Immortality Is Within Our Grasp

Discover The Secret Of Immotality

Discover The Secret Of Immortality

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111 Fantastic Voyage, high-tech visionary Ray Kurzweil teams up with life-extension expert Dr Terry Grossman to consider the extraordinary benefits to human health and longevity promised by cutting edge science - and to tell you what you can do today to take advantage of these startling developments. Citing research findings so remarkable they almost sound like science fiction, the authors offer a programme designed to slow ageing and disease processes to the point where you should be in sufficiently good health and good spirits to benefit when the more extreme life-extending and life-enhancing technologies now in development become available.

  • A wake-up call to even the most health-conscious people, Fantastic Voyage boldly challenges conventional wisdom about ageing and illness and offers ground-breaking solutions to remain young and healthy indefinitely.' John Gray, author of Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus
  • Fantastic Voyage is truly breathtaking - a concise yet comprehensive journey that accurately recounts the past and present state of our collective knowledge in the diverse fields of biology, medicine and information technology. Whether you are driven by intellectual curiosity or concern for your own personal wellness, you will find this book fascinating and educational. A must read.' Dean Kamen, physicist and medical inventor

MACMILLAN

MACMILLAN

www.rodale.co.uk

RODALE

www.panmacmillan.com

www.rodale.co.uk

Note from e-book creator:

I created tins electronic version of the book to make it more widely «available so a

lot of people can get health benefits from it, I realize the actual number of people who bought tins book (including myself) is relatively small comparing to the whole world population - even though it is 2 yeans since the book was published and it 111 fact became a bestseller.

I urge you to distribute tliis book to your family, friends, people you care about and 111 the wider sense to anybody 011 the net If you use P2P software to

00 0

download the files from the Internet - keq> tins file 111 the shared folder, so other people can download it.

I put a lot of effort to scan the book and to create tins electronic version You can do your small pait by sharing it We all want to be healthy and live longer, so dont keq> that infonnation to yourself I hope some people will volunteer to translate it into other languages. Keq> in mind not eveiyone speaks English If your onginal language is not English and you feel up to the job then please translate it to vow original laniniase and share it with your countiynieiL

I do not wish to reveal my identity, as tins book is a copyrighted material and I do not have any permission from the authors.

Hie authors of this book - Ray Ivuizweil and Terry Grossman put a big effort to create tins book. I realize that by distributing it online they do not get the profit tliev are entitled to. Tliat's whv I strondv w<re you to eventually l>uv the book

On the other hand reading die paper book is much more convenient and you will need to refer to it very often.

See the Amazon web site for book into:

http //www amazon convFantas ti c-\ ~o) a ge -Long-Enou gli-

Forever/dp/l5~9549 543

Hie autfiors created dedicated web site dedicated fortius book See it at http //www fantastic-voyage net

I would also like to recommend to you the other book written by Ray Kurzweil:

0 00

The Singularity is Near.

http /- www amazon com Sm^ilantv-Near-Hxmians-Tianscend-Biologv%06~0033S4~

Enjoy it.

CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xi

CHAPTER i:YOU CAN LIVE LONG

ENOUGH TO LIVE FOR EVER i

Immortality is within our grasp. The knowledge exists, if aggressively applied, for you to slow ageing and disease processes to such a degree that you can be in good health and good spirits when the more radical life-extending and life-enhancing technologies become available over the next couple of decades.

CHAPTER 2 : T H E BRIDGES TO COME 14

We are in the early stages of multiple profound revolutions spawned by the intersection of biology, information science, and nanotechnology. With the decoding of the genome and our efforts to decode its expression in proteins, many new and powerful methodologies are emerging. These include rational drug design (drugs designed for very precise missions with few or no side effects), tissue engineering (regrowing our cells, tissues, and organs), reversal of ageing processes, gene therapy (essentially reprogramming our genetic code), nanobots (robots the size of blood cells built from molecules placed in our bodies and bloodstreams to enhance every aspect of our lives), and many others. Some of these transformations will bear fruit before the ink is dry from printing this book.

CHAPTER 3: OUR PERSONAL JOURNEYS 33

Each of us comes to concerns about our health and well-being in a different way Study and reflection, the experiences of relatives and friends, and our own experiences of pain and joy all play a role. These are our stories, a journey of decades of exploration and the intersection of our paths that brought us to write this book together.

