Adolescent and Young Adult Track and Field Athletes

Epic Soccer Training Improve Soccer Skills

Soccer Training Programs by the Pros

Get Instant Access

Data on the size, physique, and body composition of track and field athletes in specific events within the sport are more extensive compared with other sports and span early adolescence through young adulthood. The literature dealing with track and field athletes is diverse and can be summarized in the framework of four general themes: (1) talent identification and selection; (2) interest in the growth, body composition, and functional characteristics of elite young athletes in a variety of sports; (3) increased popularity of distance running for children and adolescents; and (4) interest in the comparative morphology of athletes in general. The data often include estimates of % Fat based primarily on measured Db and predicted Db based on skinfold measurements; estimates based on other methods are limited [50]. The data permit evaluation of variation in % Fat by event. Estimates of mean % Fat are summarized in Figs. 2, 3, and 4 for sprinters and hurdlers, middle and long distance runners, and jumpers and throwers. Corresponding estimates for specific jumping and throwing disciplines, pole vaulters, race walkers, and decathletes are not extensive. Data for adolescents and young adults from the general population are included for comparison.

Most samples of male sprinters and hurdlers tend to be below the reference in % Fat from early adolescence into young adulthood, although there is some overlap during adolescence (Fig. 2A). In contrast, % Fat of female sprinters and hurdlers is well below the reference (Fig. 2B).

Estimates of % Fat among middle and long distance runners show considerable overlap within sex, although there seems to be more variation among

Table 6

Relative fatness (% Fat) in samples of female athletes in several sports

Table 6

Relative fatness (% Fat) in samples of female athletes in several sports

Sport

Age (y)

% Fat

Reference

n

Mean

SD

Method

Mean

SD

Badminton

6

23.0

5.3

HW

21.0

2.1

[22]

Basketball

18

22.9

2.6

HW

20.1

4.0

[22]

Canoeing/kayaking

21

21.2

3.7

HW

22.2

4.6

[65]

Field hockey

13

19.8

1.4

HW

21.3

7.1

[79]

Field hockey

17

22.6

2.3

HW

20.2

6.0

[22]

Field hockey

10

19.8

1.2

DXA

18.3

2.7

[80]

Gymnastics

5

19.0

3.8

TBW

12.9

1.4

[81]

Gymnastics

44

19.4

1.1

HW

15.3

4.0

[82]

Gymnastics

15

19.8

1.0

DXA

19.1

2.2

[80]

Gymnastics, rhythmic

7

20.7

2.7

HW

15.6

5.1

[65]

Handball, team

17

23.2

1.9

HW

19.0

3.7

[65]

Lacrosse

17

24.4

4.5

HW

19.3

5.7

[22]

Netball

7

23.7

4.2

HW

17.8

3.8

[22]

Rowing

19

23.6

3.9

HW

18.4

3.9

[65]

Rowing

22

20.4

1.9

DXA

21.9

2.3

[80]

Rowing, lightweight

5

19.4

7.5

HW

20.7

3.1

[22]

Rowing, heavyweight

7

20.5

3.4

HW

24.2

4.2

[22]

Skiing, cross country

5

23.5

4.7

HW

16.1

1.6

[77]

Soccer

10

24.4

4.5

HW

20.8

4.7

[83]

Soccer

11

22.1

4.1

HW

22.0

6.8

[22]

Soccer

10

19.8

0.9

DXA

21.8

2.7

[80]

Softball

14

22.6

4.0

HW

19.1

5.0

[22]

Softball

17

20.4

1.4

DXA

20.9

3.9

[80]

Speed skating

9

19.7

3.0

HW

16.5

4.1

[78]

Squash

6

27.4

5.6

HW

16.0

4.9

[22]

Swimming

19

19.2

0.8

HW

16.1

3.7

[20]

Tennis

7

21.3

0.9

HW

22.4

2.0

[79]

Volleyball

36

21.7

2.5

HW

15.8

4.8

[65]

Volleyball

13

23.0

2.6

HW

11.7

3.7

[84]

Volleyball

13

21.5

0.7

HW

18.3

3.4

[84]

Volleyball

11

22.8

3.4

HW

17.0

3.3

[22]

Abbreviations: HW, hydrostatic weighing; TBW, total body water.

Abbreviations: HW, hydrostatic weighing; TBW, total body water.

females than males (Fig. 3). Most estimates for males are below the reference during adolescence into young adulthood (Fig. 3A). The reported estimate for a sample of 17-year-old male distance runners (2.6%) is spuriously low. As noted, % Fat of female middle distance and distance runners varies (Fig. 3B). Most values are below the reference value, but several approach the reference in later adolescence. In young adulthood, however, estimates of % Fat are considerably lower, especially in distance runners.

