Spinal Cord Product
The spinal cord extends from the brain and serves mostly as a relay station connecting the brain to the rest of the body. For protection, the human spinal cord is encased by bony vertebrae. The region of the spinal cord closest to the brain connects the brain to regions of the body in that proximity. This would include the chest and arms. Moving further down the spinal cord and away from the brain, you begin to find the interconnections between the central nervous system and the lower portions of our body, such as our legs. However, because the nerve links extending from the lower extremities must move through the upper regions of the spinal cord in order to connect with the brain, damage to the upper region of the spinal cord will affect the lower as well as the upper areas of our body. Thus, if damage occurs lower in the spinal cord it may result in temporary or permanent paralysis of only the lower extremities. However, if the spinal cord is damaged higher up, it can result in...
For the squat db's are at your sides. When you lower yourself, pretend you're sitting down on a chair. Be sure to stay on your heels, and keep your torso tight to support your spine. When you can feel yourself bending too far forward as you go down, that's your signal to push back up.
Fig. 4.8 Calcium supplementation increases bone density during lactation and weaning. Effects of calcium supplementation and lactation in 389 women on the change in bone mineral density of the lumbar spine during the first 6 months postpartum and postweaning. Significant differences were found between the calcium and placebo groups in the nonlactating women during the first 6 months, and forthe calcium and placebo groups in both the lactating and nonlactating women after weaning. (Adapted from Kalkwarf HJ, et al. N Engl J Med. 1997 337 523) Fig. 4.8 Calcium supplementation increases bone density during lactation and weaning. Effects of calcium supplementation and lactation in 389 women on the change in bone mineral density of the lumbar spine during the first 6 months postpartum and postweaning. Significant differences were found between the calcium and placebo groups in the nonlactating women during the first 6 months, and forthe calcium and placebo groups in both the lactating and...
The measurement of bone mineral density in vivo was introduced in 1963.30 This technique, which later became known as single-photon absorptiometry, permitted bone mineral content to be measured in the wrist. With the emergence of osteoporosis as an important clinical entity (refer to Chapters 26 to 28), numerous technological advances in the measurement of bone mineral density have since been achieved. At present, DXA is the primary clinical method used for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Although DXA measures were initially limited to the specific regions that are the most important in osteoporosis (e.g., lumbar spine, femoral neck, and forearm), DXA has been extended to allow for the study of the total skeleton in addition to its regional parts.31 Further, advancements in DXA technology have also permitted for the measurements of soft-tissue composition in addition to bone mineral content and density.31 Thus, three components can be measured with a whole-body DXA scan bone mineral...
When you combine raw foods with yoga, you tune into a phenomenal state of being. The Sunfood Diet radically improves your metabolism and the biochemistry of your body. Yoga reforms physiology by the consistent practice of different stretching poses. Yoga helps squeeze toxins out of the tissues, open up tensions, and improve the mechanical functioning of the body. Yoga is about letting go to increase flexibility. Yoga will get the spine straight beginning with opening up the hips and sacrum. Practice yoga stretching after sleeping, sitting, or walking. If you have chronic back pain, start looking into yoga and eating more green-leafy vegetables to get your body alkaline (also consider sleeping without a pillow to allow the spine to rest in its natural position).
Just how the unique bone structure of birds could have evolved gradually through natural selection and mutation from the standard vertebrate design is fantastically difficult to imagine and even more difficult to prove. All micromutations have to appear simultaneously and work together at every step along the way. For instance, the spine and bone structure are absolutely vital to every moment of the organism's existence - even the slightest mistake or variance leads to death.
Once you take the bar off the rack, do your pelvic tilt, and MAINTAIN IT THROUGHOUT THE MOVEMENT. This takes a lot of concentration, especially if you're wearing a belt. Many people let the belt do the work your torso is supposed to do, which is supporting your spine. Lighten up the weight, if you have to, to get the feel for this technique. All the stress will be put on your lower body - thighs, hamstrings, hips, buttocks, everywhere downstairs- where it should be.
