Hypertension, atherosclerosis, and diabetes decrease arterial flexibility, contributing to poor blood flow and plaque formation. Rat aortas exposed to antho-cyanin-enriched blueberry extract in vitro exhibited relaxation caused by endothe-lium-generated nitric oxide (Andriambeloson et al., 1996). Delphinidin induced a maximal relaxation of 89 , which was comparable to red wine polyphenols A commercial V. myrtillus extract (Myrtocyan ) enhanced relaxation of calf aortas in an in vitro system that had been exposed to adrenalin (Bettini et al., 1985). The dose response was nearly linear as the extract concentration was increased from 25-100 g mL (Figure 3.2), and the researchers proposed that the relaxation of the blood vessels was due to inhibition of catechol-O-methyltransferases (COMT). Anthocyanins and ascorbic acid inhibited contractile responses of calf aortas in the presence of histamine or angiotensin II (Bettini et al., 1987). This effect was not observed when indomethacin or...
The transition to solid foods (Table 12.1) should begin when the infant is ready, not necessarily when the parent is ready. An infant will let you know through physical signs when they are prepared for solid foods. One of these signs is a relaxation of the gag reflex. The gag reflex propels undesirable items forward and out of the mouth. This reflex is strongest in infants and is still maintained to some degree throughout our life. Relaxation of the gag reflex allows an infant to swallow foods of a more solid consistency, such as cereals and purees. The ability of infants to form their mouths around spoons is another sign that solid foods are becoming more appropriate.
Production of nitric oxide (NO ), by hydroxylation of arginine, is a part of normal cell signalling. In addition to being a radical, and hence potentially damaging in its own right, nitric oxide can react with superoxide to form peroxynitrite, which in turn decays to yield the more damaging hydroxyl radical. Nitric oxide was first discovered as the endothelium-derived relaxation factor, and this loss of nitric oxide by reaction with superoxide may be an important factor in the development of hypertension.
Diastolic pressure is the bottom, smaller number. This represents the pressure in your arteries while your heart is relaxing between beats. During this relaxation period, your heart is filling up with blood for the next squeeze. Although both numbers are critically important, your doctor might be more concerned with an elevated diastolic number because this indicates that there is increased pressure on the artery walls even when your heart is resting.
Targeted and well-dosed physical stress helps keep avascular cartilage supplied with nutrients and free to metabolize waste products. Because of this and other factors, a physically active lifestyle is an important aspect of the complex treatment of joint disorders 32 . Various kinds of therapy are recommended for treating joint disorders, including functional training isometric, isotonic, and isokinetic exercises postural training and general strengthening exercises 33-37 . Stretching exercises are important to help muscles, tendons, and ligaments retain strength and ensure that no further restrictions in mobility develop 32 . Exercises should be moderate in nature to prevent stress to the joints. In addition, relaxation is important (at least 4-6 hours each day).
GER and aspiration in patients fed via a gastrostomy tube may be caused by relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) secondary to gastric distension caused by rapid intragastric bolus feeding. When feeding rate was slowed, LES pressure did not diminish to incompetent levels of 2 mmHg. In general, prospective studies have shown reduction of vomiting, pneumonia, restlessness and pain in more then 60 of patients. After PEG placement, 24-h pH monitoring improved, and histological reflux esophagitis normalized in these children. Anti-reflux surgery for PEG placement considerably increased the complications and failed to improve symptomatology. Thus, there does not seem to be a place for anti-reflux surgery unless symptoms progress after PEG placement, in
The following is a list of suggestions on how to prepare for sleep, adapted from the July 1992 issue of the University of California at Berkeley Wellness Letter. Readiness for sleep sets the stage for a good night's rest. In a recent study one group of insomniacs was treated with Halcion (a tranquilizer), while another learned to do some muscle relaxation combined with the steps listed below. At first the Halcion group got more sleep. However, the other group had caught up by the second week, and by the fifth week the behavior-training group was both falling asleep faster and sleeping better than the group using Halcion. Here is the program for sleep they were given
Hydrogen nuclei (protons), which are abundant in all biological tissues, and the magnetic fields generated and controlled by the MRI system. Hydrogen protons, which are abundant in all tissues, behave like tiny magnets. When a person is placed inside an MRI unit, where the magnetic field strength is typically 15,000 times stronger than the earth's, the magnetic moments of the protons in their body align themselves with the magnetic field. With the protons aligned in a known direction, a radiofrequency pulse is applied by the MRI system, which causes a number of hydrogen protons to absorb energy. When the radiofrequency pulse is turned off, the protons gradually return (relax) to their original positions, in the process releasing energy that is absorbed by the MRI unit in the form of a radiofre-quency signal. The MRI unit uses this signal to generate the cross-sectional images. Because different tissues have different relaxation properties, they release different amounts of energy....
