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Effects of Alcohol and Cigarettes

There are several prospective cohort studies that suggest smoking is associated with the etiology of diabetes (53). In one study, the relative risk of type 2 diabetes in women smoking > 25 cigarettes per year versus women who never smoked was 1.42 (95 percent CI, 1.18-1.72) (53). It was concluded that this suggested a moderate association between smoking and subsequent development of diabetes (53). In a similar study, the relative risk of type 2 diabetes in men smoking > 25 cigarettes per year versus men who never smoked was 1.94 (95 percent CI, 1.25-3.03) (53). Furthermore, cigarette smoking has been associated with insulin resistance, larger upper-body fat distribution (a marker of insulin resistance), and raised plasma-glucose concentration (53). It has also been associated with blunting the rise of HbA1c (53). Cigarette smoking has been shown to be a significant risk factor for death by coronary artery disease in type 2 diabetes in several studies, including the Multiple Risk...

Cigarette Smoking

Cigarette smoke contains multiple toxins, carbon monoxide, and cancer-causing substances. It is estimated that smoking contributes to about one-third of all cancers, fatal heart attacks, and strokes worldwide. On average, regular cigarette smoking reduces life span by about 10-15 years. Although it is the single most important preventable cause of death in many countries, 20-25 of adults in the USA and Europe continue to smoke. Moreover, many nonsmokers, at work or at home, are exposed to smoke from nearby smokers. Passive smoke can cause asthma, headaches, and many other health problems, and people chronically exposed to passive smoke (such as living with a smoker) increase their risk of cancer by 50-60 . Children are particularly vulnerable to harm from passive smoking. If unable to stop smoking or regularly exposed to passive smoke, the following nutritional guidelines may help reduce the dangers.

Cigarettes

Most cigareltc smokers have a tendency to ignore the warning found on every pack of cigarettes, The Surgeon General has determined that cigarette smoking is dangerous to your health. They also ignore the well-publicized connection between smoking and lung and bladder cancer, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema Physiologically, nicotine stimulates the sympathetic nervous system and triggers overconsumption of oxygen by the heart, making it a related cause of heart disease. Studies conducted at the University of Massachusetts established that smoking a pack and a half a day is the yearly equivalent of radiation doses from 300 X rays Other problems related to smoking include a rise in cholesterol levels and a susceptibility to bacterial infections and colds. Every cigarette destroys 15-20 mg of vitamin C needed to maintain the strength of capillary walls and blood vessels

How Bad Is Smoking to Human Health and Is It Associated with Cancer

Smoking is the most preventable cause of premature death for people. In fact, one of five deaths of Americans can be directly attributed to tobacco smoking. Almost 90 percent of all lung cancers in American men (80 percent in women) are due to smoking, and smoking is also highly associated with cancers of the mouth, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, pancreas, uterus, cervix, kidney, and bladder. When tobacco is burned and inhaled the smoke contains thousands of chemicals with dozens of them known cancer-causing agents or carcinogens. Clearly, the best thing a smoker can do for himself or herself is to stop smoking as soon as possible.

Introduction By Brice Lalonde

Environmentalism applies to every aspect of life and to diet in particular, which is why I was happy to accept writing a preface to this book by Bruno Comby it presents nutritional environmentalism and follows his previous books, all in the domain of prevention, nutrition, and applied environmentalism how to stop smoking, stress management, a better diet, efficiency in work, entomophagy (eating insects), and better organization1. Environmentalism, beyond political and scientific discussions, is only of interest if it is put in practise in our daily lives. Nutrition is part of these elementary acts that we repeat several times every day and that make up a large part of our existence. 1 See other works by same author How to Stop Smoking, Stress-Control, Power Sleep, Exams in Your Pocket, Environmentalists For Nuclear Energy, Maximize Immunity, Revolutionary Stress-Management Program, and Eating Delicious Insects.

Have You Ever Wondered J

if beta carotene supplements offer protection for smokers No research supports any benefit. More importantly, a large study of smokers indicated that beta carotene supplements may be harmful to smokers. Smokers who used supplemental beta carotene had a higher incidence of lung cancer than those who didn't. For nonsmokers, it's still unknown whether higher intakes of beta carotene offer benefits. Unless your doctor prescribes it, don't consume large amounts of supplemental beta carotene or other carotenoids.

Healthrelated roles of Pcarotene

The strongest epidemiological evidence suggesting high intake of fruits and vegetables might give protection against lung cancer came from prospective studies in which low plasma p-carotene was associated with a higher incidence of lung cancer. Carotenoid intake was associated with reduced cancer risk in 8 prospective studies and 18 out of 20 retrospective studies (Zeigler et al, 1996). Based on the results of these studies, three major intervention studies investigated the protective effect of p-carotene in the prevention of lung cancer (a) The alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene (ATBC) Cancer Prevention study, was a randomised-controlled trial that tested the effects of daily doses of 50mg (50 IU) vitamin E (all-racemic a-tocopherol acetate), 20 mg of p-carotene, both or placebo in a population of more than 29 000 male smokers for 5-8 years. No reduction in lung cancer or major coronary events was observed with any of the treatments. What was more startling was the unexpected increases...

Is fiCarotene and Other Carotenoids Important in Cancer Prevention

P-Carotene and other carotenoids has long been speculated as reducing the risk of cancer. In accordance, several studies of populations have suggested that when people ate more carotenoids the presence of cancer was lower. Interestingly, while p-carotene often receives the most attention other carotenoids have been shown to strong benefit as well. For example, studies involving smokers have suggested that the dietary intake of total carotenoids, lycopene, p-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin have a more clear relationship to reducing lung cancer risk. Thus it makes sense to eat a diet rich in fruits and vegetables to allow for a broad variety of carotenoids and to plan a supplementation regimen along this line of thinking as well.

Regulation of Gene Expression

Vitamin A regulates growth and differentiation of many types of cells and tissues. It affects particularly the mucosa of the respiratory tract (A) if the active metabolite retinoic acid (RA) is missing, patchy lack of cilia (A1-A3) results. At the same time, mucus-secreting cells increase in numbers. This disturbed differentiation causes a reduction in the lungs' ability to expel particles, making them more susceptible to infections. Sustained vitamin A deficiency leads to metaplasia of the respiratory epithelium (B, C), a precancerous stage. This may explain the relationship between low vitamin A supply and lung cancer. Since compounds in cigarette smoke like benzopyrene deplete the lungs' vitamin A storage, the resulting localized vitamin A deficiency may enhance the development of lung cancer. RA apparently also controls the morphogenesis of several tissues during embryonic development. Vitamin A deficiency as well as use of RA (as acne medication) during early pregnancy results in...

Anticarcinogenic Activity Of Natural And Synthetic Carotenoids

In the Linxian 1 study, a protective effect of supplemental P-carotene, vitamin E, and selenium was reported with regard to the incidence and mortality rates of gastric cancer when compared with untreated subjects. In the Linxian 2 study, the relative risk for cancer mortality was 0.97 in men and 0.92 in women (not significant). At the end of follow-up in the ATBC cancer prevention study, 894 cases of lung cancer were reported. The numbers of lung cancer cases by intervention group were 204 in the a-tocopherol group, 242 in the P-carotene group, 240 in the a-tocopherol plus P-carotene group, and 208 in the placebo group. The group receiving P-carotene had a 16 higher incidence of lung cancer than those not given P-carotene. The excess risk associated with P-carotene supplementation was concentrated mainly among people who currently smoked more than 20 cigarettes per day and who drank more than 11 g day of ethanol. In the CARET, the relative risk of lung cancer incidence was 1.3 in the...

Antioxidant nutrients and nonnutrients Protection against Radical Damage

Antioxidants such as vitamin E (sections 7.4.3.3 and 11.4), carotene (section 7.4.3.4) and ubiquinone (section 3.3.1.2) owe their antioxidant action to the fact that they can form stable radicals, in which an unpaired electron can be delocalized in the molecule. Such stable radicals persist long enough to undergo reaction to yield non-radical products. However, because they are stable, they are also capable of penetrating further into cells or lipoproteins, and hence causing damage to DNA in the nucleus or lipids in the core of the lipoprotein. Therefore, as well as being protective antioxidants, these compounds are also capable of acting as potentially damaging pro-oxidants, especially at high concentrations. This may explain the disappointing results of trials of P-carotene against lung cancer (section 7.2.6).

Use in Prevention and Therapy

Folate, together with vitamin A, may reduce the risk of cervical dysplasia progressing to cervical cancer.11,12 Folate (along with vitamin B12) can reduce dysplasia in the lungs of smokers and reduce the risk of lung cancer.13 Folate supplements may also reduce the risk of colon cancer in people with inflammatory bowel diseases.14

Can Vitamin C Decrease the Incidence of Cancer

Among all of the vitamins, perhaps vitamin C has received the most attention as an anticancer agent. Much of the research involving vitamin C and cancer in people has been correlation studies, which are used to determine an association between the two or more entities. In regard to cancer of the mouth, larynx, esophagus, and colon, as the vitamin C content of the diet increases, the risk for these cancers decreases two to three times. In more direct research studies it seems that individuals getting less than 80 milligrams daily appear to be at greater cancer risk than individuals with higher levels of intake. The true impact of higher levels of vitamin C intake is difficult to assess on an individual basis and thus a more general recommendation of 400 milligrams of vitamin C daily seems reasonable for general health promotion. One important consideration for vitamin C consumption is recognized in smokers. Researchers have reported that it may take as much as a four to six times...

Role of Exercise in Disease Prevention

Studies have shown that exercise can have a direct effect on preventing heart disease, cancer, and other causes of premature death. Furthermore, participation in regular physical activity may reduce the rate of occurrence of these maladies. An inverse relationship exists between disease and exercise, meaning that with increased levels of physical activity there is a decreased prevalence for certain diseases. Currently, there is strong evidence that exercise has powerful effects on mortality, CAD (including blood lipid profiles), and colon cancer. Research has also confirmed that aerobic exercise can reduce high blood pressure, obesity, type II diabetes, and osteoporosis. In addition, stroke and several types of cancer (such as breast, prostate, and lung cancer) can also be reduced with regular physical activity.

D SDA Studies Outside the US Denmark Netherlands and Norway

In Norway, 7253 SDAs were followed between 1961 and 1986 and monitored for cancer diagnoses. The Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIR) were divided into two groups those under 75 years of age and those greater than 75 years of age. Only the SIR for lung cancer in those less

Nonbiogenic Toxic Substances Metals

Some of the toxic effects of these metals involve hematopathies, neuropathies, nephropathies, and carcinogenesis attributed to lead pulmonary edema, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, prostate, and lung cancer attributed to cadmium neuropathies, teratogenesis, and mutagenesis attributed to mercury and both central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervouos system (PNS) pathologies, including muscle weakness and loss of sensory perception, attributed to arsenic.47

Betacarotene And Vitamin A

It should be mentioned that blood studies show that low concentrations of beta-carotene in the blood are consistently associated with the development of lung cancer. This may not be due to the influence of beta-carotene alone, but could be related to constituents of other fruit and vegetables yet to be investigated. *106 Both beta-carotene and vitamin A are fat-soluble. Beta-carotene, which consists of two molecules of vitamin A, is split and converted to vitamin A by the body as needed.

Human genomics and the potential for business applications

There are many examples of the effect of genetic stratification on response to particular nutritional factors or potential disease risk. Two excellent examples may be found in Palli's studies examining the effects of GSMT1 and GSTT1 gene deletions on risk of lung cancer and on DNA adduct formation with various levels of consumption of fruits and vegetables (Palli, 2003, 2004). The studies are particularly illustrative because data are presented for all groups and then split into the different genotypes to demonstrate the impact of genetic variation of response. The applications of these advanced genomics technologies in nutritional research establish that, in nutrition, one size does not fit all. Further applications demonstrate the effects of bioactive compounds in food on the functioning genome by altering gene expression and changing metabolic profiles across populations. In this way, some bioactive compounds in food are shown to act in ways similar to pharmaceutical agents, thus...

Coronary heart disease CHD

Although observational studies have provided support for the potential health benefits of antioxidants, there remains a deficiency of direct experimental evidence from randomised trials. In the ATBC study, mentioned earlier (see section 3.6), there was not only no reduction in lung cancer or major coronary events, there was in fact an increase in lung cancer (ATBC Cancer Prevention Study Group, 1994). What was more startling was an unexpected increase in death from haemorrhagic stroke associated with vitamin E supplementation (50mg day). Some more positive results emerged from a study carried out in China where 130 000 adults from Linxian Province, who did not have cardiovascular disease at entry, were randomly assigned to receive daily vitamin E (30 mg), b-carotene and selenium supplements or placebo. During the 5.2 years of follow-up, there was a 9 decrease in 'deaths from any cause' without any significant reduction in cardiovascular events. However, the dose of vitamin E was...

Strength of evidence

Lung cancer is the most common cancer in the world (11). Heavy smoking increases the risk by around 30-fold, and smoking causes over 80 of lung cancers in developed countries (5). Numerous observational studies have found that lung cancer patients typically report a lower intake of fruits, vegetables and related nutrients (such as b-carotene) than controls (9, 34). The only one of these factors to have been tested in controlled trials, namely b-carotene, has, however, failed to produce any benefit when given as a supplement for up to 12 years (40-42). The possible effect of diet on lung cancer risk remains controversial, and the apparent protective effect of fruits and vegetables may be largely the result of residual confounding by smoking, since smokers generally consume less fruit and vegetables than non-smokers. In public health terms, the overriding priority for preventing lung cancer is to reduce the prevalence of smoking.

New Adventist Health Study

When meat and poultry intake were evaluated in regard to lung cancer risk, the relative risks were somewhat elevated, though not significantly so. More noteworthy was the protective association between fruit and green salad intake and lung cancer risk. After taking into account smoking history, lung cancer risk was decreased 74 in those who frequently consumed fruit and a significant dose-response relationship was found.30 Prostate cancer risk bore a similar relationship to meat intake in that risk appeared to be somewhat elevated in the highest consumption categories (daily intake), yet the elevated risks were not as substantial (or statistically significant) as the protective associations seen with consumption of certain vegetables and fruits. In the prostate cancer analysis, a relative risk of 0.53 was noted for frequent consumption of beans, lentils, or peas and a relative risk of 0.60 was noted for frequent tomato con-sumption.31

Analysis Interpretation

The difference experienced by vegetarians compared with non-vegetarians appeared to be moderated by gender. Males appeared to enjoy a stronger degree of protection from cancer mortality incidence than females. For example, four out of six studies (67 ) that evaluated col-orectal cancer risk by gender revealed lower SMRs for males than females. For lung cancer, six out of six (100 ) SMRs were lower in males and for all cancer sites combined, six out of six studies (100 ) showed lower SMRs in males than females. Overall, the protective association with vegetarianism seems most pronounced for colon, stomach, and lung cancer and less pronounced for ovarian, pancreatic, and the lymphatic hematopoietic cancers.

Introduction Cancer Epidemiology

On the other hand, cancer may be characterized at the same time by a high incidence rate and a quite long natural history, having a large prevalence in the population under consideration (e.g., prostate cancer). In defining the relationship between incidence rate and prevalence of a disease of interest, many factors, not only the disease mean duration, should be taken into account, since, in the same population, subgroups of individuals might deeply differ in terms of measures of disease occurrence on the basis of parameters such as gender, age, ethnicity, education, income, social class, disability, geographic location.1

Studies in Seventh Day Adventists

Sites combined was 54 when the general California population was used but this changed to 82 when the comparison with non-smokers was made. When the mortality experience of SDA physicians for the years 1914 to 1971 was compared with the mortality experience of physician graduates of the University of Southern California (USC), the SMRs were similar for all cancer sites combined (58 for SDA physicians, 52 for USC physicians). For colorectal cancer, the SDA physician SMR was actually considerably higher than the USC SMR (90 vs. 44). A further follow-up of this population was completed through 1976 and Standardized Mortality Ratios were reported comparing age-adjusted mortality rates in California SDAs to the U.S. white population.21 SMRs were reduced, in particular in males, for most cancer sites (Figure 4.9) and were substantially and significantly reduced for colorectal cancer and lung cancer. However, SMRs were not significantly reduced for breast cancer, prostate cancer, or the...

