What to Look for in Your Sports Beverage

Numerous niche sports beverages are fighting for shelf space wherever fluids are sold. With so many options to choose from, you might wonder what to look for in a sports drink. Here's a brief summary Good taste. If you like the flavor, you'll drink more and be less likely to become dehydrated. Carbohydrate. Look for beverages with about 50 to 70 calories of carbohydrate (13 to 18 g of carbohydrate per 8 oz, or 240 ml). Too much carbohydrate slows absorption too little leaves you lagging in...

Thin at Any Cost

The restriction of food that accompanies the struggle to be perfectly thin creates health problems for casual exercisers and competitors alike. It can greatly reduce the intake of vitamins, minerals, protein, and carbohydrate, placing the athlete at risk of poor nutrition status. Food restrictions can also lead to health problems such as chronic fatigue, compromised immune function, poor or delayed healing, anemia, electrolyte imbalance, menstrual dysfunction, reduced bone density, and a four...

Quick and Slow Forms of Carbohydrate

Just as carbohydrate is referred to as simple or complex and sugars or starches, it can also be categorized as quick or slow. The quick or slow refers to a complex system called the glycemic index (GI). The glycemic index is theoretically based on how 50 grams (200 calories) of carbohydrate (not counting fiber) in a food will affect blood sugar levels. For example, white bread is a carbohydrate high on the glycemic index and supposedly causes a rapid spike in blood sugar, while beans are...

Women Weight and Menopause

Even elite athletes gain a little weight with age, and nonelite folks have been known to gain a lot. The trick to weight management is to stay active and eat quality calories that invest in good health. Yet, many women fear midlife weight gain. As Mary, an avid tennis player complained, No matter what I do, I can't seem to stop gaining weight. She was frustrated about her expanding waist and frightened about runaway weight gain. She fearfully asked, Are women doomed to gain weight in midlife...

Dont Skip Breakfast

Of all the nutrition mistakes you might make, skipping breakfast is the biggest. Raiya, an early-morning exerciser at her local YMCA, learned this the hard way She collapsed from low blood sugar after one of her morning workouts. She managed to struggle through the hour-long stationary cycling class but felt very light-headed and dizzy, and she ended up in a heap on the floor, surrounded by the other frightened exercisers. She had blacked out because she had no fuel to feed her brain. Raiya's...

Carbohydrate Loading for Endurance Exercise

If you are preparing for an endurance event that lasts more than 90 minutes a competitive marathon, triathlon, cross-country ski race, or long-distance bike race you should saturate your muscles with carbohydrate. Although carbohydrate loading sounds simple (just stuff yourself with pasta, right ), the truth is that many endurance athletes make food mistakes that hurt their performance. Here is my nine-step carbohydrate-loading plan to help all endurance athletes fuel optimally for their...

Rapid Loading

Some athletes prefer not to taper their exercise for two to three weeks before an endurance event they are barely willing to take off one day for rest. To satisfy the needs of these intense athletes, researchers developed the following rapid-load program (Fairchild et al. 2002) 1. One day before the event, the subjects cycled very hard (130 percent VO2max) on stationary bikes for two and a half minutes, and then in the last half minute they did an all-out effort to total exhaustion and...

Carbohydrate to Fuell Muscles

Without question, wholesome forms of carbohydrate are the best choices for fueling your muscles and promoting good health. People of all ages and athletic abilities will benefit from nourishing themselves with abundant carbohydrate-rich fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain foods, along with adequate protein and healthful fat balanced into their meals and snacks. Unfortunately, confusion about carbohydrate what it is and how much to eat (if any) keeps people from properly balancing their diets....

Herbs Medicinal See Also Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Www.herbmed.org The nonprofit Alternative Medicine Foundation provides a consumer-friendly scientific database regarding the use of herbs for health. www.mskcc.org aboutherbs The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center offers reliable information about herbs, botanicals, supplements, and more. www.herbs.org The Herb Research Foundation offers accurate science-based information on the health benefits and safety of herbs.

Mexican Meal in a Skillet

This Mexican-style carbohydrate-protein combination is simple to prepare and tastes even better as planned-overs the next day. You'll enjoy having it ready and waiting when you arrive home hungry and eager to refuel after a hard workout. For a vegetarian meal, delete the beef. 1 cup (195 g) uncooked rice, preferably brown 1 pound (500 g) extra-lean ground beef or ground turkey 1 package (about 1.2 oz or 33 g) taco seasoning mix 1 16-ounce (480 ml) jar salsa, mild or medium 1 16-ounce (480 ml)...