CHAPTER 4: FOOD AND WATER 42

Animals spend most of their effort pursuing food as well as avoiding becoming a predator's next meal. Most of human effort throughout our history has also been devoted to hunting, foraging, growing, cultivating, transporting, and preparing food. Our food choices also have a profound impact on health and disease. We start our exploration of food by looking at its most common constituent: water, a far more complex substance than is commonly understood. Consuming the right type of water is vital to detoxifying the body's acidic waste products and is one of the most powerful health treatments available.

CHAPTER 5: CARBOHYDRATES

AND THE GLYCAEMIC LOAD 49

Carbohydrates are vital to the primary energy cycle in the biological world. But we did not evolve to consume the large quantities of refined sugars and starches that make up most of the modern diet. Sugar and simple starches, which are converted into sugar in the body almost immediately, produce spikes in insulin, which in turn create carbohydrate cravings. This process underlies much of the population s inability to control excess weight, accelerates the ageing process, and increases the risk of heart disease. Sharply limiting these "high-glycaemic-load" foods will break this vicious circle.

CHAPTER 6: FAT AND PROTEIN 65

Fat is well known as a primary means of storing energy, both in the food we consume and in our body's own fat cells. In an era of abundant calories, excessive energy storage in the form of fat significantly accelerates atherosclerosis, glucose intolerance, and other degenerative processes. The modern Western diet has gone to an extreme imbalance in the omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio, so most people need to sharply reduce omega-6 fats, which encourage inflammatory processes, and increase omega-3 fats, which are anti-inflammatory and have been shown to reduce heart disease dramatically. Protein is another class of caloric nutrient that we cannot live without—it is nature's primary building block for our tissues and organs. The right types and balance of protein are the mainstay of a healthy diet low in carbohydrates and that sharply restricts bad fats.

CHAPTER 7: YOU ARE WHAT YOU DIGEST 85

Nutrition is one of the most powerful lifestyle influences on your health. Metabolic processes underlie the paths to the primary degenerative diseases. By understanding and assessing your personal metabolic pathways, you can reprogramme these processes away from disease and towards long-term vitality. Many digestive problems, such as leaky gut syndrome, will contribute to long-term degenerative disease if not diagnosed and corrected. Nutrition starts with what you eat, but the digestive process is also critical, because nutrients are beneficial only if they reach your cells.

CHAPTER 8: CHANGE YOUR WEIGFIT

FOR LIFE IN ONE DAY 107

You can significantly reduce your risk of all degenerative diseases, including heart disease, cancer, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension, by reaching your optimal weight. You'll have more energy and feel better. You'll look better too—perhaps the main reason why losing weight has become a widespread preoccupation. Closely related to losing weight is caloric restriction, the only proven method of extending life and slowing down ageing. We provide a programme that you can adopt quickly whilst reaching your ideal weight gradually. No radical changes in diet are required. 'You only need to make a single change to a healthy pattern of eating.

CHAPTER 9: THE PROBLEM

WITH SUGAR (AND INSULIN) 123

Per capita consumption of sugar and sugary sweeteners in the United States now exceeds 68 kg (150 lb) per year. When sugar or high glycaemic foods are eaten, blood levels of insulin rise dramatically. Whilst insulin is necessary to health, elevated levels are highly toxic. Over time, excessive sugar consumption and high insulin levels will often lead to metabolic syndrome, also known as syndrome X, a major risk factor for heart disease now found in one-third of the adult population. Another result is that one adult in twelve now has type 2 diabetes. There are simple ways to find out if you have, or are at risk of having, these conditions, and there are dietary and nutritional strategies for effectively controlling them.

CHAPTER 10: RAY'S PERSONAL PROGRAMME 139

My fathers premature death at the age of 58 from heart disease and my own diagnosis of type 2 diabetes at the age of 35 motivated my early health concerns. The conventional medical advice made my diabetes worse and did little to alleviate my concern about a genetic predisposition to heart disease. Nevertheless, I have been able to overcome these challenges by aggressively applying the right ideas. More recently, I have become aware of a more insidious problem: as a biological human, I am potentially subject to ageing processes. I am now engaged in the same sort of multifaceted warfare against this pervasive challenge. Although I am now a chronological 56, my goal is to be no more than a biological 40 by the time we have the means to completely arrest and reverse ageing in about 20 years. So far, so good.

CHAPT ER ii: THE PROMISE OP GENOMICS 14ft

Your genes provide you with a powerful set of tendencies, but you need to remember that these are predispositions only. The lifestyle choices you make control how these tendencies will ultimately manifest themselves, but to make the right lifestyle choices, you need to know what genes you carry Personal genomics technology, wrhich became commercially available in 2002, allows you to do so. Yes, it can be unsettling to find you have a predisposition for certain diseases, but the good news is that ultimately we will have the tools to directly block killer genes as well as creating and inserting new healthy genes directly into your cells. For now, our priority is to modify the expression of these genes by controlling how our metabolic pathways affect our proteins, enzymes, and hormones. Ignorance is not bliss, and understanding your own genetic code represents vital intelligence in the battle for a long and healthy life.

CHAPTER 12: INFLAMMATION-

THE LATEST "SMOKING GUN" 160

When our normal state of balance is disrupted by injury or a pathogenic invader, our bodies respond with a complex cascade of reactions to restore balance. This reaction, which often manifests itself as inflammation, is critical to our survival. But in addition to acute inflammation, which is easily noticed, there is another, less obvious type of inflammation that smoulders in the body for decades. The overactivity of this "silent" inflammatory response can lead to cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, irritable bowel syndrome, several types of cancer, and other conditions. But we now have a new tool for measuring your level of silent inflammation—hs-CRP—and effective ways of decreasing inflammation.

CRITICALLY IMPORTANT TO YOUR HEALTH 172

Defective methylation processes can interfere with removal of toxins and lead to genetic damage. One major methylation process is involved in converting the dietary amino acid methionine into homocysteine, a toxic by-product. Many people have genetic defects that cause levels of this toxic metabolite to rise. This can accelerate numerous disease processes and ageing. However, by appropriate nutritional supplementation you can optimize methylation reactions in the body to avoid these diseases and optimize health.

CHAPTER i 4: CLEANI NG UP THE MESS:

TOXINS AND DETOXIFICATION 181

Every system in your body has its own method of detoxification, with the liver doing the lion s share of the job. Over time, the onslaught of toxic material— chemicals, pollution of various kinds, pesticides, petrol fumes, heavy metals, plastics, and drugs, just to name a few—and the inadequacies in your body's ability to deal effectively with the massive cleanup task takes its toll. Avoidance of toxins and optimizing the detoxification process is crucial to maintaining health and slowing down the ageing process.

CHAPTER 15: THE REAL CAUSE OF HEART DISEASE AND HOW TO PREVENT IT 197

Heart disease is the number one killer of both men and women, claiming the lives of over 600,000 people in the United States and 238,000 in Britain each year. But there has been a recent revolution in our understanding of the underlying process. The primary cause of heart attacks is not the large, hard, calcified plaque that has been the focus of medical treatments such as angioplasty and bypass surgery. It's the less obstructing but more volatile and inflammatory soft plaque. The good news is that soft plaque can be dealt with more effectively than hard plaque. There is an intricate sequence of events that leads up to heart attacks and you can effectively attack the risk factors associated with each step along the way.

CHAPTER 16: THE PREVENTION AND EARLY DETECTION OF CANCER 233

We don't "catch" cancer; our bodies create it. Whilst age-adjusted death rates for heart disease have fallen almost 60 per cent in the past 50 years, the percentage of people dying from cancer has barely changed since 1950. You can dramatically reduce your risk of cancer with the right diet, nutritional supplements, and lifestyle choices. Routine screening tests for cancer detection require that the patient already has a moderately large tumour before they can detect it. We'll tell you about a novel test that can identify cancer when only a few cancer cells are found in the body.

CHAPTER 17: TERRY'S PERSONAL PROGRAMME 255

It is said that amongst the things you can do to enjoy a long and healthy life, it is best to start by picking your parents wisely. I am fortunate, on many levels, that both of my parents are alive and well at 80 years of age. They are physically and mentally active and enjoy a rich and varied social and cultural life. So it would appear that I started life with "a leg up" 011 longevity, thanks to their genes. Things aren't always so straightforward 111 medicine, however. My genomic testing revealed that I harbour several harmful genetic tendencies. Although 1 have enjoyed excellent health so far, I am now at the stage of my life where ones genetic predispositions have a way of manifesting themselves as "full-blown" diseases. But with the genetic information I now possess, I have been able to take specific measures to maintain my health, using the best of the Bridge One therapies. I am very optimistic about what the future Bridge Two and Bridge Three therapies will be able to do for both myself and the rest of humankind.

CHAPTER 1 8 : YOUR BRAIN: THE POWER OF THINKING . . . AND OF IDEAS 261

We now know that the brain is continuously rebuilding and reorganizing itself. Wliilst its true that we are what we eat (and digest), it is also the case that we are what we think. The brain represents more than half of our biological complexity. The most important way to keep the brain healthy is to keep it busy. Incidentally, one important topic that we can keep it busy thinking about is the health of our bodies and brains. There are also nutritional steps we can take to provide the metabolic foundation for cognitive health. The most important ally we have in maintaining our health is the power of ideas. Our primary adversary is ignorance. It is our view that the right ideas can overcome any problem and conquer any challenge.

CHAPTER 19: HORMONES OF AGEING,

HORMONES OF YOUTH 280

A decrease in hormone levels has long been associated with ageing. The hormones most commonly associated with youthfulness gradually diminish over time, and some fall off rapidly, such as during menopause. Other hormones decline only slightly or even tend to increase with age. Ageing results from a combination of these effects: the decrease in the hormones of youth and the relative increase (or slower decrease) in the hormones of ageing. We'll discuss methods to maintain a healthy balance of hormones as you age.

CHAPTER 20: OTHER HORMONES OF YOUTH: SEX HORMONES 291

The sex hormones—oestrogen, testosterone, and progesterone—have powerful youth-promoting effects. But there's a lot of controversy over the merits and dangers of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Most of the negative results coming from recent studies have involved chemically altered hormones. By utilizing bio-identical hormones, which are the same hormones as are found nat-

urally in the body, research suggests you can still receive the benefits of HRT without the risk. We'll discuss a programme of testing for hormone imbalances and methods of remediation with bio-identical hormones as well as herbal remedies and other supplements that will help you maintain a youthful balance of hormones throughout life.

CHAPTER 21: AGGRESSIVE SUPPLEMENTATION 312

Recent studies have proven that almost everyone requires one or more vitamins far in excess of reference nutrient intake (RNI) amounts to avoid illness. An optimal supplement programme goes beyond just taking vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. By utilizing genomics testing to diagnose your individual metabolic requirements, you can restore healthy balances and maintain optimal health with a personalized programme of aggressive supplementation.

CHAPTER 22: KEEP MOVING:

THE POWER OF EXERCISE 337

Primitive man and woman were not couch potatoes. In fact, they were more like marathon runners. The evidence is overwhelming that exercise enhances every one of your body's systems and reduces the risk of virtually every degenerative disease. Exercise works synergistically with a healthy diet and other lifestyle choices to enhance your sense of well-being and prevent disease. Aerobic, anaerobic, and stretching exercises are all important and have distinct benefits.

CHAPTER 23: STRESS AND BALANCE 353

The ability to confront danger is critical to our survival. But chronic activation of this mechanism can lead to increases in blood pressure and cholesterol, decreased blood flow to the liver and digestive organs, suppression of the immune system, and serious illnesses such as heart disease. Simply avoiding stress isn't the complete answer. We need a certain amount of challenge in our lives to avoid apathy and boredom. Our lives should be animated by the four C's: challenge, commitment, curiosity, and creativity. We present 12 effective ways to manage stress and achieve balance.

EPILOGUE 377

RESOURCES AND CONTACT INFORMATION 379

NOTES 3*o

INDEX 442

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Ray—I would like to express appreciation to my mother, Hannah, who gave me the confidence that I could solve any challenge, and to my wife, Sonya, and my kids, Ethan and Amy, who give me the motivation to live my life to the fullest.

Terry—I would like to express special thanks to my parents, Louis and Irene, who provided me with a world of possibilities; my children, Abraya and Samuel, for whom unlimited possibilities lie ahead; and to Karen, who has already done the impossible.

We would both like to thank the many talented and devoted people who assisted us in bringing this project to life.

At Rodale: Stephanie Tade, whose enthusiasm, inspired leadership, and discerning ideas made this book possible; Chris Potash, whose insightful editing made a significant contribution; Kelly Schmidt, for coordinating the many details of book production; Rachelle V. S. Laliberte, for her expert copyediting; Louise Braverman, Cathy Gruhn, and Meghan Phillips, for their publicity work; and Amy Rhodes, vice president and publisher of Rodale Trade Books, for her continued support of the book.

Loretta Barrett, our literary agent, whose keen guidance and efforts established our wonderful partnership with Rodale.

Martine Rothblatt, whose dedication to health and longevity and enthusiastic support of this project have greatly enhanced the book and our experience of creating it.

Amara Angelica, whose tireless and insightful efforts led our research team. Amara also used her outstanding editing skills to help us articulate the complex issues in this book. Elizabeth Collins, who conducted thorough and extensive research on technology projects and provided extensive assistance with the end-

x i notes and glossary. Celia Black-Brooks, who provided key insights on how to shape our message.

Laksman Frank, who created the attractive diagrams and images from our descriptions. Phil Cohen, who created the cardiovascular images in chapter 15.

Our research staff, Sarah Black, Tom Garfield, Emily Brown, and Daniel Pentlarge, who helped find and organize extensive research materials.

Nanda Barker-Hook, who helped manage the extensive logistics of the research and editorial processes.

Ken Linde and Matt Bridges, who provided computer systems support to keep our intricate work flow progressing smoothly.

Denise Scutellaro, Joan Walsh, Maria Ellis, and Bob Beal for doing the accounting on our complicated project.

Our peer expert readers:

Karen Kurtak, L.Ac., Dipl. Ac., for her contributions and ideas regarding the importance of organic foods and environmental toxins; Glenn S. Rothfeld, M.D., who carefully reviewed many of the chapters; Aubrey de Grey, for his expert review of the manuscript; Brian Grossman, M.D., D.V.M., regarding vitamin and mineral supplementation; Joel Miller, M.D., for reviews and contributions to our discussion of stress and balance; Melvin E. Clouse, M.D., for his thorough review of the chapter on heart disease; George Juetersonke, D.O., and Lee Light, M.D., who did a wonderful and thorough job of providing a detailed review of several chapters; Robert Rowen, M.D., editor of Second Opinion newsletter; Drs. Jeff and Greg Stock, Patrick Hanaway, M.D., of Genova Diagnostics, Lynn Parry, M.D., John McNamara, M.D., Rob Lyons, M.D., Steve Parcell, N.D., and Bob Litman, R. Ph., who provided detailed reviews of specific chapters and material. A special thank you also to Paul Dragul, M.D., for his support and inspiration.

Our lay readers, who provided keen insight to help shape the material: Aaron Kleiner, Martine Rothblatt, Mike Weiner, Nanda Barker-Hook, Sarah Black, Regina Mandl, Irene Grossman, and Robert Toale,

The above individuals provided many ideas and corrections that we were able to make thanks to their expert guidance. For any mistakes that remain, the authors take sole responsibility.

YOU CAN LIVE LONG ENOUGH TO LIVE FOR EVER

Do not go gentle into that good night, Old Age should burn and rave at close of day; Rage, rage against the dying of the light.

—Dylan Thomas

"J don't want to achieve immortality through my work, I want to achieve immortality through not dying."

—Woody Allen

Written at the height of the Cold War, Isaac Asimovs 1966 science-fiction thriller Fantastic Voyage shifted the public's fascination from space travel to an even more fascinating journey—inside the human body. In the novel, scientists on "our side" as well as the unnamed "other side" have developed a miniaturization technology that promises victory for whoever can perfect it first. However, the technology has a fatal flaw: the miniaturization wears off quickly.

Professor Benes has figured out a breakthrough that overcomes this limitation, but before he has a chance to communicate his crucial insight, he falls into a coma, with a potentially fatal blood clot in his brain. Against a backdrop of international intrigue, our side sends in a submarine with a team of five people using the still time-limited miniaturization technology to travel inside Benes s body and destroy the blood clot.

The team includes pilot Owens, who helms the submarine Proteus (now blood cell—size); Duvall, a brilliant neurosurgeon in charge of the medical mission; Peterson, the beautiful surgical assistant (played by Raquel Welch in the highly successful movie version); Michaels, a human-circulatory expert; and Grant, the mission leader from central intelligence. In the course of the drama, readers and viewers are treated to a genuinely fantastic voyage through the human body as the intrepid crew battles enormous white blood cells, insidious antibodies, annoying platelets, and a myriad other threats as they struggle to achieve their goal before the miniaturization catastrophically wears off.

The metaphor of Fantastic Voyage fits our book on several levels. First, we hope to treat you to a fantastic voyage through the human body. Our understanding of the complex processes underlying life, disease, and ageing has progressed enormously since 1966. We now have an unprecedented ability to comprehend our biology at the level of the tiniest molecular structures. We also have the opportunity to vastly extend our longevity, improve our well-being, and expand our ability to experience the world around us.

Asimov s fascination with miniaturization was prophetic. We are now in the early stages of a profound revolution in which we are indeed shrinking

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