Lipid Differences Between Omnivores And Vegetarian Or Vegans

Lung Cancer 1-14 cigarettes 15 cigarettes *Two tailed p < 0.05, **p < 0.01. Categories nonsmoker, pipe or cigars only 1-14 cigarettes day, > 15 cigarettes day, ***includes current cigarette smokers, (8 men and 13 women). **** The 33 women who smoked pipe or cigar only were included in the category 1-14 cigarettes day along with the 13 women who did not declare how much they smoked. Adapted from Key, T.J.A., Thorogood, M., Appleby, P.N., and Burr, M.I. Dietary habits and mortality in 11,000 vegetarians and health conscious people results of a 17-year follow up. BMJ, 313, 775, 1996. With permission from the BMJ Publishing Group.40

Causes of Hypertension

Tobacco products (cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco) contain nicotine, which temporarily increases blood pressure (for about thirty minutes or less). The blood pressure of smokers should be rechecked after thirty minutes if initial readings are high. Nicotine patches that are used for smoking cessation do not appear to increase blood pressure.

Treating Abnormal Blood Lipids

The National Cholesterol Education Program, the American College of Cardiology, and the American Heart Association recommend diet and lifestyle modification as the first line of defense against abnormal blood lipids. These recommendations include a diet low in total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol a diet high in fiber weight loss or weight management increased physical activity smoking cessation increased intake of plant sterols (e.g., margarines and salad dressings made with soybean sterols) and daily use of a low-dose aspirin. Drug therapy may be required for high-risk individuals. Cholesterol-lowering drugs works to lower LDL by reducing cholesterol synthesis and by binding bile acids in the small intestines. However, there are possible side effects to these drugs that patients should be aware of. SEE also Arteriosclerosis Atherosclerosis Cardiovascular Diseases Fats.

Alternative Explanations for Low Cancer Risk in Vegetarians

Smoking The reduction in cancer mortality (and incidence) in vegetarians appears to be stronger in men than women and the possibility that differences in alcohol and tobacco consumption in vegetarians vs. non-vegetarians must be considered as an explanation for this finding. The use of tobacco, generally lower in vegetarian populations,12 is clearly related to cancer risk. A recent review indicated that 38 of cancer deaths among males in the U.S. could be attributed to cigarette smoking, while among women, 23 of all cancer deaths are due to cigarettes.63 These estimates do not include the impact of cigar, pipe, or smokeless tobacco, nor do they include the influence of environmental tobacco smoke. Cancer sites that have been associated with cigarette smoking include lung, oral cavity, esophagus, larynx, bladder, pancreas, kidney, and cervix. Recent data have suggested that colon cancer may be associated with cigarette smoking (but only after a long latency period).64-65 The more...

Diet physical activity and cardiovascular disease

The ''lag-time'' effect of risk factors for CVD means that present mortality rates are the consequence ofprevious exposure to behavioural risk factors such as inappropriate nutrition, insufficient physical activity and increased tobacco consumption. Overweight, central obesity, high blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, diabetes and low cardio-respiratory fitness are among the biological factors contributing principally to increased risk. Unhealthy dietary practices include the high consumption of saturated fats, salt and refined carbohydrates, as well as low consumption of fruits and vegetables, and these tend to cluster together.

Effective communication

An effective health communication plan seeks to act on the opportunities at all stages of policy formulation and implementation, in order to positively influence public health. Sustained and well targeted communication will enable consumers to be better informed and make healthier choices. Informed consumers are better able to influence policy-makers this was learned from work to limit the damage to health from tobacco use. Consumers can serve as advocates or may go on to lobby and influence their societies to bring about changes in supply and access to goods and services that support physical activity and nutritional goals.

The Nutritional Transition and Its Health Effects

With people living longer, and with low birth weight at an all-time low, Asian health should be improving. But with increased Westernization of the Asian diet, elevated tobacco use (generally among Asian men), and lifestyle changes (such as decreased physical activity), there has been a marked rise in cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes mellitus, hypertension (high blood pressure), and certain cancers. Obesity is also a growing health problem in Asia, and is strongly associated with hypertension (along with body mass index and age). Despite the low obesity levels in the Asia Pacific region, rates of obesity-related diseases such as diabetes and CVD are on the rise. High blood pressure is also a growing problem in Asia. In India, Indonesia, and Thailand alone, nearly 10 to 15 percent of adults have high

Use of and Abstention from Stimulants

Many religious leaders and health care experts regard tobacco, another stimulant, as a malignant poison that affects the health of its users. Research continues to support the harmful and deleterious effects of the use of cigarettes and tobacco products. Cancer, high blood pressure, and heart disease have all been linked to tobacco use.

Interactions between early and later factors throughout the life course

Impaired glucose tolerance and an adverse lipid profile are seen as early as childhood and adolescence, where they typically appear clustered together with higher blood pressure and relate strongly to obesity, in particular central obesity (76, 78, 125, 126). Raised blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidaemia also tend to be clustered in children and adolescents with unhealthy lifestyles and diets, such as those with excessive intakes of saturated fats, cholesterol and salt, and inadequate intake of fibre. Lack of exercise and increased television viewing add to the risk (10). In older children and adolescents, habitual alcohol and tobacco use also contribute to raised blood pressure and to the development of other risk factors in early adulthood. Many of the same factors continue to act throughout the life course. Such clustering represents an opportunity to address more than one risk at a time. The clustering of health-related behaviours is also a well described...

Absorption and deficiency

When the body pool falls below 300 mg vitamin C there is evidence of impaired function (Hodges et al, 1969). Plasma vitamin C levels are sensitive to recent dietary intake with values < 11 mmol L indicating biochemical depletion (Sauberlich, 1975). The early symptoms of vitamin C deficiency are fatigue, lassitude, loss of appetite, drowsiness, insomnia, feeling run-down, low resistance to infection and petechiae (minor capillary bleeding). Those most at risk of vitamin C deficiency are cigarette smokers, alcohol users, institutionalised elderly and people on certain drugs. Deprivation of vitamin C for long periods leads to scurvy, characterised by weakening of collagenous structures, resulting in widespread bleeding. Scurvy in infants results in bone malformations. The earliest clinical signs of deficiency are bleeding gums and loosening of teeth. Today, scurvy is relatively rare. An LNRI of 10mg d for adults has been shown to prevent scurvy in the UK and elsewhere but this level...

Figure Food Sources Of Vitamin Ci

Certain situations require additional vitamin C. They include pregnancy and nursing, growth, fevers and infections, burns, fractures, surgery, and cigarette smoking. Smoking produces oxidants, which deplete vitamin C. The RDA for smokers is 35 milligrams of vitamin C daily in addition to the normal RDA (75 mg for women, 90 mg for men).

