Individual Vitamins And Influence Of Exercise

In the following paragraphs we will briefly discuss the individual vitamins and reported effects of exercise. Vitamin Bi plays an important role in the oxidative conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA, an essential step in the energy production process from CHO. For this reason the recommended requirements for vitamin Bi have been related to total energy expenditure and to CHO intake. The RDA is set at 0.5 mg 1000 kcal energy intake (131). It is accepted now that the vitamin B1 requirement of...

Vitamin And Mineral Use By Athletes

The use of vitamins and minerals as ergogenic substances has been reviewed recently by Sobal and Marquart (355). They analysed 51 studies that provided data on the quantitative use of such preparations in over 10000 male and female athletes. The mean prevalence of use was 46 . Elite athletes used more supplements than lower ranked athletes, and women used more than men. Of the 51 studies, 32 provided information about the type of supplement used. Multivitamins and iron were most frequently...

Mineral Reserves

The mineral content in the body differs among tissues as well as between intra- and extracellular compartments. Bone has a high calcium and phosphate content, the muscle cell has a high content of potassium and magnesium, and blood and interstitial water are high in sodium and chloride. Although minerals are fixed components of tissues such as bone or muscle, this does not necessarily mean that they are freely available for metabolic purposes. The major fraction of the 'metabolic' mineral pool...

Rehydration Solutions

Rehydration solutions for athletes are generally designed to replace fluid and minerals lost by sweating and also limited amounts of energy in the form of CHO. All three substances are either lost or used during endurance exercise. Higher exercise intensities require a higher degree of energy production for which CHO as energy source is most suitable. Accordingly, with higher exercise intensities, more metabolic heat will be produced. Consequently sweat rate will be increased, as will the...

Developments In Nutritional Training

Athletes should consider their specific energy and fluid demands of training and competition and, in the face of their habitual diet, adopt a pattern of 'nutritional periodization' before major events. 2. Nutritional periodization for endurance and particularly ultra-endurance (> 4 h) events should aim to increase the contribution of fat to energy metabolism, and thus spare the body's CHO stores. 3. Individuals should consider trying to improve their performance times for ultra-endurance...

Coqio Ubiquinone

CoQ10 is a lipid compound that is present in the mitochondria, particularly in the heart. It has been used therapeutically for the treatment of cardiovascular disease because of its role in oxidative metabolism and as an antioxidant. Because CoQ10 supplementation has induced an increased oxygen uptake and exercise performance in cardiac patients, it has been suggested that it may be effective for performance enhancement of endurance athletes as well. However, there are no data available to...

Strategies To Improve Fatty Acid Oxidation

Fatty Acid Oxidation Musclebiopsy

Several recent reviews have described in detail the effects of exercise on fat metabolism as well as the effects of various methods to modify fat metabolism in the athlete 220-222 . The most important aspects are outlined below. As pointed out earlier there is a progressive shift to the use of CHO oxidation with increasing exercise intensity. This has its origin in stronger metabolic and hormonal responses which induce an enhanced glycogen breakdown and lactate formation, as well as...

What Does Osmolarity Mean

Osmolarity is a measure of the osmotic pressure exerted by a fluid across a biological membrane. If two solutions have the same effective osmotic pressure, these solutions are said to be isotonic. If two solutions differ in osmotic pressure, the one with the higher osmotic pressure is said to be hypertonic, compared to the solution with the lower osmolarity. The latter is said to be hypotonic. Osmolarity is generally determined by the number of osmotically active particles which are 'in...

Bee Pollen

Chemical analysis of bee pollen shows that it is composed of a mixture of vitamins, minerals, amino acids and other nutrients. Although bee pollen does not appear to induce any specific physiologic effect, its theoretical ergogenic effect may be based on the roles that vitamins and minerals are thought to have in exercise metabolism. To test this, highly trained runners were studied and no significant effect on the rate of recovery, as measured by performance in repeated maximal treadmill runs...