Dianas Super Soy and phytochemical Shake

Diana Dyer, RD, a nutritionist and three-time cancer survivor, swears by this smoothie. It's full of vitamins, minerals, fiber, calcium, and health-protective phytochemicals. Diana enjoys it for breakfast every day. She drinks about half the shake right away, often with a whole-grain bagel. Then she puts the rest of the shake in an insulated coffee mug to carry with her on the go. Many people have told her how tasty the shake is and additionally how energizing it is. She invites you to drink to...

Nutrient Timing

Your muscles break down during a hard workout, but you can stop the breakdown mode by eating as soon as tolerable after you exercise. You'll be taking advantage of the 45-minute postexercise window of opportunity to optimally nourish, repair, and build muscles. Refueling is beneficial in two ways Carbohydrate stimulates the release of insulin, a hormone that helps build muscles as well as transports carbohydrate into the muscles to replenish depleted glycogen stores. Carbohydrate combined with...

Simple and Complex Carbohydrates

All forms and sources of carbohydrate are not alike. The carbohydrate family includes both simple and complex carbohydrates. The simple carbohydrates are monosaccharides and disaccharides (single- and double- sugar molecules). Glucose, fructose, and galactose are monosaccharides, the simplest sugars. Monosaccharides can be symbolized like this The disaccharides can be symbolized like this Four common sources of disaccharides are table sugar (sucrose), milk sugar (lactose, a combination of...

Commercial Sports Foods and Fluids

The sports fuel industry has rapidly grown, starting in the 1970s with the introduction of Gatorade, continuing into the 1980s with the debut of PowerBar, and expanding in the 1990s with gels such as Gu. Since then, a multitude of companies have jumped on the bandwagon to create niche fuels for every possible dietary need gluten free, vegan, kosher, lactose free, fructose free, you name it and every possible time to eat (before, during, and after exercise). If you feel confused and overwhelmed...

Balancing Your Weight Gain Diet

The best and simplest weight-gain diet follows a pumped-up version of the fundamental guidelines for healthy eating as described in chapter 1. I suggest that you keep food records for a few days to assess your typical intake, then figure out where you could plug in more calories. Steve, a volleyball player, described to me what he typically ate, and together we listed ways he could consume more, without much effort, at certain times of the day. The following chart shows what Steve typically ate...

Learn to Love Your Body

If you are dissatisfied with your body, you might think the solution is to lose weight, pump iron, or do thousands of sit-ups. This outside approach to correcting body dissatisfaction tends to be inadequate. Concern about what you look like is really a mask for how you feel about yourself, your self-esteem. Given that about 25 percent of your self-esteem is tied to how you look, you can't feel good about yourself unless you like your body and feel confident about your appearance. Weight issues...

Beans and Tofu

Beans are some of nature's greatest foods they are rich in protein and contain little fat and no cholesterol. They help lower blood cholesterol, control blood sugar, fight cancer, reduce problems with constipation, build muscles (with their protein), fuel muscles (with their carbohydrate), and nourish muscles (with lots of B vitamins, iron, zinc, magnesium, copper, folic acid, and potassium). Because beans are a healthful source of both protein and carbohydrate, vegetarian meals such as chili,...

Nutrition for Older Athletes

One hundred years ago, life expectancy was 42 years. Today, most of us will live twice as long. Without question, staying active is the key to main taining your health, both physical and mental. With age, we gain not only wrinkles and gray hair but also wisdom, an appreciation for our mortality, and the desire to protect our good health. You may know that maintaining fitness into the golden years reduces the inflammation that can lead to heart disease, but you might not know that staying fit...

Fast Snacks

When you are eating on the run and grabbing snacks instead of real meals, be sure to choose wholesome foods. You can make wise choices from among many nutritious and conveniently available items. Some popular suggestions include a whole-grain bagel with peanut butter and a (decaf) latte a slice of thick-crust pizza with green peppers peanut butter, crackers, and raisins trail mix with granola, nuts, and dried fruit Grape-Nuts with yogurt and berries Chinese takeout stir-fried chicken with...

How Much Should I Weigh

Although only nature knows the best weight for your body, the following guidelines offer a method to estimate the midpoint of a healthy weight range (plus or minus 10 percent, depending on whether you have large or small bones). This rule-of-thumb guide does not apply to everybody especially muscular bodybuilders. Women 100 pounds for the first 5 feet of height, 5 pounds per inch thereafter (45 kilograms for the first 152 centimeters, 0.9 kilogram per centimeter thereafter). Men 106 pounds for...

