Vitamin Restoration And Supplementation

As discussed in the chapters on minerals and trace elements (Chapters 6 and 7), individuals at potential risk of marginal micronutrient supply are those who consume low caloric diets for prolonged periods of time. A relatively low supply of vitamins may also occur when large amounts of processed foods constitute the major part of the daily diet. This has been observed to be the case in endurance athletes who ingest relatively large amounts of refined CHO as energy drinks during their sports events (23, 58, 165). The reason for this has been discussed in Chapter 2. In both situations the required micronutrient density (i.e. the amount of vitamins present per 1000 kcal energy intake) is higher than can be achieved in the diet. In these situations athletes may be advised to take a daily vitamin-mineral-trace element supplement (not more than 1-2 times RDA/daily) to enhance micronutrient density and secure an appropriate intake.

In industrially processed products/meals, vitamins are often added to replace processing-induced losses (restoration) or to increase the vitamin content slightly above normal (enrichment/fortification). In general, vitamin restoration or fortification of energy dense processed foods like energy beverages or bars, as well as supplementation with pills or capsules, will not enhance performance (13,195) but may contribute to an adequate daily intake.

Daily intake of a low dose vitamin supplement, or a nutrient preparation that supplies not more than the recommended daily intake (Table 8), in addition to the normal diet, is recommended in periods of intensive training

Table 8 Recommended dietary allowances for vitamins

Age: males Age: females

Table 8 Recommended dietary allowances for vitamins

Age: males Age: females

Vitamin

NRC 15-18 DGE 15-18

19-24 19-25

25-50 25-51

15-18 15-18

19-24 19-25

25-50 25-51

Vit Bi (mg)

1.5/1.6

1.5/1.4

1.5/1.3

1.1/1.3

1.1/1.2

1.1/1.1

Vit B2 (mg)

1.8/1.8

1.7/1.7

1.7/1.7

1.3/1.7

1.3/1.5

1.3/1.5

Niacin (mg)

20/20

19/18

19/18

15/16

15/15

15/15

Vit B6 (mg)

2.0/2.1

2.0/1.8

2.0/1.8

1.5/1.8

1.6/1.8

1.6/1.6

Folate (pg)

200/300

200/300

200/300

180/150

180/150

180/150

Vit B12 (^g)

2/3

2/3

2/3

2/3

2/3

2/3

Vit C (mg)

60/75

60/75

60/75

60/75

60/75

60/75

Vit A (pg) RE

1000/1000

1000/1000

1000/1000

800/900

800/800

800/800

Vit D (pg)

10/5

10/5

5/5

10/5

10/5

5/5

Vit E (mg) TE

10/12

10/12

10/12

8/12

8/12

8/12

Vit K (pg)

65/70

70/70

80/80

55/60

60/60

65/65

Pantothenic acid

a/8

a/8

a/8

a/8

a/8

a/8

The data shown are derived from NRC/DGE.

NRC = National Research Council, Recommended Dietary Allowances, 1989 (USA). DGE = Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Ernahrung, Empfehlungen fur die Nahrstoffzufuhr, 1991.

The data shown are derived from NRC/DGE.

NRC = National Research Council, Recommended Dietary Allowances, 1989 (USA). DGE = Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Ernahrung, Empfehlungen fur die Nahrstoffzufuhr, 1991.

or in any situation where athletes abstain from a normal diet such as during periods of limited food intake combined with intensive training (especially in females, in vegetarian athletes, and in weight class sports participants, see Table 1). Although the use of mega-doses of vitamins by athletes is often defended with the argument that substantial amounts of vitamins may be lost with sweat and urine, there are no scientific data supporting this. Sweat vitamin losses are in general negligible (13, 28, 84). Therefore, the use of high vitamin doses should be discouraged because of potential undesired side effects (3) and possible negative interactions with other micronutrients (109). Performance benefits resulting from vitamin-mineral supplementation are unlikely to occur (479, 480)

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  • väinö
    What is vitamin restoration and supplementation?
    2 years ago

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