Staph Infection Causes and Treatment
Staphylococcal poisoning noun short-term food poisoning by staphylococcus, causing vomiting and diarrhoea staphylococcus noun a bacterium that causes boils and food poisoning (note The plural is staphylococci.) Staphylococcus aureus noun a pathogen found in salad vegetables
Although as many as a hundred bacteria cause foodborne illness, these are among the worst troublemakers Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Escherichia coli O157 H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. You also may hear about Shigella, Vibrio vulnificus, and Yersinia enterocolitica, three other bacteria that cause foodborne illness. Staphylococcus aureus (staph) spreads from someone handling food. It's carried on the skin, nose, and throat and in skin infections then it spreads to food. Toxins, or poisons, produced by staph aren't killed by ordinary cooking. That's why personal hygiene and cleanliness in the kitchen are so important
Bacteria causing food-borne illness include Escherichia coli O157 H7, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Shigella. Bacteria are responsible for more cases of food-borne illness than any other organisms. Food can be contaminated with vegetative bacteria as well as spores. Vegetative bacteria can be reduced in food by proper sanitation and cooking techniques. When conditions become ideal for growth, bacterial spores germinate and reproduce rapidly and produce toxins, which result in illness. toxins poisons Staphylococcus aureus
The patient's history, signs and symptoms should direct the diagnostic evaluation of the patient with acute infectious diarrhea. With a history of travel to developing nations, E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, cholera, Entamoeba histolytica, and Giardia lamblia should be high on the differential. Vomiting after the ingestion of fast foods, canned products, or raw seafood and meats should prompt the clinician to look for toxin-producing enteropathogens associated with food poisoning, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus, as well as hepatitis A, parasites (tapeworms, flukes, trichinae), Salmonella and E. coli. The hospitalized patient may experience diarrhea not only from C. difficile, but also from procedures and medications (such as antibiotics, antacids, and
Effect of Exogenous Glutamine on Immune Function and Survival in Animal Models of Infection and Trau
Tion) in rats following caecal ligation and puncture (Ardawi, 1991). Likewise, intravenous glutamine improved survival (92 vs. 55 in the control group) following an intraperitoneal injection of live Escherichia coli into rats (Inoue et al., 1993). Parenteral administration of alanyl-glutamine into rats improved survival (86 vs. 44 in the control group) in response to intraperitoneally infused E. coli (Naka et al., 1996). Suzuki et al. (1993) fed mice for 10 days on diets containing casein or casein supplemented with 20 g or 40 g gluta-mine kg-1 and then inoculated them intravenously with live Staphylococcus aureus. Over the following 20 days, during which the mice were maintained on the same diets they had been fed prior to infection, 80 of the control animals died, while mortality was 60 in the 20 g glutamine kg-1 group and 30 in the 40 g glutamine kg-1 group. Another study showed that inclusion of glutamine in parenteral nutrition decreased mortality to intratracheally inoculated...
Acute infections of the gut are usually self-limiting, characterized by diarrhoea and often vomiting. The principal pathogens are viruses and bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp, Vibrio cholerae, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp, Yersinia spp and a number of protozoa, especially Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica and Cryptosporidium parvum.
Neutrophils play an important role in nonspecific immunity because they phagocytize and kill bacteria, parasites, virus-infected cells, and tumor cells. The function of neutrophils appears to be impaired during vitamin A deficiency. Retinoic acid plays an important role in the normal maturation of neutrophils (405). Experimental animal studies show widespread defects in neutrophil function, including impaired chemotaxis, adhesion, phagocytosis, and ability to generate active oxidant molecules during vitamin A deficiency (406,407). In rats challenged with Staphylococcus aureus, impaired phagocytosis and decreased complement lysis activity were found in vitamin A-deficient rats compared with controls rats (408). Vitamin A treatment was shown to increase superoxide production by neutrophils from Holstein calves (409). During vitamin A deficiency, an increase in circulating neutrophils has been observed in some experimental animal studies (410), and this has been attributed in part to...
Food poisoning occurs when bacteria in food are not killed before being ingested. For example, if food is left out in the summer heat, particularly anything containing dairy products, it provides an ideal growth medium for a microorganism called Staphylococcus. If food is kept refrigerated, this bacteria cannot grow and produce the chemical toxins that cause symptoms.
Neutrophil chemotaxis and function are impaired in Zn-deficient animals and patients with AE and other types of Zn deficiency (see Walsh et al., 1994 Shankar and Prasad, 1998). These impairments are reversible by in vitro addition of Zn to the cells. In addition, in vitro addition of Zn improved the neutrophil response against Staphylococcus. One study observed that exercise-induced potentiation of superoxide formation by neutrophils was attenuated by Zn supplementation (Singh et al., 1994) this might be due to the role of Zn in superoxide dismutase.
A recent study showed that white tea has better antimicrobial function than green tea. White tea extract (WTE) may have prophylactic applications in retarding growth of bacteria that cause Staphylococcus infections, Streptococcus infections, pneumonia, and dental caries 25 White tea is very effective in inactivating bacterial viruses Results obtained with a bacterial virus suggest that WTE may have an antiviral effect on human pathogenic viruses . Studies have also indicated that WTE has an antifungal effect on Penicillium chrysogenum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae In the presence of WTE, Penicillium spores and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells were totally inactivated . 26 In the commodity market in China and the United States, the white tea extract has now been added into several toothpastes to enhance antiviral and antibacterial effects
The function of neutrophils appears to be impaired during vitamin A deficiency. Neutrophils play an important role in non-specific immunity, because they phagocytose and kill bacteria, parasites, virus-infected cells and tumour cells. Retinoic acid plays an important role in the normal maturation of neu-trophils (Lawson and Berliner, 1999). Vitamin A-deficient rats had widespread defects in neutrophil function, including impaired chemotaxis, adhesion, phagocytosis and ability to generate active oxidant molecules, compared with neutrophils from controls (Twining et al., 1996). In rats challenged with Staphylococcus aureus, impaired phagocytosis and decreased complement lysis activity were found in vitamin A-deficient rats compared with control rats (Wiedermann et al., 1996). Vitamin A treatment was shown to increase superoxide production by neutrophils from Holstein calves (Higuchi and Nagahata, 2000).
The greatest risk factors for occurrence of bacterial infections of the esophagus are granulocytopenia (as seen in patients undergoing chemotherapy) and hypochlorhydria or acid suppression.42 Despite often being unrecognized, bacterial esophagitis may have significant clinical relevance. Infection is usually polymicrobial and consists mainly of oral and upper respiratory flora (e.g. Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus viridans). It is possible that these organisms invade and colonize esophageal mucosa damaged by gastroesophageal reflux. Clinical presentation includes classical symptoms such as dysphagia, odynophagia and chest pain. Endoscopic pictures are non-specific and consist of ulcerations, discrete plaques, pseudomembranes and mucosal friability. Histology shows bacteria on Gram stain, but culture is not useful, since non-pathological bacteria can grow as well. The clinical course is usually mild and asymptomatic. At histology, features of bacterial...
The reabsorption of water that occurs in the intestines can be reversed by bacterial toxins, resulting in water pouring into the intestines, instead of being removed. Types of E. coli, Staphylococcus, and a related organism called Shigella cause diarrhea by this method. The microorganism that causes cholera produces a toxin that results in so much diarrhea that the person may die as a result of fluid loss.
The following organisms can cause food-borne illness Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Escherichia coli, (E. coli 0157 H7), Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Shigella, and Staphylococcus aureus. Campylobacter jejuni is caused by the ingestion of live bacteria and can be transmitted to humans via unpasteurized milk, contaminated water, and raw or undercooked meats, poultry, and shellfish. Clostridium botulinum, which causes botulism, is the most deadly of all food pathogens. It is transmitted by improperly canned food, whether it is home-canned or commercially prepared. Clostridium perfringens is transmitted by eating heavily contaminated food, and it tends to infect those who eat food that has been left standing on buffets or steam tables for long periods. Fe-ces-contaminated food or water transmits Cyclospora cayetanensis. Foods such Staphylococcus aureus is transmitted by carriers and by eating foods that contain the...