Estimated % Fat of field athletes in jumping and throwing events shows two distributions with little overlap (Fig. 4). The relative fatness of male jumpers is consistently below the reference from adolescence into adulthood. In contrast, % Fat of male adolescent throwers is consistently above the reference, reflecting

Table 7

Anthropometric estimates of predicted relative fatness (% Fat) in national level Polish athletes 19-26 years old

Table 7

Anthropometric estimates of predicted relative fatness (% Fat) in national level Polish athletes 19-26 years old

Sport

Males

% Fat

Females

% Fat

n

Mean

SD

n

Mean

SD

Basketball

24

10.4

2.5

31

20.1

4.8

Biathlon

10

10.8

2.0

10

17.2

3.9

Cycling

29

11.6

1.4

Fencing

21

12.0

3.4

15

21.9

4.5

Handball,

23

12.7

3.1

29

21.9

4.7

team

Kayaking

29

9.6

2.7

26

16.3

4.3

Rowing

31

10.7

3.0

22

17.7

3.8

Skiing

13

9.6

1.5

10

17.0

1.8

Soccer

30

9.7

2.1

Swimming

13

15.5

2.5

Tennis

7

17.7

1.5

Volleyball

26

10.8

1.7

Relative fatness was estimated from predicted Db using three skinfolds after Piechaczek [85].

Data from Krawczyk B, Sklad M, Majle B. Body components of male and female athletes representing various sports. Biol Sport 1995;12:243-50.

Relative fatness was estimated from predicted Db using three skinfolds after Piechaczek [85].

Data from Krawczyk B, Sklad M, Majle B. Body components of male and female athletes representing various sports. Biol Sport 1995;12:243-50.

in part their massiveness. Percent Fat tends to decline with age, however, among samples of throwers. Among young adult throwers, estimates for several samples are lower than corresponding values for adolescent throwers and fluctuate above and below the reference values (Fig. 4A).

Female jumpers have relative fatness levels consistently below the reference, and % Fat in young adult jumpers tends to be lower than that for adolescents (Fig. 4B). Percent Fat of female throwers varies above and below the reference in adolescence and young adulthood, which is in contrast to the trend in male throwers. In female jumpers and throwers, variation in % Fat is greater among young adults than among adolescents.

Estimates of % Fat in male track and field athletes except for throwers are generally below the reference. There is considerable overlap among mean estimates for sprinters and hurdlers, middle distance and distance runners, and jumpers, and all have % Fat that is generally lower than in samples of throwers. Trends in % Fat among adolescent track and field athletes should be viewed in two contexts: first, the decline in % Fat that accompanies the growth spurt and sexual maturation in males, and second, the decline in % Fat associated with systematic training [35].

In female track and field athletes, there is considerable overlap in mean estimates of % Fat among for runners of all disciplines and jumpers, and all are, on average, generally below the reference. Relative fatness of female throwers tends to be higher, but estimates fall above and below the reference.

Comparison of % Fat of male and female athletes within the same track and field events suggests several trends: (1) Percent Fat in male sprinters and

Table 8

Anthropometric estimates of predicted relative fatness (% Fat) in female university athletes by sport, event/position, and ethnicity

Table 8

Anthropometric estimates of predicted relative fatness (% Fat) in female university athletes by sport, event/position, and ethnicity

Sport

Age (y)