Folic acid is a nutrient of vital importance in early pregnancy. Low body stores of folic acid during the periconceptional period sharply increase risk of birth defects. Folic acid is important in the early development of the central nervous system, and deficiency during this period can cause a neural tube defect (NTD).3 The most common NTD is spina bifida, a condition in which the spine does not completely develop and close around the spinal cord. Babies born with spina bifida often have a permanently damaged spinal cord. When severe, NTDs result in miscarriages and stillbirths. Nearly half a million infants worldwide are born with NTDs each year and in the USA, NTDs affect 1-2 of pregnancies.4
Pregnancy is a time of rapid cell multiplication and DNA synthesis, which increases the need for folate. Folate deficiency may lead to neural tube defects such as spina bifida (failure of the spine to close properly during the first month of pregnancy) and anencephaly (closure of the neural tube during fetal development, resulting in part of the cranium not being formed). Seventy percent of these defects could be avoided by adequate folate status before conception, and it is recommended that all women of child-bearing age consume at least 400 micrograms (pg) of folic acid each day from fortified foods and supplements. Other groups at risk of deficiency include elderly persons and persons suffering from alcohol abuse or taking certain prescription drugs.
Neural tube defects are a group of birth defects that affect the developing embryonic brain or spine and occur when the developing neural tube fails to close during the first 28 days of gestation 9 . The two most common NTDs are spina bifida and anencephaly, which can cause lifelong disability or death. Birth records collected through birth defect surveillance by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suggest that approximately 2,500 babies with NTDs, or 1 to 2 per 1,000, are born each year in the United States 10, 11 . The rate of NTD affected pregnancies is approximately 40 higher in women of Hispanic descent compared with Caucasian women 12 , while the rate in African American women is approximately 30 lower than in Caucasian women 11 .
When athletes have menstrual dysfunction, their BMD is significantly below that of their eumenorrheic counterparts 40,68,69 , and in a sense, athletes lose the skeletal advantage of their sport involvement. Athletes with amenorrhea exhibit a BMD at the lumbar spine that is 10 to 20 below the BMD of eume-norrheic athletes 69,70 . Amenorrheic athletes also have significantly lower BMD at other skeletal sites compared with eumenorrheic athletes 71,72 . Oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea are detrimental to bone 73 however, the impact of oligomenorrhea on BMD occurs likely at an intermediate stage along the spectrum of menstrual dysfunction 73,74 . Finally, the cumulative exposure of low estrogen in the form of oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea during an athlete's career also needs to be considered. The longer the duration of menstrual dysfunction, in the past and at present time, the lower the BMD 73 .
DXA quantifies bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density of the hip and spine primarily for diagnosing osteoporosis. The differential attenuation of two low radiation energy levels through the body and subsequent computer calculations allow the quantification and total and regional analysis of adipose and soft tissues and estimates of fat mass (FM) and non-skeletal fat-free mass (FFM) (101-103).
Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) involves damage to the heart and heart vessels caused by rheumatic fever. A susceptible person acquires a streptococ-cal infection, which may trigger an autoimmune reaction in the heart tissue. Rheumatic fever can cause swelling (inflammation) in the heart, joints, brain, and spinal cord. Rheumatic fever produces fatigue (tiredness) and the infection can damage or weaken heart valves. Problems with the heart may be evident early, or it may occur long after the infection. RHD is characterized by heart murmurs, abnormal pulse rate and rhythm, and congestive heart failure. Acute RHD requires aggressive treatment to prevent heart failure. Chronic RHD requires continuous observation. If poor cardiac function develops, it may be treated with a low-sodium diet and diuretics. Patients with deformed heart valves should be given prophylactic antibiotics before dental and surgical procedures.
Muscle and fat (adipose tissue) are typically the greatest contributors to body weight. For instance, a generally lean man will be about 40 to 45 percent muscle and 14 to 18 percent body fat. That means that muscle and fat make up half to about two-thirds of his body mass. For this man, bone might contribute about 8 percent and the skin 2 percent. The rest of body weight is composed of organs and tissue such as the heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, intestines, pancreas, brain, spinal cord, and our circulations (blood, lymphatic). The American Council on Exercise has classified body fat levels as shown in Table 8.2.
Although excess body fat is excess baggage that slows us down, we need a certain amount of fat for our bodies to function normally. Fat, or adipose tissue, is an essential part of our nerves, spinal cord, brain, and cell membranes. Internal fat pads the kidneys and other organs external fat offers a layer of protection against cold weather. For the reference man, essential fat makes up about 4 percent of body weight, or 6 fat pounds for a 150-pound man (2.7 fat kg for a 68 kg man). In comparison, the reference woman has about 12 percent essential fat, or 15 fat pounds for a 125-pound woman (6.8 fat kg for a 57 kg woman). Table 13.1 further describes the various levels of body fatness.