Body Fat and Exercise

Myths and misconceptions are abundant surrounding the role of exercise in weight management. Here's a true or false quiz to test your knowledge about body fat and exercise. If you start an exercise program, you'll lose body fat. False. To lose body fat, you need to create a calorie deficit for the entire day. That is, you need to burn off more calories than you consume. Exercise can contribute to the calorie deficit, but exercise is often overrated as a way to reduce body fat. Exercise is...

Questions From Parents of Skinny Kids

If you are the parent of a skinny kid, you undoubtedly want to help your child add weight healthfully without eating tons of ice cream, super-sized fast-food meals, and expensive (as well as questionable) nutrition supplements. The following are some answers to the questions parents commonly ask about how to support appropriate weight gain in growing kids. Q My 16-year-old son insists that I buy him protein powders and weight-gain drinks so he can bulk up. Are these necessary A No. The single...

Patience Is a Virtue

By consuming the prescribed 500 to 1,000 additional calories per day, you should see some weight gain. Be sure to include muscle-building resistance exercise (weight workouts, push-ups) to promote muscular growth rather than just fat deposits. Consult with the trainer at your school, health club, or gym for a specific exercise program that suits your needs. You may also want to have your body fat routinely measured to make sure your weight gain is indeed mostly muscle, not fat. Untrained men...

Ten Steps for Successful Fat Loss

Now that you know how many calories you can eat to lose body fat gradually, you need to learn how to eat those calories appropriately. Here are 10 steps for successful fat loss. 1. Write it down. Keep accurate food records of every morsel and drop for three days, if not more. Research suggests that people who keep food records tend to lose weight effectively. A handy place to keep food records is on the Internet. See Dietary Analysis and Nutrition Assessment in appendix A for Web sites that can...

Too Much Protein

Contrary to what most people think, too much protein can create problems with health and performance. Jasper, an aspiring bodybuilder, chowed down on chicken and beef yet avoided pasta and potatoes, much to the detriment of his athletic aspirations. He tired easily and asked me if this high-protein diet might be hurting his performance. Here's what I told him If you fill your stomach with too much protein, you won't be fueling your muscles with carbohydrate. Protein breaks down into urea, a...

What Shape Is Your Diet

Whereas a well-rounded diet is the desired shape of good nutrition, many of my clients eat a linear diet apples, apples, apples energy bars, energy bars, energy bars pasta, pasta, pasta. Repetitive eating keeps life simple, minimizes decisions, and simplifies shopping, but it can result in an inadequate diet and chronic fatigue. If your diet looks more like a line than a circle filled two-thirds with fruits, vegetables, and whole grains and one-third with protein- and calcium-rich foods, keep...

Preexercise Caffeine A Stimulating Topic

Caffeine is a popular preexercise energizer and is known to help athletes train harder and longer. Caffeine stimulates the brain and contributes to clearer thinking and greater concentration. There are many good studies on the use of caffeine for both endurance exercise, such as long runs and bike rides, and short-term, higher-intensity exercise, such as soccer. The vast majority of the studies conclude that caffeine does indeed enhance performance (by about 11 percent) and makes the effort...

Boosting Your Calories

The trick to gaining weight is to eat larger-than-normal portions consistently for three meals per day and one or two snacks. If you have a busy schedule, finding the time to eat can be the biggest challenge to boosting your calories. You might need to pack a stash of portable snacks in your gym bag if you do most of your eating outside the home. To take in the extra calories needed to gain weight, you should eat frequently throughout the day, if that fits your lifestyle. Plan to have food on...

Eating at the Right Times

If you are serious about gaining muscle weight, you need to have the right foods available at the right times so you can eat strategically and optimize muscular growth. The following actions will help you reach your goals Fuel up before you strength-train with a carbohydrate-protein snack, such as a yogurt or bowl of cereal with milk. The snack will digest into readily available glucose for fuel and amino acids to protect muscles. Refuel immediately afterward with more protein to heal and...

Deciding Whether to Supplement

Confused If you are currently taking supplements and are not knowledgeable about vitamins or minerals, I recommend that you consult with a registered dietitian (RD), preferably a RD, CSSD (board certified specialist in sports dietetics). This nutrition professional will be able to evaluate your diet and tell you not only what nutrients you are missing but also how to choose foods that offer what you need. To find an RD, use the referral network at www.eatright.org and see the Registered...

