Natural Cures For Low Testosterone
In order for androstenedione and DHEA to raise testosterone levels they must be absorbed from the digestive tract, circulate, and be converted to testosterone by enzymes in organs such as the liver and testes. Interestingly, skeletal muscle lacks the enzymes needed to convert DHEA and androstenedione to testosterone. It should also be mentioned that both androstenedione and DHEA can be converted to estrogen molecules as well. To counter this, some supplement manufacturers recommend taking substances such as diadzein or chysin (flavonoids) in an attempt to block this undesirable conversion. In general, researchers have failed to show that androstenedione and DHEA supplements do indeed increase testosterone levels in the blood when dosages mimicked manufacturer recommendations (100 milligrams of androstenedione and 25 to 50 milligrams of DHEA). However, in a research study, when three times the recommended dosage for andro-stenedione was tested, testosterone levels did increase by 24...
Since this value is very strongly correlated to strength gains (r 0.86), one may infer that training under depressed androgen levels is counter-productive, since the catabolic effects of the glucocorticoids would negate the anabolic effects of the androgens. Apparently an hour pause is sufficient to allow the testosterone levels to normal. This is why modern strength training has evolved to multiple daily sessions from the traditional two-hour workouts.
In addition, insulin may increase free or active testosterone levels through several possible mechanisms. These include inhibition of SHBG, a protein produced in the liver that binds to testosterone in the blood, thus keeping it dormant. Lowering SHBG increases free or active testosterone levels. Insulin may also promote the activity of an enzyme in the testes needed for testosterone synthesis. Finally, insulin may inhibit aromatase enzyme, which converts free testosterone into estrogen.
A pedigree with severe childhood obesity associated with deletion of a guanine nucleotide in codon 133 of the human lep gene was the first human example of congenital leptin deficiency to be identified (50). A missense lep mutation in codon 105 has also been identified in a Turkish pedigree (51). Three individuals (two female, one male) homozygous for this mutation have the phenotype of hypolep-tinemia, marked hyperphagia, massive obesity, and hypothalamic hypogonadism. Excluding these rare reports, common forms of human obesity do not appear to be caused by discernible lep mutations (52). Treatment with recombinant leptin results in a marked reduction in food intake and profound weight loss in ob ob mice (53, 54). Leptin therapy also is remarkably effective in correcting obesity in humans with congenital leptin deficiency (55-57).
The American College of Sports Medicine and other sports nutrition sources recommend 20 to 25 percent of calories from fat, the same as the Institute of Medicine's dietary fat guidelines for the general population. Other sports nutrition guidelines suggest a more individualized approach for determining dietary fat requirements based on caloric requirements and protein and carbohydrate needs. That means that for most active individuals, a dietary fat intake of 20 to 35 percent of total calories as fat, with an emphasis on more healthful unsaturated fats, is optimal. Dipping below 20 percent of calories from fat can increase your chances of disrupting your sex hormones. Low-fat diets in athletes have been associated with menstrual irregularities among female athletes and low testosterone levels among male athletes.
In men, poor nutrition - a diet high in refined carbohydrates, saturated fat, and processed foods and low in important micronutrients -may reduce sperm number and motility. To help increase sperm quality, the diet should emphasize high-quality protein, whole grains, and fresh fruits and vegetables. Heavy alcohol consumption (more than 3 drinks per day) can impair fertility.6 Overweight men are more likely to have low testosterone levels and lower numbers of sperm.
Although high carbohydrate low fat diets have been all the rage for the past decade or so, it may be particularly hard on testosterone levels. It appears high carb low fat diets are not the best way to optimize testosterone production. The study found a statistically significant drop in serum testosterone levels (from 22.7 + - 1.1 nmol l to 19.3 + - 1.2 nmol l), free testosterone and other androgens (Hamalainen, E., et al, 1984). This study also found that a higher ratio of saturated fat to poly unsaturated fat was positively correlated with higher testosterone levels. For example, one study that had two groups eating approximately the same ratios and amounts of carbohydrates and fats, found a mixed diet that included animal products resulted in higher testosterone levels than a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet (Raben, A. et al, 1992). Several other studies appear to confirm the effects of dietary fats on testosterone levels, as well as other dietary variables (Dorgan, J.F., et al, 1996...
It's well known that a particular hormonal milieu is needed to increase muscle mass and decrease bodyfat in response to exercise. For example, a weight lifter with inadequate testosterone levels will find it virtually impossible to add muscle mass even though he is weight training and eats well. Testosterone is generally considered the king of anabolic hormones, especially in men. Anything that can positively and safely effect testosterone levels is considered a plus for athletes concerned with building muscle and increasing strength. Although essential for increasing muscle mass, testosterone has many functions in the human body ranging from libido to immunity to depression. So an increase in testosterone levels can have many positive applications.
At this point, companies marketing tribulus would be better off funding a real study to validate this product as it relates to athletes and testosterone levels, rather than spending the money on advertising. So, where does this leave us Personally, I would be cautious before parting with my money for the stuff. So far, the hype over tribulus far exceeds its worth to athletes. For increasing muscle mass or testosterone levels, tribulus gets a thumb's down at this time.
Although there are many hormones that directly and indirectly affect protein turnover (e.g., insulin, cortisol, testosterone, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor), only testosterone and insulin will be discussed here. Testosterone is of interest because of the significant controversy surrounding its unethical use in sporting events and its potent effects on protein metabolism. For many years testosterone was assumed to possess stimulatory effects on net protein synthesis, based on observations of male female differences in lean mass as well as the increases noted for those who supplemented with pharmacological doses. Consequently, proper investigations into the metabolism and efficacy of testosterone administration followed.57 124-127 Even without resistance exercise, testosterone administration can increase lean body mass,124 126 127 and a resistance exercise training program can magnify these effects.127 At the muscle level, testosterone acts by increasing protein...
PWS, the most frequent of these syndromes (1 in 25,000 births), is characterized by obesity, hyperphagia, diminished fetal activity, mental retardation, and hypogonadism. PWS is caused by the absence of the paternal segment 15q11.2-q12, through chromosomal loss (39-41). Several candidate genes in this chromosomal region have been studied however, the genetic basis of polyphagia remains undefined because none of the PWS mouse models have an obese phenotype (42). One genetic candidate that may disrupt the control of food intake is the gastric hormone ghrelin, which could act through the regulation of hunger and stimulation of growth hormone (43).
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