Neural tube defects (NTDs), a group of heterogeneous malformations involving neural tissue in the brain and or spinal cord, occur in less than 1 per 1,000 births in the United States 16 . The etiology of NTDs is an ongoing area of research however, inadequate maternal folate status prior to and in the first few weeks after conception appears to play a role in at least some cases of neural tube defects. According to 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data, the average folate intake of 20- to 39-year-old women in the United States is 327 mcg day 17 . Results from supplementation studies suggest that women capable of becoming pregnant should consume an additional 400 mcg day of folic acid from supplements and or fortified foods in addition to consuming food folate from a varied diet.**
The Dietary Guidelines for women of childbear-ing age who may become pregnant and those in the first trimester of pregnancy Consume adequate synthetic folic acid daily (from fortified foods or supplements) in addition to food forms of folate from a varied diet. The amount increases to 600 micrograms daily. Get 400 micrograms from fortified foods or supplements, and the remaining 200 micrograms from foods with naturally occurring folate. Consuming enough during the first three months is especially critical for lowering a newborn's risk for neural tube, or spinal cord, damage. For more about folate prior to and during pregnancy, see Before Pregnancy in this chapter.
Good nutrition is important during pregnancy and breastfeeding, as there is an increased need for calories and for most nutrients. A particularly important nutrient during pregnancy is folic acid, one of the B vitamins. Folic acid reduces the chance of having a baby with birth defects of the brain and spinal cord. Experts recommend that women of childbearing age consume 400 micrograms ( g) of folic acid every day. Pregnant women should consume 600 xg per day. Good sources of folic acid include dark green leafy vegetables, oranges and orange juice, dried beans and peas, and fortified breads and cereals.
During pregnancy and lactation Women who are pregnant or nursing often need supplements to provide the nutrients they need to build new maternal and fetal tissue or to produce nutritious breast milk. In addition, supplements of the B vitamin folate now are known to decrease a woman's risk of giving birth to a child with a neural tube defect (a defect of the spinal cord and column).
Chronic exposure to high doses of cadmium can also result in altered calcium metabolism, leading to a loss of calcium from the skeleton (osteomalacia). This disease was first discovered in Japan, where it was called itai-itai ('ouch-ouch') disease, an aptly named disorder that causes walking to become very painful due to brittle bones, skeletal deformities and numerous microfractures. Other common complaints include back and joint pains, rigid spinal movements, and thin, deformed bones that hurt when pressure is applied. I have seen one patient who tested for very high cadmium levels with early onset of joint pains, fatigue, and muscle tenderness and had been previously diagnosed with fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome.
GABA is found in high amounts in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood, and the central nervous system (CNS) in humans . GABA can modulate monoamines and growth hormones 11,12 GABA in neurons plays an important role in cardiovascular function . 13 Higher concentrations of GABA will enhance GABA receptors, to open
A more recent study examined blood levels of mercury in Alzheimer's disease patients compared to patients with major depression and to normal people who were used as controls.90 Blood mercury was found to be two times higher in the Alzheimer patients than in both sets of controls. Mercury levels were three times higher in those with early-onset Alzheimer's dementia than in controls. Furthermore, a significant correlation was found between the high mercury levels and the presence of increased amounts of beta-amyloid in the spinal fluid. Interestingly, beta-amyloid is the principal component found in neuritic plaques.
With constipation or non-functional fecal retention. Only in 10-15 of children is the fear of examination too high, when this procedure has to be omitted. Otherwise, it is well perceived and gives the essential information about the rectal fecal mass. Anal fissures can be clearly visualized by spreading the anus, and during the examination anatomical abnormalities should be inspected, checking the anal position in the perineum and its asymmetry an ectopic anus can in fact be the cause of constipation. The inspection of the lower lumbar and sacral spine areas should be focused on dimpling, surgical scars and hair tufting. Also, tendon reflexes should be evoked. Usually, the school-aged child has stools or soiling in his underpants and one should be aware of the production of a large amount of stool just prior to the visit to the physician. That might interfere with the examination results. Fissures are considered to be related to the initiation of constipation only in very young...