Inosine

Some of the reported metabolic roles of inosine such as facilitation of ATP energy rich phosphate synthesis, effects on muscle glycogen breakdown, and on blood and oxygen supply have been extrapolated to exercise physiology, suggesting that both strength and endurance athletes might benefit from supplementation. Inosine is available either pure or combined with other cofactors, such as CoQ10. Only one study has investigated its effect on endurance parameters. Williams...

Side Effects of CAF

CAF ingestion, especially when ingested in larger amounts gt 4 mg kg body weight may lead to side effects but these are generally mild. CAF can irritate the stomach wall as well as the intestine, which may lead to gastric acid reflux and intestinal motility changes. Occasionally diarrhoea may occur. Studies on the effect of CAF on gastrointestinal function are scarce. Figures 46 Results of a recent study of Kovacs et al. 342 on the effect on performance of caffeine added to a rehydration...

Aspartates

The potassium and magnesium salts of aspartate, a non-essential amino acid, have been postulated to improve performance by several mechanisms. The prevailing hypothesis is that aspartates will reduce the accumulation of blood ammonia during exercise. Increases in blood serum ammonia have been correlated with muscular and central fatigue 8,29,189 . Research data regarding the stimulating effect of aspartates are equivocal. A number of studies have reported no effect. As an example of a well...

Fat Reserves

Fat as energy source has advantages over CHO in that the energy density is higher 37.5 kJ g vs. 16.9 kJ g causing the relative weight of an amount of energy at storage to be lower. CHO stored as glycogen binds approximately 2 g water per gram of glycogen stored 332 . This means that changes in muscle glycogen content cause substantial volume effects. As a result, the storage capacity of glycogen in muscle and liver is limited and amounts to approximately 450 g of glycogen in a healthy,...

Cerestar Cargill

Vilvoorde R amp D Center, Vilvoorde, Belgium First published 1993, as Nutritional Needs of Athletes Copyright 1993, 2002 John Wiley amp Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 8SQ, England Email for orders and customer service enquiries cs-books wiley.co.uk Visit our Home Page on www.wileyeurope.com or www.wiley.com All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,...

Free Radical Production

In our body various processes and reactions can produce free radicals. Table 10 divides these into two main sections 1 those formed as a result of the impact of radiation 2 those formed by reduction-oxidation redox reactions involving the transfer of an electron. Oxidizing free radicals may initiate or extend cell injury by removing a hydrogen atom from, for example, a polyunsaturated fatty acid in a biomembrane, initiating the degradative process of lipid peroxidation. They may also add across...

Supercompensation Protocol

Figure 48 The classical and moderate tapering supercompensation protocols as methods to optimize glycogen storage in liver and muscle. An important point to remember is that CHO is less energy dense than lipids. Consequently, a high CHO diet can be bulky, it is often rich in fibre and may require considerable effort and time to prepare and eat. Examples of CHO rich foods are pasta, potato well cooked , rice, bread and fruit. During the last 2-3 days before a competition, high fibre foods should...

Vitamin Restoration And Supplementation

As discussed in the chapters on minerals and trace elements Chapters 6 and 7 , individuals at potential risk of marginal micronutrient supply are those who consume low caloric diets for prolonged periods of time. A relatively low supply of vitamins may also occur when large amounts of processed foods constitute the major part of the daily diet. This has been observed to be the case in endurance athletes who ingest relatively large amounts of refined CHO as energy drinks during their sports...

Precompetition Nutritional Guidelines

Carbohydrate load using moderate tapering supercompensation diet. 2. Ensure a CHO intake of about 600 g day during the 3 days before the race. Intake of more than this amount may not further increase glycogen storage and is therefore not necessary. 3. Drink plenty of fluids during the days before the race, to ensure that you are well hydrated at the start of the event. If substantial sweat losses are to be expected during the race see the section on sports drinks below add a small amount of...