Gene Alcohol Interactions

CETP TaqlB 199 current smokers 345 past smokers 270 never smokers Smokers carrying GST deleted genotypes have an increased susceptibility to smoking related CAD The impact of the -634G allele on CRP elevation is greater in non-smokers than in current smokers. and T-786C polymorphisms in NOS3, cigarette smoking, and risk of CHD and ischemic stroke events

Micronutrients Smoking

Cigarette smoke is a powerful oxidant causing widespread cell damage and may accelerate atherosclerosis and other degenerative changes in the skin, lungs, and other organs.6-8 Vitamin E requirements are higher in smokers supplementation may help reduce oxidative damage9,10 Supplements of folate and vitamin B12 can reduce severity of the precancerous changes in the lungs of regular smokers3 Smokers breakdown body stores of vitamin C rapidly.2 May help reduce oxidative damage and loss of respiratory function11 Fig. 5.36 Reduced bronchial metaplasia in smokers supplemented with vitamin B12 and folate. 73 chronic smokers with metaplasia (precancerous cells) in their bronchi were given either 10 mg folate plus 0.5 mg vitamin B12 or placebo for 4 months. Direct cytological comparison at 4 months showed significantly greater reduction of metaplasia in the treated group.

What Nutritional and Behavioral Factors Are Important in Preventing Osteoporosis

Smoking seems to exert a negative influence upon bone mineral content and the rate of bone mineral loss, especially in postmenopausal years. Smokers tend to have lower bone densities than nonsmokers. One reason for this occurrence is that smoking reduces blood estrogen levels. Smokers also seem to reach menopause at a younger age.

Betacarotene And The Cancer Trials Cautions For Lycopene Research

Unfortunately, most clinical trials of beta-carotene were conducted by feeding high dosages of purified beta-carotene to well-fed individuals with easy access to beta-carotene-rich foods. For example, in the Physician's Health Study middle-aged and elderly male medical doctors ate a supplement containing approximately ten times the median dietary intake of beta-carotene, provided in a highly bioavailable form. No significant differences, positive or negative, between the treatment and control group occurred (Hennekens et al., 1996). Other clinical trials fed even larger amounts of beta-carotene, or beta-carotene plus retinol to Finnish smokers, or U.S. smokers and asbestos workers (Alpha Tocopherol Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group, 1994 Omenn et al., 1996). These trials indicated that high doses of beta-carotene were harmful. Smokers and asbestos workers who ate the beta-carotene supplements had higher rates of cancer than the control group. However, a clinical trial of a...

Diseasenutrient interactions

Disease and stress lower both plasma and leukocyte ascorbate concentrations (Thurnham, 1994, 1997). It has been recognised for many years that smokers have lower plasma ascorbate concentrations than non-smokers, even when dietary intake is taken into account. The effect is similar to that seen during surgical stress or infection but the stress of smoking is more easily studied (Thurnham, 2000). It has been argued that smokers have an increased turnover of vitamin C, so in order to maintain their body pool and circulating levels at similar levels to those of non-smokers, intake would need to be higher, 80mg d (Kallner et al, 1981 Smith and Hodges, 1987). However, an alternative explanation might be that vitamin C can act as a pro-oxidant in plasma, hence the body may be lowering concentrations to minimise the potential pro-oxidant damage caused by smoking and other stresses (Thurnham, 1994). The mechanism which reduces plasma vitamin C is also linked to the processes activated by the...

Other roles of vitamin E

Despite the use of high doses of vitamin E, large changes in the vitamin content of blood and liver and extended periods of study in animals and humans (smokers and non-smokers), vitamin E does not appear to have affected repair products of oxidative DNA damage, sister-chromatid exchanges in peripheral lymphocytes or DNA adducts in lymphocytes (Morrissey and Sheehy, 1999).

IiShortened postpartum length of stay

Mothers who smoke have lower breastfeeding initiation and duration rates than non-smokers. Nicotine metabolites have been found in the urine of breastfeeding infants whose mothers smoke, and in both breastfed and bottle-fed infants, where passive smoking occurs. Heavy smoking (more than 10 cigarettes per day) has been associated with decreased milk production, decreased milk ejection, infant irritability and poor weight gain (Lawrence, Breastfeeding mothers should be encouraged to stop or reduce smoking. However, even if smoking continues, breastfeeding is still the best choice. The harmful effects of smoking on the baby can be reduced by smoking after breastfeeding rather than before. Mothers who smoke (whether bottle- or breastfeeding) and other smokers in the household should be encouraged to smoke outside or, at least, in a different room than the baby, to reduce the effects of environmental tobacco smoke (CICH, 1996).

Vitamin C Ascorbic Acid

A deficiency of vitamin C causes widespread connective tissue changes throughout the body. Deficiencies may occur in people who eat few fruits and vegetables, follow restrictive diets, or abuse alcohol and drugs. Smokers also have lower vitamin-C status. Supplementation may be prescribed by physicians to speed the healing of bedsores, skin ulcers, fractures, burns, and after surgery. Research has shown that doses up to 1 gram per day may have small effects on duration and severity of the common cold, but not on the prevention of its occurrence. see also Vitamins, Fat-Soluble.

Cadmium Toxicity in Adults

Exposure not related to occupation may come from many sources. As I mentioned, smokers inhale significant quantities of cadmium. A single pack of cigarettes can release up to 2 ug of cadmium each cigarette emits between 0.1-0.2 ug of cadmium, depending on the number of puffs and depth of inhalation. Second-hand smoke is also a risk to those confined with smokers. I shudder when I see children closed up in a car while their parents eagerly puff away on cigarettes. Non-smokers are also at risk. While food represents the major source of exposure, clear plastic wrap used to cover dishes also contains cadmium and should not be microwaved or in any way heated. It should be safe in the refrigerator. Drinking water can be a source of cadmium in most instances levels are relatively low, but plumbing can increase cadmium water levels since both plastic (PVC) and metal pipes contain the metal.

Food and Nutrient Intakes of College Students

Which is important for intestinal health. In terms of vitamins, a low vitamin C status has been associated with college students' low intake of fruits and vegetables (with levels of vitamin C being even lower among smokers). In terms of minerals, calcium, iron, and zinc intake are low, while sodium intake is generally higher than recommended.

Essential Basic Supplementation

We do know that smokers have a defect in vitamin C absorption. This has been confirmed in several carefully conducted human studies. A more recent study found that even those who breathe second-hand smoke have this problem. Even supplementation with higher than RDA levels of ascorbate will not return blood levels to normal. In most studies it takes 200 mg of vitamin C to reach even low-normal ascorbate blood levels. Most likely, it will take much higher concentrations of the vitamin to reach adequate tissue levels. Several investigators have proposed a direct connection between low vitamin C levels and the high level of atherosclerotic disease in smokers.

Vitamins and Vascular Disease

A recent news story created quite a stir because it suggested the possibility that vitamin C caused atherosclerosis. Unfortunately, the news media got the facts all wrong. The article reported a study using male smokers that used ultrasound to measure the thickness of the arterial wall. Results demonstrated that subjects placed on vitamin C developed a thickening of their arteries. There are several problems with this study. Most glaring is the fact that smokers have extremely low vitamin C levels, and as a result, develop thinning of the arterial wall caused by a loss of collagen. Because vitamin C thickened these weakened vessels, the test subjects actually reduced their risk of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, researchers did not measure atherosclerotic plaque formation or blood flow, both of which can be measured by this same technique. In fact numerous, better-controlled clinical and laboratory studies have shown that vitamin C slows the development of atherosclerosis.376

Out of Sight Out of Mind

Take, for example, carbohydrate consumption. Eating carbohydrates, particularly those with a high glycaemic index (those that convert rapidly into sugar in the bloodstream), causes cravings for more carbohydrates. Attempting to moderately reduce consumption of carbohydrates turns out to be very difficult because a moderate reduction does nothing to fend off cravings. It's like suggesting that smokers simply reduce the number of cigarettes they smoke each day. But sharply reducing carbohydrates, particularly high-glycaemic-index ones, effectively eliminates cravings, like quitting smoking altogether. It is far more motivating to follow a programme that has the potential to make a dramatic difference in your immediate and long-term well-being.

