Reason Increased Thermic Effect of Feeding

While all macronutrients require metabolic processing for digestion, absorption, and storage or oxidation, the thermic effect of protein is significantly higher than that of carbohydrates and fat. In fact, protein requires 25-30 of the energy it provides just for digestion, absorption, and assimilation while carbs only require 6-8 and fat requires 2-3 . That means that eating protein is actually thermogenic and can lead to a higher metabolic rate. This means greater fat loss when dieting and...

Negative nitrogen balance high concentrations of nitrogen in urine

Glutamine is responsible for binding hydrogen ions to form ammonium. Since hydrogen ions are acidic, glutamine acts much like calcium to neutralize the body's acidosis. Since skeletal muscle contains the body's largest glutamine store, metabolic acidosis causes muscle breakdown to liberate glutamine from the muscle. The amino acids from this muscle breakdown are then excreted, causing a net loss of muscle protein. 2,7 In addition to bone and muscle loss, other consequences of acidosis include...