And 22 subclasses that can be differentiated on the basis of structure and function. Four classes have been reported in the human GI tract (5-HTi, 5-HT2, 5-HT3 and 5-HT4).25 Serotonin action is complex, with mixed effects ranging from smooth muscle contraction via cholinergic nerves, to relaxation through stimulation of inhibitory nitric oxide-releasing neurons. Higher levels of serotonin are present in diarrhea-predominant IBS.26 The ENS has the ability to modulate signal transduction by enhancing or inhibiting the activation of nocicep-tors through alteration in smooth muscle tone and contractile activity. Visceral pain may be modulated also at the CNS level by emotional or cognitive factors, providing a rationale for the use of centrally acting agents or cognitive behavioral treatments in functional bowel disorders. Neuroimaging studies have provided information on differences in brain processing of visceral stimuli between normal individuals and those suffering from IBS, revealing...
Relaxation is also a factor in overcoming disease. More people die on Monday morning than on any other day of the week or any other time. Stress accelerates illness as it causes the eliminative organs and the muscular system to constrict and hold onto toxicity and metabolic waste. A proper diet will help immensely as certain foods (such as green-leafy vegetables) help to open up constricted muscles and certain other foods (such as juicy fruits) help to flush out the toxicity.
Early in the morning coffee is taken mostly to awaken. During the day coffee is taken more for conviviality (17 ) and relaxation (34 ) rather than for stimulation (14 ) only 7 take coffee to cope with stress (Harris Research Centre, 1996). Support for this comes from a study done by Hofer et al. (1993) in which 120 students were put on a strict abstinence regimen, after which they received caffeine during 12 complete days. Although caffeine abstinence caused moderate and transient withdrawal effects, there was no so-called titration of caffeine, that is, coffee consumers did not consume more when the coffee contained less caffeine. Apparently, caffeine itself is a minor reason for coffee consumption, although the studies by Hughes' team repeatedly show that abstained coffee drinkers prefer caffeinated coffee above decaffeinated coffee (Hughes et al., 1995).
Deficient cardiomyopathy Decreased antioxidant capacity reduced smooth muscle relaxation increased myocyte electrical vulnerability Keshan disease peripartum cardiomyopathy Impaired cell-mediated immunity reduced Low selenium levels may predispose an individual to ischemic heart disease and peripheral vascular disease.55 Selenium given to pigs during induced acute myocar-dial infarction suppressed the electrical vulnerability of myocardial cell mem-branes.55 Selenium also causes smooth muscle relaxation and may therefore become useful in the therapy of hypertension.56 Creatine is used to improve athletic performance. Patients with chronic heart failure develop skeletal myopathies.240 Muscle contraction and relaxation are fueled through the dephosphorylation of ATP, which must be rapidly resynthesized. Creatine serves as a phosphate donor to maintain high levels of intracellular ATP, and creatine supplementation increases the rate of phosphocreatine resynthesis.241 Skeletal muscle...
The pharyngeal phase of deglutition is the most complex and critical. The major component of the pharyngeal phase is the reflex swallow. This results from motor activity stimulated by cranial nerves IX and X. The reflex swallow may be triggered by a voluntary oral phase component or any stimulation of the afferent receptor in and around the anterior pillar.2 Bolus passage through the pharynx is accompanied by soft palate elevation, lingual thrust, laryngeal elevation and descent upper esophageal sphincter (UES) relaxation and pharyngeal constrictor peristalsis. The pharyngeal phase commences as the bolus head is propelled past the tongue pillars and finishes as the bolus tail passes into the esophagus.21 Once it begins, the pharyngeal phase is very quick, (1 s or less).2 It is characterized biomechanically by the operation of three valves and several propulsive mechanisms. The larynx closes and the palate elevates to disconnect the respiratory tract. The UES opens to expose the...
Anorectal manometry is a relatively safe, minor invasive technique. With an open perfusion system, pressures may be assessed in anal sphincter muscles at rest, at squeezing and during straining. During defecation, the pelvic pressure or rectal pressure increases, owing to abdominal muscle contraction, and the anal canal pressure decreases, creating a difference to allow defecation. A rectal balloon might be inflated to assess the rectal anal inhibitory reflex against relaxation of the internal anal sphincter. In the clinical setting, except for Hirschsprung's disease, the majority of children have normal anorectal pressures.
Anorectal manometry evaluates the response of the internal anal sphincter to inflation of a balloon in the rectal ampulla.17 When the rectal balloon is inflated, there is normally a reflex relaxation of the sphincter. The rectoanal inhibitory reflex is absent in patients with Hirschsprung's disease there is no relaxation, or there may even be paradoxical contraction of the internal anal sphincter (Figure 17.2). Anorectal manometry is particularly useful when the aganglionic segment is short and the results of radiological or pathological studies are equivocal.
Catheter is slowly withdrawn until the sensor is measuring LES pressure. Under quiet respirations, resting LES pressure is measured at mid-respiration. Swallow-induced LES relaxation is measured with the patient taking several wet swallows using small volumes of liquid. The catheter is further withdrawn until the distal sensor is a few centimeters above the LES and the proximal sensors are spaced throughout the esophageal body. Esophageal peristalsis and wave progression are assessed during several more wet swallows. Because achalasia affects the smooth muscles of the esophagus, the manometric findings involve the mid- and distal esophagus, sparing the proximal regions of predominantly striated muscle. The two manometric abnormalities found in all patients with achalasia are aperistalsis of the eso-phageal body and abnormal LES relaxation.1,67-69 Simultaneous, low-amplitude contractions ( 40 mmHg) throughout the esophageal body are characteristic of the aperistalsis seen after wet...
Pycnogenol and grape-seed extract have the added advantage of powerfully inhibiting gluta-mate-induced excitotoxicity, which as we have seen, plays a major role in the brain injury caused by strokes. In addition, pycnogenol produces relaxation of the smooth muscle in blood vessels, thereby increasing blood flow.
The most distal part of the gastrointestinal tube is formed by the anal sphincter complex, and is responsible for maintaining fecal continence. This sphincter complex is embedded in the striated pelvic floor, where the puborectalis muscle joins the upper end of the external anal sphincter with a sling. The anal sphincter complex therefore consists of a smooth muscle component of the internal anal sphincter and a striated muscle component of the external anal sphincter and the puborectalis muscle. The internal anal sphincter is tonically contracted and generates 85 of the anal resting pressure, keeping the anal canal closed at rest. It is not under voluntary control, and is innervated by the enteric nervous system. Stimulation of mechanoreceptors in the rectal wall and the sigmoid activates intramural inhibitory neurons, leading to relaxation of the internal anal sphincter, called the anorectal inhibition reflex.7 This occurs after presentation of stool or gas to the anal canal. The...
Nitric oxide (NO) is a major mediator of vascular relaxation that also inhibits platelet adherence to endothelium. Evidence suggests that wine polyphenols may modulate the production of nitric oxide, since wines, grape juice, and extracts from grape skins relaxed precontracted rat aortic rings (Andriambeloson et al., 1997 1998). In addition, quercetin could reproduce the effects of wine and grape fractions, while resveratrol, catechin, and malvidin could not (Fitzpatrick et al., 1995 Keaney, 1995). In human subjects who consumed grape juice for 14 d, endothelial-dependent vasodilation was about three-fold higher than in controls (Stein et al., 1999). Taken together these results are interesting, but most of the work has been in vitro and further studies are needed to define the role of polyphenols in inducing vasodilation, particularly after in vivo consumption, and it remains unknown whether such effects could translate into reduced risk for CVD.
The resting state of the LES is one of contraction. Cholinergic neurons provide resting tone, whereas inhibitory neurons provide vagal-mediated relaxation34,41,42 Vagal efferents contain both excitatory and inhibitory signals however, the predominant effect of vagal stimulation is LES relaxation, as mediated by non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) nerves.43 In normal patients, stimuli from gastric, esophageal and pharyngeal sensory nerves Two strong candidates for mediation of LES relaxation are vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and nitric oxide (NO). After it was realized that VIP was found in high concentrations in gut sphincters, subsequent investigations showed it to be a potent inhibitor of LES contraction in vitro.45,46 Further association of VIP with sphinc-teric relaxation and achalasia is suggested by immunohistochemical studies that have shown decreased or absent VIP-containing neurons in LES specimens from patients with achalasia.47-49 Human manometric studies have...
The elite athlete experiences limitations and physiological changes in pregnancy similar to the recreational athlete, including ligament relaxation, change in posture, and weight gain. These changes may in turn impact a woman's competitive ability and increase her desire for strenuous training, making her more prone to injury 12 . The
Mechanism of esophageal reflux resulting from weak lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure valve, or inappropriate relaxation of the LES. Mechanism of esophageal reflux resulting from weak lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure valve, or inappropriate relaxation of the LES.
Five per cent of patients with chronic Chagas' disease develop poor LES relaxation and mega-esophagus that mimics classic achalasia,26 which suggests that an infectious etiology of achalasia is possible. The protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi which causes Chagas' disease acts through direct invasion of cells, toxin production or antigenic factors to cause degeneration of esophageal neurons. The mechanism of this process is also uncertain, and may be from direct injury to neurons of the esophagus, an inflammatory reaction or the generation of autoantibodies against these nerves.27 Potential infectious candidates for idiopathic achalasia include measles and varicella viruses, but as yet no firm evidence exists to confirm this associa-tion.25'28-31
If you are tense or anxious much of the time due to busy work or family life, not to mention dealing with any emotional stress, your body will create toxins as by-products. Let's face it, life is demanding -how often can you say that you feel truly relaxed A little stress is good for you as it gives you the drive to achieve the things you like to achieve. However, it is when you don't have a good balance of drive versus relaxation that you can feel overwhelmed and run into problems. A detox is the first step to turn your health around.
Synthesis or degradation of glycogen in the liver and the muscle is regulated by many factors. Synthesis will normally take place if the supply of glucose 'building units' exceeds the need of glucose for energy production, i.e. if the amount of glucose within the cell increases. This situation occurs after meals, when during a state of physical relaxation the digestion and absorption of carbohydrate lead to increased blood glucose levels in a hormonal milieu which favours synthesis. Thus, insulin will be high, glucagon and stress hormones will be low. In this situation the cells will take up glucose and the enzyme glycogen synthetase will be activated (+), whereas glycogen phosphorylase will be inhibited ( ).
Intraluminal manometry, performed using a transnasally positioned manometric assembly, can quantify the strength of pharyngeal contraction, the completeness of UES relaxation and the relative time of these two events. Most studies have indicated that manometry of the UES and pharynx provides useful information, primarily in patients who have symptoms of oropharyngeal dysfunction. Figure 15.5 Upper esophageal sphincter (UES) motility in a control child. The pressure is recorded in the pharynx, in the UES, and in the cervical esophagus. Note that the onset of UES relaxation precedes pharyngeal contraction, which is terminated before the return of UES pressure to resting values. UES relaxation is complete to the level of the esophageal resting pressure (dashed line). Contraction of the UES continues into the cervical esophagus as the primary wave (dots) of swallowing. From reference 27. Figure 15.5 Upper esophageal sphincter (UES) motility in a control child. The pressure is recorded in...
L-Tryptophan is a building block of the neurotransmitter serotonin known to help with sleep and relaxation. Some strength athletes have found that by taking 500 to 1000mg of tyrosine prior to exercise, they have more energy, but no studies to date have found this to be an effect of Tyrosine.
This is a great time to detox your mind while you detox your body. Consider doing a meditation course or listening to relaxation or meditation CDs or tapes during your detox (available from good book stores). The benefits of meditation are excellent - reduced blood pressure, improved sleep, better concentration, improved creativity and productivity, more motivation, less negative self-talk, and a more relaxed outlook.
Central control of lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. Am J Med 2000 108 90S-98S. 60. Tottrup A, Ny L, Alm P et al. The role of the l-arginine nitric oxide pathway for relaxation of the human lower oesophageal sphincter. Acta Physiol Scand 1993 149 451-459.
The most convenient approach in the majority of cases is by daily enemas, better administered after returning from school, as it might take some time to induce defecation.36 The effect is mainly due to a sudden increase in rectal filling, which leads to a strong rectal contraction and reflex relaxation of the internal anal sphincter, often followed by a bowel movement. The advantage of an enema strategy is a direct effect on overflow incontinence and relief for the child and parents. Enemas have the effect of hyperosmosis and increased fluids in the colon furthermore, they lubricate the feces and distend the colon. Enemas used in children may contain dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate and sorbitol or phosphate. Also, oil enemas and tap water enemas can be used. Hyperphosphate enemas in children have some risk when the enema administration is not followed by defecation and might lead, through retention, to hyper-phosphatemia, subsequent hypocalcemia, hypokalemia and dehydration.37,38 Also,...
Theobromine, caffeine and theophylline share several physiological actions, including stimulation of the central nervous system (CNS), diuretic effects, stimulation of cardiac muscle, and relaxation of smooth muscle, notably bronchial muscle. However, they differ greatly in the intensity of their actions on the various systems (Table 10.4). For example, caffeine appears to exert its strongest effect on brain and skeletal muscle theophylline's most potent effects are on the heart, bronchia and kidneys. In general, theobromine tends to exert the least physiological effect of these three methylxanthines.
Planning to start a diet on a quiet weekend at home is unwise, and scheduling it to begin during a restful vacation is an absolutely wretched idea. Not only will you manage to wreck what would otherwise be a blessed period of serene relaxation, you'll have to deal with the
Relaxation and Prayer While many suggest relaxation of any sort, as a Christian, I suggest prayer. Not only is it relaxing but, as a believer, I feel it realigns my life so that I can spend time communing with God, praising Him and asking for His help and guidance. Everything else should take second place to this special time. God gave us a day of rest and we should observe it.
Swallow-induced peristalsis and the associated relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter can be studied using a Dent sleeve assembly modified for use in infants or young children.10 Particular attention should be paid to the nature of the primary peristaltic sequence and whether secondary peristalsis occurs in response to reflux. The presence of tertiary contractions and the amplitude and form of the contractile waves should also be noted, as should the behavior of the lower esophageal sphincter.
Relaxation Audio Sounds Relaxation
This is an audio all about guiding you to relaxation. This is a Relaxation Audio Sounds with sounds called Relaxation.