Studies Relating Very Low Meat Intake To Longevity

Fraser96 recently reported that, among Californian Seventh-Day Adventists, vegetarians were substantially more likely to have never smoked cigarettes or used alcohol, and to have no prevalent chronic disease. To account for potential confounding by these factors, ever-smokers, alcohol users, and subjects with history of coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer were excluded from the previously unpublished analysis of Seventh-Day Adventists given in this chapter. adjustment ever-smokers, alcohol users, those with baseline chronic disease excluded from analysis multivariate adjustment ever-smokers, alcohol users, those with baseline chronic illness excluded from analysis ** Adjusted for age, sex, physical activity, body mass index by multivariate adjustment ever-smokers, alcohol users, and those A common criticism of studies that have linked very low meat intake to better health outcome is that vegetarians are likely to exhibit a number of other positive prognostic factors.96,106 Some...

Vitamin C and immune function

Activity of cytotoxic T-cells and delays the rejection of skin allografts, but has little effect on antibody responses (for references, see Siegel, 1993). Providing vitamin C to mice increased spleen lymphocyte proliferation in response to mitogens but did not affect natural killer (NK)-cell activity or the antibody response to sheep red blood cells or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (see Siegel, 1993). Vitamin C decreased or slowed tumour development in some animal models, but not others (see Siegel, 1993). Vitamin C deficiency in humans did not impair lymphocyte proliferation or alter the number of CD4+ or CD8+ cells in the circulation (Kay et al., 1982). However, Vitamin C (1-5 g daily for 3 days to several weeks) increased human T lymphocyte proliferation (Yonemoto et al., 1976 Anderson et al., 1980 Panush et al., 1982) and neutrophil motility towards LPS-activated autologous serum (Anderson et al., 1980). Some studies indicate that vitamin C increases circulating immunoglobulin (Ig)...

Vitamin and Mineral Requirements

For women who don't ordinarily consume an adequate diet, or for those in high-risk categories (such as those carrying twins, heavy smokers, and drug abusers) a prenatal vitamin supplement is recommended, beginning in the second trimester. The supplement should contain the following iron (30 mg) zinc (15 mg) copper (2 mg) calcium (250 mg) vitamin B6 (62 mg) folate (300 mg) vitamin C (50 mg) vitamin D (5 mg).

Coronary Artery Disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD) refers to any of the conditions that affect the coronary arteries and reduces blood flow and nutrients to the heart. It is the leading cause of death worldwide for both men and women. Atherosclerosis is the primary cause of CAD. Controlled risk factors associated with CAD include hypertension, cigarette smoking, elevated blood lipids (e.g., cholesterol, triglyceride), a high-fat diet (especially saturated fats and trans-fatty acids), physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes, and stress. Lifestyle changes can assist in prevention of CAD. Uncontrolled risk factors include a family history of CAD, gender (higher in males), and increasing age.

Diet Related Health Issues

Heart disease is the leading cause of death among Native Americans. Risk factors, such as high blood pressure, cigarette smoking, high blood cholesterol, obesity, and diabetes, are health conditions that increase a person's chance for having heart disease. The more risk factors a person has, the greater chance a person may have for developing heart disease. Sixty-four percent of Native American men and 61 percent of women have one or more of these risk factors.

Characteristics at Baseline

Of the 18,244 cohort participants, 19 (n 3,789) subjects reported eating < 50 g of fish and shellfish per week, including 143 (0.8 ) who ate no seafood at all. Sixteen percent (n 2,936) subjects consumed > 200 g (equivalent to about > 4 servings) of fish and shellfish per week. The average intake level of seafood in all study subjects was 129.1 g per week (Table 2.1). There was no statistically significant difference in age or body mass index (kg m2) across various categories of fish and shellfish intake. Consumption of fish and shellfish was positively associated with level of education (P 0.001), cigarette smoking (P 0.001), and alcohol drinking (P 0.001). Men with histories of diabetes or hypertension consumed slightly more fish and shellfish (Table 2.1).

Acculturation and the Hispanic Diet

Much of the increased risk of diabetes experienced by Hispanic Americans is believed to be attributable to the changing lifestyle that accompanies the acculturation process, including the changing quality of the Hispanic diet and the adoption of a more sedentary lifestyle. These trends are occurring across all segments of the Hispanic population, although the extent of the changes are more pronounced in some subgroups (e.g., Mexican Americans in large urban areas) than in others. Although Hispanic Americans generally smoke less than their non-Hispanic white counterparts, the direction of Hispanic health is also threatened by an increasing frequency of cigarette smoking, particularly among younger segments of the population.

Variability in Micronutrient Requirements among Individuals

Moreover, besides these genetic differences, nutritional requirements can be profoundly influenced by many factors, including age, environment, and lifestyle choices. A smoker's requirement for vitamin C is two to three times that of a nonsmoker.30 Pregnancy doubles a woman's need for iron. Strenuous athletic training sharply increases requirements for the vitamin B complex and magne-sium.31 Therefore, across the population, there a broad range of optimum intakes for the essential nutrients. Factors which cause nutritional needs to vary from person to person are shown in the table below and are considered in detail in later sections.

Perspective Organically Produced Foods

Organic farmers may use insects and crop rotation to control pests that damage crops. Certain insects, for example, are natural predators for other insects that cause crop damage. Or farmers may use chemicals found naturally in the environment, such as sulfur, nicotine, copper, or pyrethrins, as pesticides. When these methods don't work, organic farmers can use other substances (biological, botanical, or synthetic) from a list approved by the National Organic Program of the U.S.

Summary and conclusion

In summary, although most pregnant women take one or more dietary supplement, there is strong evidence to support the efficacy of only three of these products during this period of the lifespan, especially for otherwise healthy women. These include folic acid, iodine, and iron, and published recommendations concerning these nutrients are provided in Table 14.2. Additional supplements may be useful in specific circumstances. For example supplemental zinc may be necessary for vegans and women who smoke, have poor quality diets, or are carrying more than one fetus should consider taking a MVMM supplement. Other nutrient supplements such as vitamin A may be warranted for poorly nourished women, especially those with comorbidities. There is very little high quality research on the efficacy and safety of botanical supplements during pregnancy, and extreme care should be taken when recommending their use during this time.

Mary Frances Picciano and Michelle Kay McGuire

Summary National surveys indicate that as many as 97 of women living in the United States are advised by their health care providers to take multivitamin, multimineral (MVMM) supplements during pregnancy, and 7-36 of pregnant women use botanical supplements during this time. Although there is evidence of benefit from some of these preparations, efficacy has not been established for most of them. This chapter reviews some of the most commonly used prenatal supplements in terms of the evidence for their need, efficacy, and safety. Specifically, MVMM, folate, vitamin B6, vitamin A, vitamin D, iron, zinc, magnesium, and iodine are discussed, as are several botanicals. Data indicate that, in general, evidence for benefit gained from taking prenatal MVMM supplements is not well established except for women who smoke, abuse alcohol or drugs, are anemic, or have poor quality diets. Because of folate's well-established effect on decreasing risk for neural tube defects, it is recommended that...

Is Smoking an Issue During Pregnancy

There may not be a greater common voluntary insult upon human health than cigarette smoke, which certainly holds true for unborn infants, although it is an involuntary insult to them. Pregnant mothers who smoke are at greater risk of delivering low birth weight and premature infants. Some research suggests that these infants are also more prone to

Have You Ever Wondered

. besides drinking milk, how can teens keep their bones healthy Like milk, yogurt, cheese, and pudding are all calcium-rich, bone-building foods. In addition, calcium-fortified soy beverage and tofu, as well as calcium-fortified juice and dark green vegetables, provide calcium, too. Regular weight-bearing activities such as dancing, soccer, running, weight lifting, tennis, and volleyball are important since they trigger bone tissue to form. Going easy on soft drinks if they edge out calcium-rich milk is smart advice. Smoking also may have a negative effect on bone formation teens who smoke are smart to kick the habit for many reasons

Gene Smoking Interactions

The study of interactions between genetic factors and smoking has been an active area of research primarily in the fields of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases (Wang and Wang, 2005 Elbaz et al., 2007), but it also caught the early attention of cardiovascular researchers (Kondo et al., 1989) and a substantial body of evidence has accumulated during the last two decades, as summarized by recent reviews (Talmud, 2007). Considering what we know about the risk associated with tobacco smoking, it is obvious that all the reports are supported by observational data and there are no randomized intervention studies. Of the behavioral factors contemplated in this section, tobacco smoking may be the most reliable in terms of validity of reporting. Moreover, it is a variable most epidemiological

Fight Back with Antioxidants

Unfortunately, harmful agents called free radicals are produced when we breathe and process oxygen. In fact, these destructive bad guys can also be produced as a result of pollution, stress, pesticides, asbestos, x-rays, preservatives, exhaust fumes, tobacco smoke, and injury. As discussed in a previous chapter, free radicals trek all over the body and actually destroy the cell's DNA a cancer-promoting activity. The good news is that we naturally protect ourselves by forming antioxidants, substances that help our body's defense system fight off free radicals and preserve healthy cells.