Nervous tissue is composed mostly of nerve cells or neurons, which serve as the basis for an extremely rapid communication system in our body. It also provides the basis for thinking. The central nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord and represents the thinking and responsive portion of our nervous tissue. Links of neurons extend from the central nervous system to various organs and tissues in our body, thus allowing the central nervous system to regulate their function. In addition, links of neurons extend to our skeletal muscle thereby allowing the central nervous system to initiate and control our movement. Special neurons function as sensory receptors and are located in the skin and sensory organs (tongue, nose, ears, eyes) as well as deeper in tissue inside our body. These receptors keep the brain informed as to what is going on inside and outside our body. They register pain and sensation (sight, hearing, taste, smell, and touch) and relay that information to the...
In ALS the motor neuron cells in the spinal cord and motor neuron cells of the brain stem are primarily affected. The mystery has always been why these cells are singled out in this disease and why the disease suddenly appears later in life after so many years of normal function. The answer may be an environmental toxin, or even a combination of toxins. Several studies have shown, for instance, that mercury is selectively taken up by motor neurons in the spinal cord. In one study, Wister rats were exposed to mercury vapor at a concentration of 50 ug M3 for six hours a day, five days a week, extending from one to eight weeks.79 A special automet-allographical technique was used to identify the mercury in tissue sections taken from the animals and was quantified using cold atomic absorption spectroscopy. At the end of the selected time periods, sections were made of the spinal nerve ganglion (dorsal root ganglion) and the spinal cord. Representative sections were made from the cervical,...
If birds are identified early, they appear alert and are still producing eggs. The bones seem fragile and there may be broken bones. Dead birds may be dehydrated or emaciated, simply due to the failure of these birds to eat or drink. The ribs may show some beading although the most obvious abnormality is a reduction in the density of the medullary bone trabeculae. Paralysis is often due to fractures of the fourth and fifth thoracic vertebrae causing compression and degeneration of the spinal cord. If birds are examined immediately after the paralysis is first observed, there is often a partly shelled egg in the oviduct, and the ovary contains a rich hierarchy of yolks.
Under the influence of estrogen, progesterone, and elastin, pregnancy is associated with generalized connective tissue laxity, potentially leading to ligament and joint instability 1 . Additional strain on the musculoskeletal system comes from the change in the body's center of gravity, resulting in progressive lordosis (accentuation of the lumbar curvature of the spine) and kyphosis (curvature of the upper spine) 7 . The change in center of gravity requires greater muscular effort with certain movements, such as rising from a squatting or sitting position or changing directions quickly. The progressive lordosis in pregnancy frequently results in lower back pain, which could be prevented by improving posture and muscular strength preferably prior to pregnancy 8 such preventative measures are also effective during pregnancy 9 . Providing exercise guidelines to increase core strength prior to pregnancy minimizes these injuries.
And or the pelvis detect increases in intraabdominal pressure, causing changes in the anal sphincter complex, leading to expulsion of rectal contents. These receptors also activate compensatory reflexes to increase anal sphincter pressure and ensure fecal continence. Sensations arising from the anorectal area are transported by afferent neural pathways to the spine via ascending nerves in the spinal cord (the spinal thalamic tract). The information is transported to the thalamus. This sensory information is transferred to the limbic and somatosensory areas of the cerebellum, where sensations such as flatus and the desire to defecate will be perceived.8
Long bones, such as the femur and radius, it actually weakens them. To date we have over eight studies reported in peer-reviewed medical journals demonstrating increased hip fractures with fluoridation. Most studies have shown that fluoride treatments do increase the density of the axial skeleton (the spine) but clinical studies have not shown a significant reduction in spinal fractures in the elderly. The young women, as well as postmenopausal older women, had a significantly higher risk of having fractures of the wrist, hip, and spine than did those living in the control community or the community containing high calcium levels in the drinking water. The incidence of multiple fractures in all age groups of the study was 220 percent higher in the community with high drinking water fluoride content.
Adenosine A1 receptors are found all over the brain and spinal cord (Fastbom et al., 1986 Jarvis et al., 1987 Weaver, 1996 Svenningsson et al., 1997a Dunwiddie and Masino, 2001). In the adult rodent and human brain, levels are particularly high in the hippocampus, cortex, and cerebellum. By contrast, A2A receptors have a much more restricted distribution, being present in high amounts only in the dopamine-rich regions of the brain, including the nucleus caudatus, putamen, nucleus accumbens, and tuberculum olfactorium (Jarvis et al., 1989 Parkinson and Fredholm, 1990 Svenningsson et al., 1997b, 1998, 1999a Rosin et al., 1998). They are virtually restricted to the GABAergic output neurons that compose the so-called indirect pathway and that also are characterized by expressing enkephalin and dopamine D2 receptors. There is, indeed, very strong evidence for a close functional relationship between A2A and D2 receptors (Svenningsson et al., 1999a).
Specific vitamin D receptors are found in parts of the brain and spinal cord (Maxwell, 2001). Seasonal changes in 25-OHD and 1,25-OHD could have an effect on hormonal function, mood and behaviour. For example, seasonal affective disorders (SAD) appear to have a latitude gradient, with mood changes due to a reduction in daylight hours and altered circadian secretion of melatonin. Whether seasonal changes in UV light and vitamin D contribute is unknown.
In addition to directly stimulating food intake, the hypocretins orexins may also influence energy homeostasis in other ways. For example, hypocretin levels increase in response to exercise, neuroglycopenia, and enforced wakefulness (16). Hypocre-tin-secreting neurons localize exclusively to the lateral hypothalamus, the region of the brain long known to integrate appetite signals. Although intriguing as modulators of food intake, interest in the hypocretins orexins shifted to their role in sleep regulation when the genes for hypocretins orexins were found to be the loci for narcolepsy (18, 19). Documented mutations in the human hypocretin orexin genes are rare among patients with sleep disorders, but nearly 90 percent of patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy have subnormal cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin levels (20).
Aging bones tend to lose minerals and density, gradually becoming thinner and more fragile. In osteoporosis, loss of bone mineral has progressed to the point where fractures can occur with minimal or no trauma. Although both men and women can develop osteoporosis, it is much more common in older women. This is because loss of endogenous estrogens during menopause sharply accelerates bone loss. In severe cases, up to 20 of the mineral content of the skeleton can be lost in the 3-5 years of the menopause. Osteoporosis progresses silently, and often the first indication of its presence is a fracture of the hip or spine. Optimum nutrition can substantially reduce risk of osteoporosis.19
Osteoporosis is a condition of gradually weakening, brittle bones. As bones lose calcium and other minerals, they become more fragile and porous. They may break under normal use or from just a minor fall, bump, or sudden strain. Because it progresses slowly and silently, people often don't realize they have osteoporosis until they fracture a bone. The spine, hip, and wrist are the most common fracture sites. Among older adults, a dowager's hump is an obvious sign of osteoporosis. Vertebrae in the spine collapse as a result of bone loss. Collapse of several vertabrae leads to a loss of height, back pain, and increasing disability.
Alendronate (brand name Fosamax) is a medication that is used to both prevent and treat osteoporosis. In postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, the drug reduces bone loss, increases bone density in both the spine and the hip, and reduces the risk of spine and hip fractures.
In countries with a high fracture incidence, rates are greater among women (by three- to four-fold). Thus, although widely regarded in these countries as a disease that affects women, 20 of symptomatic spine fractures and 30 of hip fractures occur in men (8). In countries where fracture rates are low, men and women are more equally affected (7, 911). The incidence of vertebral and hip fractures in both sexes increases exponentially with age. Hip-fracture rates are highest in Caucasian women living in temperate climates, are somewhat lower in women from Mediterranean and Asian countries, and are lowest in women in Africa (9,10,12). Countries in economic transition, such as Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China, have seen significant increases in age-adjusted fracture rates in recent decades, while the rates in industrialized countries appear to have reached a plateau (13, 14).
In cases in which the diagnosis is not clear on abdominal X-ray or in which midgut malrotation or volvulus is suspected, a limited upper gastrointestinal contrast study is indicated. The classical finding in cases of malrotation is that the duo-denojejunal flexure lies to the right side of the spine instead of in its normal left-sided position (Figure 2.3). This finding should prompt urgent surgical treatment, because of the risk of co-existing midgut volvulus. The contrast study may also identify the presence of a stenotic segment or complete obstruction.
Nerve noun 1. a bundle of fibres that can transmit electrochemical impulses and that forms part of the network that connects the brain and spinal cord to the body's organs 2. the sensitive tissue in the root of a tooth neural tube defect noun a congenital disorder of the spine, the risk of which is lessened if the mother takes folic acid supplements before conception
Risk of developing osteoporosis increases steadily with age. More than half of all women and about one-third of all men will experience osteoporotic fractures during their lives, almost all occuring after age 55.13 Often the first sign of the disease is a fracture of the spine or the hip from a minor fall. Vitamin D deficiency is found in 20-25 of older people
A Boston study of postmenopausal omnivorous women showed that a vitamin D intake of 200 IU per day was less ef ficient at preventing femur bone mineral loss than an intake of 800 IU per day.110 Both regimens included modest calcium supplementation. Those who received the higher vitamin D supplementation lost less than 1.1 of BMD at the hip, compared with a loss of 2.5 for the low-dosage group. Seventy percent of bone loss occurred during the winter and spring, when vitamin D levels were the lowest. Both levels of supplementation had similar results in preventing whole-body and spinal bone mineral loss. Vegetarians have been shown to have a lower mean intake of vitamin D and a lower mean serum vitamin D level. In a study of Finnish women, the dietary intake of vitamin D in vegans was found to be insufficient to maintain blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone within normal ranges during the winter.111 Both LOV and vegan premeno-pausal women had vitamin D intakes...
Long-term deficiency of vitamin D affects the skeletal system. In children, vitamin-D deficiency leads to rickets, a condition in which bones weaken and bow under pressure. Although vitamin-D fortification has reduced incidence of rickets in North America, it is sometimes seen in children with malabsorption syndrome and is still common in many parts of the world. In adults, vitamin-D deficiency causes osteomalacia, or soft bones, increasing the risk for fractures in hip, spine, and other bones. Vitamin-D deficiency also contributes to osteoporosis. In elderly persons, vitamin-D supplementation reduces the risk of osteoporotic fractures.
Water serves as a solvent for nutrients and delivers nutrients to cells, while it also helps the body eliminate waste products from the cells. Both the spaces between cells (intercellular spaces) and the spaces inside cells (intra-cellular spaces) are filled with water. Water lubricates joints and acts as shock absorbers inside the eyes and spinal cord. Amniotic fluid, which is largely water, protects the fetus from bumps and knocks.
The iris is connected to every organ and tissue of the body by way of the brain and nervous system. The nerve fibers receive their impulses by way of their connections to the optic nerve, optic thalami and spinal cord. They are formed embryologically from mesoderm and neuroectoderm tissues. Both sympathetic and parasympathic nervous systems are present in the iris.
The exquisite appearance of the human body is founded upon our skeleton. Our skeleton is a combination of 206 separate bones and supporting ligaments and cartilage. The bones of our skeleton are attached to muscles, which allow us to move about. Bones also provide protection. For instance, the skull and the vertebrae enclose the brain and spinal cord, respectively, thereby protecting the invaluable central nervous system (CNS). Twelve pairs of ribs extend from our vertebrae and protect the organs of our chest. Bone also serves as a storage site for several minerals, such as calcium and phosphorus, and is the site of formation for many of our blood cells.
Deficiency of vitamin B12 produces two diseases in humans, megoblastic anaemia and a specific neuropathy or subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord. These complications are seen mainly in pernicious anaemia, first described by James Coombe in 1824 (Wickramasinghe, 1995). The disease is usually fatal in 1-3 years and was first understood by George Minot and William Murphy (1926) who demonstrated that feeding a daily diet of lightly cooked beef liver induced a remission of the anaemia. Subsequently, the beef was shown to have an extrinsic factor (vitamin B12) which required an intrinsic factor (IF) for its normal absorption. IF was produced by normal stomachs but not by those with pernicious anaemia. IF was shown to complex with vitamin B12 for uptake and transport by a specific receptor on the ileal enterocytes in the terminal ileum of humans (Weir and Scott, 1995). Several drugs, such as colchicine, neomycin, -aminosalicylate and alcohol cause vitamin B12 malabsorption...
Recent studies have shown that glutamate receptors also play a role in pain.248 It makes sense that diets high in glutamate would greatly increase pain from whatever cause. You can only wonder how many people suffer from intractable spinal pain or chronic pains from injuries made worse because of excitotoxins in their diet.
One more devastating side effect of vaccination is the potential for encephalitis (called postvaccinal encephalomyelitis), a condition in which the immune system mistakenly attacks the coverings of neural pathways in the brain and spinal cord. Studies have shown that when vitamin A is given to an animal, either before or after vaccination, the severity of the disorder is greatly reduced.516 There is also compelling evidence that the incidence of autism may be reduced by adequately supplementing children with vitamin A.
An increase in the incidence of hip fractures is an inevitable consequence of people living longer. Research has shown that an increase in meat protein consumption among elderly women correlates with a decrease in the risk of hip fracture (French et al, 1997). Decreasing the risk of hip fracture is a public health priority. Vegetarian women tended to have lower spinal bone mineral density than non-vegetarians (Barr et al, 1998). Dunnigan and Henderson (1997) suggested that there may be a 'magic factor' in meat protecting against rickets and osteomalacia. To suggest that meat plays a role in bone health is relatively new and exciting and warrants further investigation.
NTDs are major malformations in which there is a failure of the developing neural tube to close properly during the fourth week of embryonic life. Incomplete closure of the spinal cord results in spina bifida while incomplete closure of the cranium results in anencephaly (McNulty, 1997). The latter condition means the babies will either die in utero or shortly after birth.
Other characteristic features seen with B12 deficiency include paresthe-sia in the limbs, inability to maintain balance when walking, weakness and excessive fatigue, loss of vibration and position sense, and a range of psychiatric disorders including disorientation, depression, mood disturbances, irritability, memory loss, and dementia. The lesions result from the patchy and progressive demyelination in peripheral nerves, the spinal cord, and the brain. Vitamin B12 deficiency is fairly common in the elderly and is associated with impairment in cognitive function or the exacerbation of coexisting dementia in the geriatric population.117
Although there is some evidence that BPEA and tyramine contribute to migraine headache in some patients, there is some dispute concerning the contribution of dietary as opposed to endogenously produced BPEA. Karoum et al. (26) measured BPEA and tyramine in human blood, cerebrospinal fluid and urine, as well as in rat brains before and after ingestion of foods including chocolate, and found no alteration of either BPEA or tyramine. The authors con-
Certain micronutrients-at levels of intake far greater than those in usual diets-develop beneficial new actions that are not apparent at lower doses. A good example is niacin. In low doses, niacin, as a component of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), plays an important role in energy production in cells. At doses 10 to 100 times higher, niacin begins to influence lipid metabolism in the liver, lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood, and increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. High-dose niacin is recommended as first-line therapy for certain forms of hyperli-pidemia.18 While normal dietary intake of folic acid supports growth of red blood cells and helps prevent anemia, higher doses (two to four times normal dietary levels) during early pregnancy provide powerful protection against birth defects. For women planning a pregnancy, taking a multivitamin containing adequate folic acid can reduce the risk of having a baby with...
The chart of the spinal nerves illustrates the channels of nerve force as they originate in the brain, which is our source of electrical energy, and travel throughout the system. The chiropractor works to keep these channels open to allow for a free flow of nerve force in the body. This photograph shows spinal nerves and their location in the body. The cervical nerves are the area at the autonomic nerve wreath from 11 to 1 o'clock. The white in this area indicates an inflammation of these nerves. We see the thoracic area of the spinal cord in the areas from 11 to 8 o'clock, and from 1 to 5 o'clock. The lumbar area of the spinal cord is from 5 to 8 o'clock. With study, those who use spinal manipulation can determine, from the iris of the eye, parts of the spine requiring the most attention.
These stealth viruses have been isolated from brain biopsies, blood cultures, spinal fluid, and even milk samples. Human studies have also demonstrated these elusive viruses in psychiatric disorders, brain tumors, and various neurological diseases. Because of the inability of the immune system to kill these viruses, no curative treatments are available. Intensive work is being done at the Center for Complex Diseases by Dr. John Martin and his group to devise newer, more effective treatments.
Various biochemical tests are available to detect thiamine deficiency. These include urinary thiamine excretion, thiamine concentrations in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), erythrocyte transketolase activity (ETKA) and thiamine pyrophosphate effect (TPPE) on ETKA. Presently, there are no known data that indicate that thiamine has toxic effects when large amounts are consumed in the diet or via long-term supplementation.
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