Train Low Compete High

Train low, compete high (i.e., train with low glycogen stores, and compete with high glycogen stores) is a fueling practice that some serious athletes use-sometimes unknowingly when they do double workouts and fail to refuel well after the first workout. After being trained half the time in a glycogen-depleted state, the (fueled) muscles of 10 (initially untrained) men responded with greater endurance (Hansen et al. 2005). But questions arise Does this same response happen with trained athletes...

Eating to Stay Healthy for the Long

Few people fully appreciate the power of food in the prevention and treatment of the so-called diseases of aging, which are, in reality, diseases of inactivity and poor nutrition. In this day and age where people are taking all sorts of medications to lower cholesterol, blood sugar, and blood pressure and to deal with other health concerns, we forget that, just as the wrong foods can be powerfully bad for your health, the right foods can be powerfully health protective. By eating wisely, you...

Female Vegetarians and Amenorrhea

Female athletes commonly choose to eat a meatless diet. They may refer to themselves as vegetarians, but many fit into the non-meat-eater category. That is, they eat too much fruit, too many salads, and sometimes abundant jellybeans but too little beans, tofu, yogurt, or plant sources of protein. This protein deficiency, in conjunction with an overall calorie-deficient diet, is associated with medical problems, specifically loss of regular menstrual cycles. Some athletic women, in their...

Case Premenstrual Snack Attack

Once a month I feel driven to devour a bag of chocolate kisses. I can easily tell the time of the month by my eating habits. Premenstrual chocolate cravings do me in. Charlene, 20-year-old active college student Charlene, like many women, recognized that her eating patterns change with the stages of the menstrual cycle. In the week before her period, she has overwhelming sweet cravings the week afterward, she tends to crave more protein foods or have very little appetite. Researchers have...

Sweet potato slices and apples

Cut vegetables into equal-sized chunks, rub with a little canola or olive oil, and spread them on a nonstick baking sheet, uncovered. 2. Bake at 350 F 180 C for 30 to 45 minutes, until tender. Alternatively 1. Wrap the vegetables in foil, or put them in a covered baking dish with a small amount of water. This actually steams them rather than roasts them. 2. Bake at 350 F 180 C for 20 to 30 minutes depending on the size of the chunks until tender-crisp. 3. When you open the foil, be careful...

Replacing Sweat Losses

During hard exercise, your muscles can generate 20 times more heat than when you are at rest. You dissipate that heat by sweating. As the sweat evaporates, it cools the skin. This in turn cools the blood, which cools the inner body. If you did not sweat, you could cook yourself to death. A body temperature higher than 106 degrees Fahrenheit 41 degrees Celsius damages the cells. At 107.6 degrees Fahrenheit 42 degrees Celsius , cell protein coagulates as egg whites do when they cook , and the...

Hyponatremia and Sodium Loss

There's no need to try to superhydrate preexercise your body can absorb just so much fluid. The kidneys regulate water balance by adjusting urine output from a minimum of about a tablespoon to a maximum of about 1 quart 1 L per hour. If you overdrink, you then may need to inconveniently urinate during exercise. A wise tactic is to drink up two or more hours before exercise this allows time for your kidneys to process and eliminate the excess. Then drink again 5 to 15 minutes preexercise. For...

Fourth Edition Nancy Clark Ms Rd Cssd

Healthworks Fitness Center Chestnut Hill, MA Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Clark, Nancy, 1951- Sports nutrition guidebook Nancy Clark's sports nutrition guidebook Nancy Clark. -- 4th ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13 978-0-7360-7415-5 soft cover ISBN-10 0-7360-7415-5 soft cover 1. Athletes--Nutrition. I. Title. II. Title Sports nutrition guidebook. TX361.A8C54 2008 ISBN-10 0-7360-7415-5 print ISBN-13 978-0-7360-7415-5 print ISBN-10...

Appendix c

Athletes always ask me which brand of sports drink, gel, energy bar, protein bar or other commercial sports food is the best. The answer is that the best product is the one that tastes best to your taste buds and settles well in your intestinal tract. Be sure to experiment with unfamiliar products during training, not during an important event. While there is a time and place for many of these products, especially if you need fuel during intense exercise, these engineered products are more...

Are You Imagining the Wrong Body

Because of today's appearance consciousness, you undoubtedly hold an image of what you are supposed to look like. Yet few people naturally possess their desired physique. Most of us are ordinary mortals, complete with bumps, bulges, fat, and fleshiness. Women, in particular, have a natural roundness and softness that tends to become rounder and softer with aging. In general, about one-third of all Americans are truly dissatisfied with their appearance, women more than men. A woman will most...