% Fat

n

Mean

SD

Mean

SD

Swimming

87

18.8

0.9

16.5

1.6

Freestyle

37

18.8

0.8

16.3

1.6

Backstroke

18

18.9

1.0

16.8

1.9

Breaststroke

17

18.7

0.7

16.4

1.3

Butterfly

9

19.1

1.0

16.4

1.9

Medley

6

18.9

1.4

17.5

0.8

Diving

19

19.5

1.6

17.4

2.6

Tennis

29

19.0

0.9

17.7

2.4

Golf

32

19.0

0.9

19.1

2.2

Basketball

57

19.5

1.2

16.4

2.2

Guard, white

13

19.4

0.9

16.9

2.1

Guard, black

7

19.6

1.2

14.9

1.2

Wing, white

6

19.3

0.9

16.1

1.4

Wing, black

11

19.8

1.5

15.5

1.7

Post, white

11

19.6

1.4

17.4

3.0

Post, black

9

19.6

1.6

17.1

2.5

Volleyball

47

19.1

0.9

16.9

2.7

Outside hitter

24

19.2

1.0

16.9

3.0

Middle blocker

12

18.7

0.7

17.8

2.6

Setter

6

19.2

0.8

17.0

1.9

Back row

5

19.2

0.5

14.9

1.3

Track and field

116

19.4

1.2

15.4

3.8

Sprint, white

5

21.1

1.4

14.1

0.3

Sprint, black

38

19.3

1.4

14.1

1.4

Middle distance,

6

18.9

0.6

13.8

1.6

white

Middle distance,

5

18.6

0.8

13.6

0.7

black

Distance, white

29

19.3

1.2

14.2

1.6

Jumps, white

9

19.3

0.9

15.1

1.8

Jumps, black

7

20.0

1.3

14.6

1.4

Throws, white

11

19.5

1.1

22.4

4.1

Throws, black

5

18.7

0.5

23.9

7.8

Relative fatness was estimated from predicted Db from the sum of four skinfolds skinfolds after Meleski et al [20]; see text.

Data from Malina RM, Battista RA, Siegel SR. Anthropometry of adult athletes: concepts, methods and applications. In: Driskell JA, Wolinsky I, editors. Nutritional assessment of athletes. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; 2002. p. 135-75.

Relative fatness was estimated from predicted Db from the sum of four skinfolds skinfolds after Meleski et al [20]; see text.

Data from Malina RM, Battista RA, Siegel SR. Anthropometry of adult athletes: concepts, methods and applications. In: Driskell JA, Wolinsky I, editors. Nutritional assessment of athletes. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; 2002. p. 135-75.

hurdlers is only slightly lower than and overlaps the male reference, whereas corresponding estimates of % Fat in female athletes in these events are well below the female reference. (2) Percent Fat varies from early adolescence through adolescence into young adulthood in male and female middle distance and distance runners; it is considerably lower than the reference among female runners, whereas % Fat in male runners approximates the male reference at

MALES SPRINTS AND HURDLES PERCENTAGE FAT

10 12

14 16 18 20 Age, years

B FEMALES

SPRINTS AND HURDLES PERCENTAGE FAT

30

27

24

a

fa e

21

■S

18

e

*

e

15

12

9

6

22 24

10 12

14 16 18 20

Age, years

22 24

Fig. 2. Estimates of % Fat in samples of adolescent and young adult sprinters and hurdlers. (A) Males. (B) Females. (See ref. [50] for sources of data. Data for the nonathlete reference from Malina et al [35,39].)

S1 15

many ages (3). The same general trend is apparent in jumpers and throwers. Percent Fat in female jumpers is well below the female reference, whereas it is quite close to the reference in male jumpers. Percent Fat in female throwers straddles the reference, but is above the reference in male throwers, especially in adolescence. Relative fatness tends to be lower in young adult compared with adolescent male throwers; such variation with age is lacking in female throwers.

MALES DISTANCE EVENTS PERCENTAGE FAT

MALES DISTANCE EVENTS PERCENTAGE FAT

10 12

14 16 18

Age, years

20 22 24

10 12

14 16 18

Age, years

FEMALES DISTANCE EVENTS PERCENTAGE FAT

Middle Distance

Distance

■I

• ■

• .

..f •m a •

#

.mi .

16 18 20

Age, years

22 24

20 22 24

10 12

16 18 20

Age, years

22 24

Fig. 3. Estimates of % Fat in samples of adolescent and young adult middle distance and distance runners. (A) Males. (B) Females. (See ref. [50] for sources of data. Data for the nonathlete reference from Malina et al [35,39].)

27

24

21

F

18

e

9>

15

e

12

^

r e

9

Pe

6

3

MALES JUMPS, THROWS PERCENTAGE FAT

Jumpers Throwers

10 12

16 18 Age, years

FEMALES JUMPS, THROWS PERCENTAGE FAT

FEMALES JUMPS, THROWS PERCENTAGE FAT

20 22 24

10 12

16 18 20 Age, years

22 24

Fig. 4. Estimates of % Fat in samples of adolescent and young adult field athletes in jumping and throwing events. (A) Males. (B) Females. (See ref. [50] for sources of data. Data for the nonathlete reference from Malina et al [35,39].)

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Soccer Fitness 101

Soccer Fitness 101

Be a star on the field in no time! Get Fit For The Soccer Field In 10 Easy Steps! With soccer season looming just around the corner it’s never too early to start getting ready. Soccer is an intense game, and it’s going to take a lot of work on your part to make sure that you’re ready to stay ahead of your competition out on that field.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment