Workouts for Skiers and Snowboarders
One of the more extensive reviews of the effects of exercise on lipids and lipoproteins was conducted by Durstine and Haskell.36 First, in analyzing several cross-sectional studies comparing inactive controls to either endurance athletes, runners, crosscountry skiers, tennis players, or individuals with longer treadmill test times, they concluded that generally active individuals have lower triglyceride concentrations. With regard to exercise-training studies, they reported that training also generally reduced the triglyceride levels if the baselines were elevated. They also found that the degree of reduction in triglycerides was related to both the baseline amount of triglyceride elevation and to the volume of exercise training, but that in women, these findings were not as consistent.
More recently, however, studies have been completed on both team-and power-oriented athletes such as basketball players, baseball players, weight lifters, and skiers. These studies have resulted in new fueling strategies for optimizing the training of strength and power athletes. Today there are sports nutrition studies on virtually all types of athletes, including race car drivers and pit crews, golfers, sailors, skiers, and snow-boarders. Even professional poker players trying to promote their training use nutrition strategies that help keep them at the top of their (card) game.
Janssen et al.64 further supported these findings with sedentary individuals who completed an 18- to 20-month marathon training program. Muscle carnitine was evaluated prior to, during, and after the completion of the marathon and was not affected during training, nor were sex-related differences observed.65 In addition, running the marathon did not cause a significant decrease in muscle carnitine levels, suggesting that neither the training nor the strenuous exercise alters carnitine muscle levels. Finally, Decombaz et al.47 measured the total muscle carnitine level of skiers for 2 years prior to an Alpine ski race and found that there were no significant changes over the course of their training regiment (mean, 17 vs. 16 mol g dry wt). It is important to point out that there were consistent individual variations (range, 12 to 22 mol g dry wt) that were stable for the course of the training. These results show that with training there is little variation in carnitine levels and that...
Many people engage in regular aerobic exercise such as running, cross country skiing, bicycling, rowing, fast walking, roller blading (in-line skating), distance swimming, and health club aerobic programs. During these activities the resistance against movement is not as great as weight training and the activity is sustained for 15 minutes or longer. Because muscle energy is generated by burning fat and carbohydrate in oxygen required processes mostly, these forms of exercise are termed aerobic. And, because the heart and blood vessels are responsible for delivering the oxygen-endowed blood to muscle, these types of activity are also called cardiovascular exercise.
. . . if a little nip of brandy will help fight a cold On the contrary, if you have a cold or a chronic health problem that lowers your immunity, you're wise to abstain. Alcohol can impair the body's ability to fight infectious bacteria and may interfere with medication. . . . if an alcoholic drink will warm you up in cold weather No. Alcohol tends to increase the body's heat loss, making people more susceptible to cold. If you're ice fishing, cross-country skiing, or watching outside winter sports, an alcoholic drink won't keep you warm. . . . what the term 80 Proof means on a bottle of liquor The term Proof indicates the amount of alcohol. The proof is twice the alcohol content. If a label on a bottle of liquor states 80 Proof, this means that the liquor contains 40 percent alcohol. The proof will vary depending on the type of liquor.
Technical training and energy system training should be put on a maintenance mode if done at all when training for added hypertrophy. Most coaches are probably having an anxiety attack reading these lines. However, my experience and the feedback from top-level coaches in alpine skiing, diving, figure skating, gymnastics and volleyball, support the fact that athletes perform their skills at a higher level when they return to them after a concentrated twelve week strength training block. Of course, a very brief period of adaptation (two-three weeks) is needed to reeducate the central nervous system in how to use that newly built body.
Walking briskly, biking, jogging, stair-climbing, cross-country skiing, jumping rope, and, yes, aerobic dance are all examples of aerobic activity. Generally speaking, anything involving weights and machines or a fair amount of standing in place is not considered aerobic activity.
Nevertheless, a range of other carbohydrate-rich drinks and foods, including chocolate bars, may be consumed successfully by athletes during exercise and may be chosen on the basis of practical issues such as taste, cost and availability. Solid foods such as chocolate bars are a portable carbohydrate supply for athletes who need to transport their own provisions (e.g. road cyclists, cross-country skiers and hikers). They may also offer some taste variety and satiety for athletes undertaking ultra-endurance events. Whether an athlete 'on the move' such as a runner has the opportunity to unwrap and consume a bar might be taken into consideration, as must the 'keeping' characteristics of chocolate bars in hot conditions.
During aerobic metabolism, both glucose and fat can be broken down in the presence of oxygen. This will predominate during exercise lasting longer than 2 minutes. Longer duration exercise promotes increased use of fat (jogging, running, brisk walking, cross-country skiing, biking).
The effects of caffeine on strength are variable, and may be related to sensitivity differences based on muscle type. Other studies suggested that caffeine enhances endurance in submaximal, long-term exercises including cross-country skiing, cycling and running (7580). Subjects consuming caffeine before exercise generally increased their total work output and time to exhaustion (76, 77, 80). Numerous other studies failed to demonstrate any significant effects. These inconsistent results suggest that caffeine's effects may be mediated by other variables including training, dietary patterns, type of exercise and prior use of caffeine.
Especially in very long lasting events. There are reports that CAF has a positive effect on 1500 m running and 1500 m swimming, on a 1 h cycling time trial, on 21 km cross country skiing as well as on the capacity to perform work during a 2 h cycle test. Some studies focused on the effects of CAF on short-term high intensity performance. The results of these studies are not as consistent as those of the endurance studies. However, generally it is thought that CAF can have positive effects on high intensity endurance by improving mechanisms that determine the maximal power output at the level of the central nervous system and neuromuscular function. In a recent study, by Maastricht University in The Netherlands, it was shown that the intake of carbohydrate electrolyte solutions with relatively low levels of CAF improved a 1 h time trial performance significantly (342), compared to the no CAF situation. It has also been suggested that CAF may have a positive effect on the quantity of...
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