The Fossil Record

The most conclusive refutation of evolution is furnished by paleontology. Simple probability indicates that fossil records can only be test samples. Each sample, then, should represent a different stage of evolution/adaptation, and there ought to be "transition types," not particularly of one species or another. Instead, what we find, in the actual fossil record, are genus forms (a genus is a collection of related organisms usually including several species) that have not developed themselves on the fitness principle, but appear suddenly and at once in their definite shape; that do not thereafter evolve towards better adaptation, but become rarer or finally disappear, while quite different forms arise again.

The mathematician Mandelbrot in his casebook The Fractal Geometry of Nature (about Chaos theory) describes two types of quantity variations recognizable in Nature:

  1. The Joseph Effect. This means persistence: despite an underlying randomness, the longer a quantity grouping has experienced a condition, the likelier it is to experience more of that same condition. The Joseph Effect means that a certain genus of species, despite erratic conditions, may persist through countless eons, essentially unchanged.
  2. The Noah Effect. This means discontinuity: when a quantity changes, it can change arbitrarily fast. Quantities can change instantaneously. They do not pass through all intervening points on their way from one point to another. The Noah Effect means that a quantum of species may instantaneously alter form and function.

Consider how Mandelbrot's observations are mirrored by Stephen Gould (quoted from Darwin On Trial), developer of the evolutionary "punctuated equilibrium" theory which attempts to explain away the embarrassing fact that the fossil record is devoid of transition types:

"The history of most fossil species includes two features particularly inconsistent with gradualism:

  1. Stasis. Most species exhibit no directional change during their tenure on earth. They appear in the fossil record looking pretty much the same as when they disappear; morphological change is usually limited and directionless.
  2. Sudden appearance. In any local area, a species does not arise gradually by the steady transformation of its ancestors; it appears all at once and 'fully formed.'"

All that we see about us impels us to the conviction that again and again profound and extremely sudden changes take place in the forms of living plants and animals. These changes are of a chaotic or cosmic origin and may be beyond human understanding.

Similarly, all active beings (including those reading this now) have striven towards their fulfillment by turning points or "epochs" in their lives - not by gradual evolution. Think about the events of your own life and decide which is a better description: a series of turning points or gradual evolution? The origins of the Earth, of life, of the free-moving animals, are such turning points or "epochs of change.

Quantum physics is telling us things do not change slowly over time - they make quantum leaps. We jump from one level of experience to another.

Evolutionists never demonstrate what a smooth transition is - they never define it. A transition of macro-form should be demonstrated somewhere in a long sequence, say 50, 30, or at least 10 successive fossils in transition. Yet, with all the billions of fossils on Earth, no one has met this simple criteria for a fossil sequence.

We also do not find any genetic mistakes (one-shot mutations which failed) in the fossil record which is impossible if random mutation through natural selection (trial and error) is true.

By far the most abundant fossils in the world are the 14 types of ammonites - little shelled snail-like ocean species - which, as far as we can tell, have existed essentially since life began on Earth. Literally billions of these fossils have been found, but never have there been discovered any transition types, or smooth transitions, between any of these 14 types.

The first treatise which described that the basic forms of plants and animals did not evolve step-by-step, but were suddenly there, was given by Hugo de Vries in his work Mutation Theory in 1886. He described that we can clearly see (through scientific/utility analysis) how the "impressed living form" works itself out in the individual samples, but we cannot see how the "die was cut" for each whole genus. We cannot see how the genus appeared. Origins remain hidden from us.

We cannot ascertain how the Homo genus (Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo ergaster, Homo neanderthalis, archaic Homo sapien, Cro-Magnon, Homo sapien, Homo sapien sapien) appeared, yet it was suddenly there in the fossil record.

Evolutionists continue to argue the tired line that humans smoothly transitioned from one form to another and assume modern Homo sapiens arose merely 100,000 to 200,000 years ago (based on the present questionable dating system). In December 1997, Discover magazine reported the findings of a Spanish team working in Gran Dolina, Spain who uncovered an 800,000 year-old skull with remarkably modern features. The discoverer, Juan Luis Arsuaga Ferraras, stated, "It is so surprising we must rethink human evolution to fit that face." Discover magazine stated: "The Gran Dolina face is 800,000 years old and yet distinctively ours. It is almost that of a modern human."

The evidence is showing and will continue to show that all the Homo forms have existed together for thousands, or millions, of years without the gradual evolution through common ancestry concept.

The Homo life-form, like every other, originated in a sudden appearance or mutation (the Germans have the great word "Wandlug" meaning "instant transformation") of which the "when," "how," and "why" remains a secret. There exists somewhere in the recesses of time a sharp frontier on the hither side of which we see Homo as a completely formed type, endowed with a certain bodily structure, walk, and posture that has not materially altered up to the present day. All the ape-like remains (Australopithecus, etc.) and the hominid remains (Homo) found on Earth are still distinctively different, and bridging that gap to find a missing link remains elusive. No missing link can be found. This is because no missing link exists.

The fossil record is actually a liability which must be explained away by evolutionists. Pre-darwinian paleontologists were right on when they cited the lack of intermediaries as a conclusive reason for rejecting biological evolution initially. Stephen Gould has described "the extreme rarity of transitional forms in the fossil record" as "the trade secret of paleontology." Darwin wrote: "Nature may almost be said to have guarded against the frequent discovery of her transitional and linking forms."

Think about it logically, if there were gradual evolution, in the adaptation sense of the word, there could not be specific animal classes, but only a chaos of living singular forms left over from some "struggle for existence." Darwin posed this question to himself: ".why, if species have descended from other species by insensibly fine gradations, do we not everywhere see innumerable transitional forms? Why is not all nature in confusion instead of the species being, as we see them, well defined?"

The species we know today are all stable.

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