beyond 50 ppm need to be present before water is suspected as a factor in the poor performance of poultry. As nitrites are 10 times more toxic than nitrates, and because bacteria in the intestinal tract and in the water supply can convert nitrates to nitrites, levels of these two contaminants in the water supply must be kept to a minimum. Superchlorination of the water will quickly oxidize nitrites to nitrates thereby reducing their toxicity. Before initiating a super-chlorination program, check with a local pathologist to ensure a proper level of chlorination in order not to interfere with the performance or efficiency of vaccines or other drugs.

Mucosal immunity

In vitamin A-deficient chickens, the concentrations of total IgA were lower in the gut than in control animals (Rombout et al., 1992). Vitamin A-deficient BALB c mice that were challenged with influenza A virus had a lower influenza-specific IgA response than control mice (Gangopadhyay et al., 1996). Vitamin A-deficient mice had significantly lower serum antibody responses against epizootic diarrhoea of infant mice (EDIM) rotavirus infection compared with control mice (Ahmed et al., 1991). An impaired ability to respond with IgA antibodies to oral cholera vaccine was demonstrated in vitamin A-deficient rats (Wiedermann et al., 1993a). Using the urinary lactulose mannitol excretion test, increased gut permeability was found in vitamin A-deficient infants, and the gut integrity improved following vitamin A supplementation (Thurnham et al., 2000).

Vitamin E

One very important observation related to the vaccine issue is that combined with low vitamin E intake, attenuated viruses can become pathogenic. Doses several times the RDA levels enhance antibody activity against antigens and improve clearance of particulate matter by a special lymph cleaning system (reticuloendothelial system).


Response to the parasite, particularly on nutritional status in children. For example, zinc deficiency may prolong nematode survival in the host by its known effect on mucosal immune function.44 In addition, many helminths release immunomodu-latory molecules which inactivate components of the host's immune response, but this may also predispose the host to other infections such as tuberculosis (TB) or AIDS. There is also evidence that ascariasis impairs immune responses to vaccines in that albendazole treatment increased the seroconversion rate and antibody titers after cholera immunization, mediated by suppression of interleukin (IL)-2 responses.45,46 Moreover, treatment of helminths in HIV-infected individuals was associated with significant reductions in viral load.47 reduced hookworm burdens in adults suggests an effect of host immunity, but humoral antibodies and cell-mediated immune responses correlate poorly with resistance to infection. The possibility of a hookworm vaccine to...


Prevention requires interruption of the fecal-oral spread of the infectious cyst stage of the parasite by improved hygiene, sanitation and water treatment. This is of course very difficult in the developing world. Current efforts towards a vaccine are focusing on the adherence lectin, which may prevent colonization. This would lead to elimination of the parasites if effective, since humans are the only significant reservoir of E. histolytica infection.


In 1896, when more than 90000 cases were described with a mortality rate approaching 30 .18 Shigellae are Gram-negative, non-lactose fermenting, non-motile bacilli, with S. sonnei the main type found in industrialized countries, and S. flexneri and S. dysenteriae predominating in underdeveloped countries. Humans are the only natural hosts and transmission occurs by fecal-oral contact. The low infectious inoculum (as few as ten organisms)19 renders shigellae highly contagious. Shigella causes 250 million cases of diarrhea and 650 000 deaths worldwide.20 In the USA, S. dysenteriae infection is seen almost exclusively among travelers. After an incubation of 1-4 days, shigellosis begins with fever, headache, malaise, anorexia and occasional vomiting and watery diarrhea with progression to dysentery within hours to days. Unusual extraintestinal manifestations may occur, including hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in children and throm-botic thrombocytopenic purpura in adults. Most episodes...


Vitamin A supplementation appears to modulate antibody responses to measles and increases total lymphocyte counts. Children with acute measles infection who received high-dose vitamin A supplementation (60 mg RE upon admission and the following day) had significantly higher IgG responses to measles virus and higher circulating lymphocyte counts during follow-up, compared with children who received placebo (Coutsoudis et al., 1992). When vitamin A supplementation is given simultaneously with live measles vaccine, there appears to be an effect upon antibody titres to measles if maternal antibodies are present. In 6-month-old infants in Indonesia, administration of vitamin A (30 mg RE) at the time of immunization with standard-titre Schwarz measles vaccine interfered with seroconversion to measles in infants who had maternal antibody present, and significantly reduced the incidence of measles vaccine-associated rash (Semba et al., 1995). A separate clinical trial also showed that vitamin...

Deplete DHA

Approximately a hundred million Americans were vaccinated with this contaminated live-polio virus vaccine between 1955 and 1963. Studies done by molecular pathologist Michael Carbone disclosed the presence of SV-40 viral genes and proteins in patients with bone cancers, lung cancers, and malignant brain tumors. This virus can remain in the body for a lifetime following vaccination. The only way we ever even learned about the contamination of the polio vaccine was through a lawsuit. During discovery, the lawyers for the plaintiff pored through the Lederle pharmaceutical company's records and discovered that their scientists were having trouble separating numerous viruses found in the African green monkey kidney cells from the polio virus. Many of these contaminating viruses, some twenty-six in all, were known to cause disease in humans. Only later, in 1985, was it discovered that one of the contaminating viruses was the simian immunodeficiency virus SIV, very similar to the HIV virus....

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