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()-Epicatechin has been shown to have both antigenotoxic and anticarcinogenic activity, pointing to a possible role in cancer prevention. It offered significant protection against aflatoxin B1 (a potent mutagen and carcinogen) in model systems employing bacteria (the Ames test). In vitro it was shown to prevent the binding of aflatoxin B1 and benzo a pyrene to DNA. It also has the ability to prevent the oxidation of one of the components of tobacco smoke to active forms that interact with DNA.

Nonfoods Effect on Breast Milk

If you're a smoker and quit during pregnancy, breast-feeding isn't the time to start again. Nicotine can reduce your milk supply, and increase your baby's chance for colic, a sinus infection, or fussiness. Smoking near your baby is risky, exposing him or her to secondhand smoke and possibly getting burned. Too close to a nursing session, smoking may inhibit your letdown reflex. Smoking is also linked to the increased rate of lung cancer.

Coronary Vascular Disease

In 2000, 37.2 percent of people with diabetes age 35 years or older were diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (13). Prevalence of ischemic heart disease among people with diabetes was approximately 14 times that of those without diabetes in people 18 to 44 years of age (2.7 percent versus 0.2 percent), three times more in people 45 to 64 years of age (14.3 percent versus 4.7 percent), and approximately twice more in people 65 years of age or older (13). Classical risk factors for coronary artery disease include age, male gender, hypertension, and diabetes (57). The risk of clinical or isolated subclinical ischemic heart disease is more pronounced in women than men in older individuals, although there is a lower absolute prevalence, with an increased risk noted with the presence of diabetes (58, 59). Additional factors include diet and serum cholesterol, cigarette smoking, obesity, and sedentary lifestyle (57). The Framingham Study showed that smoking, hypertension, and elevated...

Biochemistry And Bioavailability Of Carvocrol

Among SDAs, 68 antioxidants and prevention of, 26 bladder, 72 breast, 67, 76-77, 222 cells, toxicity to, 266 cervical, 334 colon, 58, 62, 256, 334 colorectal, 56, 65, 335 death, impact of cigarette smoking on, 56 decreased death rates from some types of, 291 esophagus, 334 guidelines, 393 hormone-related, 335 liver, 62 vegetarians, 513, 516, 527 Christianity, as social gospel, 488 Chronological age, developmental age vs., 176 Cigarette smoking, 56, 117 Citric acid, 284, 304 Citrus fruits, carotenoids found in, 339 Civil rights, 501 Civil War, 527, 529 CjD, see Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease Cobalamin

Thinning the Blood to Prevent a Stroke

Types Dialysis Table

The problem with taking aspirin alone to prevent either a heart attack or stroke is that aspirin does nothing to strengthen the blood vessel itself. And, weakened blood vessels usually accompany atherosclerosis, especially in smokers. With the blood thinned and the wall of the vessel weakened, you have the perfect set-up for a brain hemorrhage. So what should you do

Small for Gestational

Small for gestational age, also known as intrauterine growth retardation, is defined as an infant or fetus smaller in size than expected, meaning a weight in the bottom tenth percentile for a particular age. Small for gestational age is believed to be related to placental insufficiency, infectious disease, congenital malformations, drug and alcohol abuse, and cigarette smoking. Other risk factors include maternal hypertension, first pregnancies, and exposure to environmental toxins. It is considered to be one cause of low birth weight (less than twenty-five hundred grams, or five pounds eight ounces). It is not synonymous with prematurity, which is defined as birth before thirty-seven-weeks gestation. see also Infant Mortality Rate Low Birth Weight Infant Pregnancy.

Beer as Part of the Diet

Yet now, at the dawn of the twenty- rst century, beer-drinking is regarded in many societies as a vice. It is surely astonishing that in the United States it is possible to buy cigarettes at the age of 18, but it is not legal to purchase alcohol until the age of 21. It would be a struggle to identify any merit associated with smoking, with the possible exception of its role as an anxiety relaxant. By contrast there is accumulating evidence that alcohol, including beer, in moderation can have a bene cial impact on health and wellbeing.

Chronic Kidney Disease Chronic Renal Failure

There are several risk factors for the progression of CKD, including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, excessive protein intake, smoking, anemia, and genetic predisposition to kidney disease. CKD is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Conservative management of CKD includes (i) control of blood pressure (< 130 80 for patients with no proteinuria and < 120 80 for those with proteinuria > 1 g day), using dietary sodium restriction < 100 mEq l, and antihypertensive agents such as angiotensin converting enzymeinhibitors (ACE-Is), or angiotensin receptor-blockers (ARBs) as well as a low dose diuretic (ii) maintenance of HbA1c < 7 in diabetic patients (iii) restriction of protein intake < 0.8g kg day (iv) maintenance of LDL < 100 mg dl (v) maintenance of hemoglobin approximately 11-12 g dl and control of bone disease and (vi) smoking cessation. Dialysis or kidney transplantation is required if the patient progresses to ESRD.

The Essene Gospel of Peace Book I

A rarely discussed reason why people become addicted to smoking cigarettes derives from the breath control that smoking entails. When someone smokes a cigarette they fall into a habitual breathing pattern that fundamentally alters their state and energy level until they feel relaxed. Practicing deep breathing helps overcome addictions to smoking.

Fruits and Vegetables

The term vegetarian implies a lifestyle characterized by a diet rich in vegetable intake. A recent review based on 206 human epidemiologic studies and 22 animal studies concluded that fruits and vegetables were effective in the prevention of several forms of cancer including stomach, esophagus, lung, oral cavity, pharynx, endometrium, pancreas, and colon.62 Twenty cohort studies (perhaps offering the strongest type of evidence) were reviewed and indicated that fruit and vegetable consumption afforded protection against lung cancer across all studies reviewed. The 174 case-control studies that were reviewed indicated that there was convincing evidence for a protective role for fruits and vegetables for cancer of the lung, stomach, and esophagus and probable evidence for protection against cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx, colon, breast, pancreas, and bladder. In this review, prostate cancer was the one form of cancer not found to be associated with fruit and vegetable consumption....

Coronary Artery Disease CAD

Controlled risk factors associated with CAD include hypertension cigarette smoking elevated blood lipids (e.g. cholesterol, triglyceride) a high-fat diet (especially saturated fats and trans-fatty acids) physical inactivity obesity diabetes and stress. Lifestyle changes can assist in prevention of CAD. Uncontrolled risk factors include a family history of CAD, gender (higher in males), and increasing age. Tobacco use is one of the leading contributors to heart disease. Smoking increases the risk of heart attacks (and increases the risk of lung diseases) by decreasing oxygen flow to the heart and lungs. Hypertension, which makes the heart work harder than normal, can be caused by poor diet, excessive dietary salt, lack of exercise, smoking, and chronic stress. Adult-onset diabetes mellitus may result from poor dietary habits and lack of exercise over a lifetime. Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to heart failure. Exercise can reduce the risk for CAD by increasing coronary...

The global burden of chronic diseases

While age, sex and genetic susceptibility are non-modifiable, many of the risks associated with age and sex are modifiable. Such risks include behavioural factors (e.g. diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, alcohol consumption) biological factors (e.g. dyslipidemia, hypertension, overweight, hyperinsulinaemia) and finally societal factors, which include a complex mixture of interacting socioeconomic, cultural and other environmental parameters. Diet has been known for many years to play a key role as a risk factor for chronic diseases. What is apparent at the global level is that great changes have swept the entire world since the second half of the twentieth century, inducing major modifications in diet, first in industrial regions and more recently in developing countries. Traditional, largely plant-based diets have been swiftly replaced by high-fat, energy-dense diets with a substantial content of animal-based foods. But diet, while critical to prevention, is just one risk...

Protein Differences Between Omnivores And Vegetarians Or Vegans

A varied diet based on plant proteins is adequate, yielding growth and body maintenance results equivalent to a diet based on meat protein.39 The lower incidence of obesity, constipation, lung cancer, hypertension, coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes, gallstones, reduced risk of breast cancer, diverticular disease, colon cancer, calcium kidney stones, and osteoporosis appear to be obvious advantages particularly of the well balanced vegan diet for the elderly.3,39,40 Key et al.,40 (Table 11.1) show the protective effect of daily fresh fruit intake in ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and lung cancer, and daily raw salad protection for ischemic heart disease. They also presented a higher incidence of breast cancer in the vegetarian women, but the confidence interval was broad. The smokers in their study population demonstrated a higher rate of ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and, of course, lung cancer, to emphasize the disease problems associated...

Individual Vitamins And Influence Of Exercise

Niacin functions as a coenzyme in NAD (nicotine adenine dinucleotide), which plays a role in glycolysis and is needed for tissue respiration and fat synthesis. The amino acid tryptophan can be converted to niacin 60 mg of tryptophan has the same response as 1 mg of niacin and is therefore declared as 1 NE (niacin equivalent). Several authors have hypothesized that this vitamin could influence aerobic power, which is an important factor for endurance performance in athletes (199). However, it has been reported that mega-dose intake can also have adverse effects on performance. This may be induced by the inhibiting effect of nicotinic acid on the mobilization of free fatty acid (FFA) from stored triglycerides. During exercise a reduced FFA availability will enhance CHO utilization, which in turn will lead to a higher rate of glycogen depletion. This has been shown to enhance subjective fatigue and to impair performance (13,85). The RDA has been set at 6.6 NEs per 1000 kcal or at least...

Strengths and Weaknesses of Study

Cholesterol ratio, obesity, hypertension, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking, and other dietary nutrients, thus minimizing potential confounding effects (3) the virtually complete follow-up achieved (only 1 of cohort members were lost to follow-up), minimizing the possibility of selection bias (4) the relatively long follow-up period, minimizing the impacts of recent changes in diet due to symptoms of disease and (5) the distinct dietary habits (eating fish more often but in smaller portions per meal) not seen in Western populations, thus increasing the informativeness of the study database in testing the study hypothesis. The Honolulu Heart Program began in 1965 to follow a cohort of 8006 Japanese-American men aged 45 to 65 years who lived in Hawaii. Information on fish intake was obtained through in-person interviews at baseline. After 23 years of follow-up, an interaction between fish intake and cigarette smoking on risk of CHD was observed. In men who smoked more than 30...

Types of dtc genetic tests on the market

Genetic tests that are sold DTC require a consumer to order the company's test kit, collect a genetic sample at home (generally a buccal swab), return it to the company for analysis and, for some tests, provide lifestyle information, including information about sex, age, health history, diet and other behaviors (e.g. tobacco use, exercise). Exchange of personal information and test results may be done online or by mail and counseling, where provided, may be done by telephone or by referral to in-person counseling. Business models vary among genetic testing companies. Some provide only one or a few types of tests, while others offer a broader range. Some sell tests directly to consumers, while others simply advertise DTC but only accept testing referrals from a health care professional (typically a physician). Some provide post-test counseling with a health care professional (such as a dietician, genetic counselor or physician) to explain test results and discuss potential lifestyle...

Protein Energy Nutritional Status

Interpretation of albumin levels is challenging in people with CKD. Both modifiable and nonmodifiable predictors of serum albumin have been identified in people with CKD. Older age, female sex, white race, presence of several chronic diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, peripheral vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and cancer), and being the first year of dialysis are nonmodifiable factors correlated with hypoalbuminemia. Modifiable factors associated with improved albumin include smoking cessation, use of arteriovenous fistulas, or biocompatible dialysis membranes (4). Longitudinal analyses of serum albumin show a decline in serum albumin in the months immediately preceding death and an improvement during the first year of dialysis (4).

Diabetes and Microalbuminuria

Microalbuminuria has been shown to be an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes (51). Meta-analysis has shown that the presence of microalbuminuria doubles the risk of cardiovascular morbidity or mortality and doubles the risk of total mortality (51). In patients with diabetes, the presence of microalbuminuria confers a tenfold higher risk of developing diabetic nephropathy annually, compared to patients without microalbuminuria (51). In a large cross-sectional analysis, when compared to patients with diabetes and normoalbuminuria, patients with diabetes and microalbuminuria had a longer duration of diabetes and higher waist-to-hip ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), ankle-to-arm index, and serum creatinine (51). They were more likely to have a history of retinal laser therapy, hypertension, cerebrovas-cular disease, peripheral vascular disease, require insulin therapy, be smokers, and have...

Vitamin E and immune function

Cigarette smoke contains millions of free radicals per puff, and other compounds present can stimulate the formation of other highly reactive molecules (Pryor and Stone, 1993). Serum levels of vitamin E (as well as of vitamin C and p-carotene) and lung vitamin E concentrations are significantly lower in smokers compared with non-smokers and even supplementation with 2400 mg a-tocopherol equivalents day-1 for 3 weeks failed to restore the lung vitamin E level to that found in non-smokers (Pacht et al., 1986). Circulating phagocytes from smokers produce high levels of free radicals, which probably in part accounts for the depressed immune function observed in smokers (Johnson et al., 1990), and there is some evidence that vitamin E supplementation can reduce the overproduction of ROS by phagocytic cells from smokers (Richards et al., 1990). There have been very few studies examining the influence of carotenoids other than p-carotene on human immune function, even though there is strong...

Safety and Nutritional Value of Organic Foods

However, organic farming methods can enhance soil fertility, resulting in an increased concentration of some minerals and phtyochemicals in organic food. Organic food cannot be guaranteed pesticide-free, though organic farmers use only naturally occurring pesticides such as sulfur, copper, nicotine, and Bacillus thuringiensis (a naturally occurring bacterial disease of insects). Organic foods may contain pesticide residues that have drifted from farm to farm, or residual pesticides found in soil or water, though the amounts of such residues are certainly greater in conventionally produced foods, where pesticides are directly applied to the crops.

Youre Expecting

Being a nurturing parent begins at the moment of conception and even before. Although you can't change your age or genetic traits, there's plenty you can do during the nine months of pregnancy to ensure your well-being and that of your unborn baby eat wisely, stay physically active, get plenty of rest. More good advice see your doctor regularly, stop smoking (if that's a habit), and avoid alcoholic drinks and inappropriate drugs. The likely outcome fewer complications during pregnancy, labor, and delivery, and a healthier baby.

European Cancer Code

On this subject see works by the same author with a preface by Professor Henri Joyeux, cancer surgeon, International Cancerology Award (1985), Head of the Digestive Surgery Service at the Institut Curie (Paris) Tobacco, Free Yourself (1992), and How to Stop Smoking (1986).

Carotenes

As discussed in sections 7.2.4 and 7.2.5, there is epidemiological evidence from a variety of studies that high blood levels of carotene are associated with low incidence of a variety of cancers. However, again the results of intervention studies have been disappointing in two major trials there was an increase in the incidence of lung cancer among people taking supplements of P-carotene (section 7.2.6).

Youre a man

Men who take a daily supplement of 200 micrograms selenium seem to cut their risk of prostate cancer by two-thirds. The selenium supplement also produces an overall drop in cancer mortality, plus a significantly lower risk of prostate cancer, colon cancer, and lung cancer in both men and women.

Toxicity

Chronic daily intake of trivalent chromium (Cr+3) and chromium in brewer's yeast in the range of 100 to 300 jig is considered safe.13 Supplementation of up to 1000 jg of chromium picolinate for several months in adults has produced no adverse effects.11 Heavy chronic exposure to airborne hexaval-ent chromium (Cr+6), produced in metalwork-ing industries, can be toxic.14 Symptoms include dermatitis and increased risk of lung cancer.

Fatsoluble vitamins

The epidemiological evidence for protection against CRC (and other cancers) by diets rich in vegetables and fruits is persuasive (Department of Health, 1998), but the components of such diets that confer protection remain elusive. Vegetables and fruits are rich in a wide variety of anti-oxidants, of which the most extensively studied is b-carotene. However, disappointingly, high doses of b-carotene given to middle-aged male smokers or those exposed previously to asbestos had no protective effect against CRC and increased the incidence of lung cancer (Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group, 1994). It is probable that, at the doses given, b-carotene acted as a pro- not an antioxidant in lung tissues experiencing a high oxidant stress. Recent evidence suggests that b-carotene suppresses the growth of CRC cells in a dose-dependent manner by inducing cell cycle arrest at G2 M phase and promoting apoptosis (Palozzi et al., 2002). Cell cycle arrest was associated with...

Other Cancers

Industrial exposure to airborne fluoride has been related to lung cancer in several studies. In one such study, cancer of the lung was 35 percent higher, larynx cancer 129 percent higher, and bladder cancer 84 percent higher in cryolite workers exposed to high levels of fluoride as compared to non-exposure rates.124 Cryolite, or sodium aluminum fluoride, is a mineral that occurs naturally on the west coast of Greenland and only a few other places in the world. Due to its rarity, the compound has been synthesized for use as a flux in aluminum production. Cryolite contains about 50 percent fluoride.

Human Studies

P-Cryptoxanthin intake has been observed to be inversely associated to the incidence of lung cancer (Voorrips et al., 2000). In another study, carotenoid levels in lymphocytes from lung cancer patients were compared to those in healthy subjects (Schut et al., 1997). They observed a statistical association between reduced levels of lutein, lycopene, and a-carotene and lung cancer, but not between P-cryptoxan-thin and lung cancer. In 528 elderly Dutch subjects studied, no association between lung function and serum P-cryptoxanthin was observed, though associations were observed with a- and P-carotene and lycopene (Grievink et al., 2000).

Carotenoids

Lycopene is a carotenoid that offers protection to the prostate and the intestines. It has also been associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer. Found in tomatoes, it remains intact despite the processing involved in making ketchup and tomato paste. The carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin seem to aid in the prevention of cataracts and macular degeneration, and can be found in spinach and collard greens. see also Antioxidants Beta-Carotene Vitamins, Fat-Soluble.

Vitamin A

Close to five hundred types of carotenoids exist in the plant world, thirty-four of which occur in fruits and vegetables found in the human diet. The best known of these is beta-carotene, which recently received a bad name due to a poorly conducted experiment. Rest assured that no well-conducted scientific study has ever demonstrated that beta-carotene causes lung cancer in nonsmokers

Cancer Connection

After heart disease, cancer is the second leading cause of illness and death in the United States, currently accounting for one in four deaths. According to 2005 data, cancer will strike about one in three adults. For new cases among men, the incidence of prostate cancer is highest, followed by lung and bronchial cancer, then colorectal cancer. And for women, the prevalence of breast cancer is highest, followed by lung, then colorectal cancer. The overall death rate follows a similar order except that lung cancer for both men and women leaps to the top.

Smoking

Smoking is an important and preventable cause of death and illness. However, as more money has been spent on smoking cessation programs, the incidence of cigarette smoking has risen. In 2002, 48 percent of men and 12 percent of women in the world were smokers (World Health Organization). Tobacco consumption increased from 1,100 million individuals during the early 1990s to 1,300 million by the year 2000 (United Nations Economic and Social Council). At this rate, the number of tobacco-related deaths is projected to reach more than 9 million by the year 2020. The number of tobacco-related deaths increased from 4.2 million to 4.9 million between 2000 and 2002, meaning that more than nine people die due to smoking-related illnesses every minute. Research indicates that tobacco causes more than twenty categories of fatal and disabling diseases, including lung cancer, cardiovascular disease, and respiratory diseases. However, tobacco is very addictive, and the majority of smokers have...

Cancer

Meat consumption has been implicated in many cancers, as being either protective or causative, depending on the type of cancer. Meat consumption has been shown to protect against cancers of the stomach (Hirayama, 1990 Tuyns et al, 1992 Azevedo et al, 1999), liver and the oesophagus (Zeigler et al, 1981 Tuyns et al, 1987 Nakachi et al, 1988). These are three of the top five cancers globally. On the other hand, meat consumption has been implicated as a cause of colorectal (colon and rectal), breast and prostate cancer, with the main emphasis being on CRC. CRC is the fourth most common cancer in the world, but in Europe and other Western countries it is second in terms of incidence and mortality (after lung cancer in men and breast cancer in women) with 190000 new cases per year in Europe (Black et al, 1997 Bingham, 1996). There is strong evidence from epi-demiological studies showing that diet plays an important role in most large bowel cancers, implying that it is a potentially...

Conclusion

Surgical intervention may restore cardiovascular function. Vessels may be opened by angioplasty or repaired by the use of grafts or stents, heart valves can be repaired or replaced with artificial valves, and pacemakers or drugs may aid heart function. A heart transplant may be an individual's last resort. Many large-scale international studies have focused on preventing cardiovascular disease through smoking cessation, healthful eating, physical activity, hypertension and cholesterol control, health education, and media campaigns. These include the Stanford Three City, the Stanford Five City Projects, the Framingham Heart Study, the Bogalusa Heart Study, the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT), Active Australia, the Whickham Study (based on the Framingham model), and the North Karelia Study (Finland). Small, gradual changes in diet and exercise and smoking cessation are

Arteriosclerosis

The primary risk factors for arteriosclerosis include hypertension (high blood pressure), diabetes mellitus, smoking, and obesity. All of these risk factors are preventable by exercising regularly, smoking cessation, eating at least five servings of fruits and vegetables daily, and through proper stress management.

Atherosclerosis

For optimal health, health professionals recommend a change to a healthful diet and lifestyle for those at risk, including daily physical activity smoking cessation a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet reducing sodium intake and managing stress. see also Arteriosclerosis Cardiovascular Diseases.

Trial Evidence

A trial by Henkin et al12 randomised 70 hypercholesterolemic patients to dietary counseling by a physician only and 66 to counseling by a physician and a dietitian. The physician sessions were 30 minutes long and included reevaluation of cardiovascular risk factors, a brief physical examination, and counseling on smoking cessation, physical activity, weight control, and the Step I diet. Those receiving the additional time to discuss dietetic issues were offered 2 to 4 individual counseling sessions within 3 months (as needed), the use of food diaries, and Step II advice where appropriate. After 3 months, some participants in the physician-only group were given dietetic

A Disquistion On The Evils Of Using Tobacco

A Disquistion On The Evils Of Using Tobacco

Among the evils which a vitiated appetite has fastened upon mankind, those that arise from the use of Tobacco hold a prominent place, and call loudly for reform. We pity the poor Chinese, who stupifies body and mind with opium, and the wretched Hindoo, who is under a similar slavery to his favorite plant, the Betel but we present the humiliating spectacle of an enlightened and christian nation, wasting annually more than twenty-five millions of dollars, and destroying the health and the lives of thousands, by a practice not at all less degrading than that of the Chinese or Hindoo.

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