Foods That Reduce Inflammation

Organic Health Protocol

This eBook from professional trainer and nutritionist Thomas DeLauer and Dr. Mike Brookins shows you all of the secrets to reducing inflammation all through your body. These body hacks are secrets to the way that your body works that you would never have thought of. You will learn the foods that you will need to avoid in order to have a really healthy life. You will learn to reset your body in 7 days or less just by eating organic, really healthy foods. Food affects they way that your body works so much more than people tend to believe. You will learn how to cut through all the nonsense that you will read on the internet and get right to the part that heals your inflammation and other health problems. Inflammation is only a symptom If you are not healthy and eating well, your whole body will suffer. We give you a way to reverse that! Continue reading...

Organic Health Protocol Overview

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Contents: Ebook
Author: Thomas DeLauer
Official Website: organichealthprotocol.com

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My Organic Health Protocol Review

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All of the information that the author discovered has been compiled into a downloadable pdf so that purchasers of Organic Health Protocol can begin putting the methods it teaches to use as soon as possible.

As a whole, this manual contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs NSAIDs

In addition to RICE, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often used. In the case of an acute injury which involves bleeding, bruising, or swelling, NSAIDs should not be started until after the bleeding has stopped (may take days) and the swelling has stabilized. Some side-effects of NSAIDs include

Antiinflammatory effects of selenium

Se compounds have anti-inflammatory properties, probably resulting from their ability to influence the redox state of the cell and to remove ROS (Parnham and Graf, 1987). Recently, it has been realized that ROS serve as secondary messengers within cells, conveying signals of oxidative damage from the plasma membrane through the cellular signalling cascades by influencing kinase activity and by regulating the induction of transcription factors and their DNA-binding ability in the nucleus (Lander, 1997 McKenzie et al., 2002). Many protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions require thiol groups or cysteine residues on the proteins to be in a reduced state. This can be regulated by the thioredoxin reductase thioredoxin system. The complexities of these interactions are still being unravelled. However, two key anti-inflammatory targets of Se are the transcription factors, activated protein 1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB). These factors and the genes encoding them are activated...

Is the Ratio of Omega to Omega Important and What Ratio Is Best

Many of the eicosanoids made from omega-3 fatty acids reduce some of the key operations involved in atherosclerosis and heart attacks. For instance, one prostaglandin called prostacyclin or PGI2 is very potent inhibitor of blood clotting. This seems to be very significant as many heart attacks occur because blood clots form or become lodged in a narrowed coronary artery. Other omega-3 fatty acid based eicosanoids reduce inflammation, a key process in atherosclerosis and promote vasodilation to allow for better blood flow through heart arteries. This helps us understand why individuals who eat diets higher in omega-3 fatty acids, such as certain Eskimo populations, show a lower incidence of heart disease. In general a ratio of around 4 to 1 (omega-6 to omega-3) is recommended.

Can Garlic Help Prevent Heart Disease

Garlic has sulfur-containing substances including allicin and its breakdown products diallyl sulfides, which are purported to have medicinal properties. There are several reasons to believe that garlic can play a role in preventing heart disease. First, garlic-derived compounds lessens the activity of the key enzyme in cholesterol formation. However, garlic supplementation has not consistently been shown to lower blood cholesterol levels. Researchers have determined that garlic might be an inhibitor of blood clot formation, which is a principal cause of heart attacks, as well as having anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Considered together there is strong reason to believe that garlic can play a contributing role in promoting a healthy cardiovascular system.

Changes in gene expression

A second group of transcription factors currently undergoing scrutiny for their role in inflammation are the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). The main members of this family are PPARa and PPAR7. PPARa and 7 play important roles in liver and adipose tissue, respectively (Schoonjans et al., 1996). However, they are also found in inflammatory cells (Chinetti et al., 1998 Ricote et al., 1998). PPARs can bind, and appear to be regulated by, PUFAs and eicosanoids (Kleiwer et al., 1995 Devchand et al., 1996). PPARa-deficient mice have a prolonged response to inflammatory stimuli (Devchand et al., 1996), suggesting that PPARa activation might be anti-inflammatory. More recently, activators of both PPARa and PPAR7 have been shown to inhibit the activation of a number of inflammatory genes (Jiang et al., 1998 Poynter and Daynes, 1998 Ricote et al., 1998 Jackson et al., 1999 Marx et al., 1999 Takano et al., 2000 Wang et al., 2001 Xu et al., 2001). Two mechanisms for the...

Chondroitin Sulfate

It is still not clear what the actions are of chondroitin sulfate when taken as a nutritional supplement. Purported effects are the promotion and maintenance of the structure and function of cartilage in the joints of the body. It has also been reported that chondroitin sulfate has anti-inflammatory and pain relief effects. The biochemistry has been known for some time. Chondroitin sulfate is a GAG, previously described in the glucosamine mechanisms. It is essential for the structure and function of articular cartilage and provides the same properties as hyaluronic acid. While intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid have been shown to relieve joint pain and improve mobility, the same has not yet been demonstrated for chondroitin sulfate. It is speculated that oral ingestion of chondroitin sulfate may lead to an increase in hyaluronic acid. Thus, cartilage breakdown would be inhibited.6

Alternative Medicine Complementary Medicine and Integrative Medicine

The terms alternative medicine and alternative therapies refer to those medical practices that are not considered to be conventional medicine, as practiced in the United States. Other cultures, however, may use one or more of these approaches regularly, and, in fact, many have done so for thousands of years. Most people in the United States who use alternative medicine do so to complement conventional approaches. For example, in addition to using anti-inflammatory drugs to ease muscle pain, they may also use massage, chiropractic, and or osteopathic manipulation. This practice of complementing conventional medicine with alternative approaches has given rise to the term complementary medicine. Presently, alternative medicine is most commonly referred to as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). As conventional medical practitioners become familiar with alternative approaches, these approaches are being integrated into conventional medicine, which is giving rise to integrative...

Butterflied sardines in vine leaves with eggplant

Sardines are high in omega 3 fatty acids, which are wonderful anti-inflammatory agents in the body. Not only are omega 3s good for reducing inflammation, they also help reduce your risk of cardiovascular disease. As a bonus, you can eat the bones in sardines, making them a good source of calcium. Ask your fishmonger to butterfly the sardines for you.

Causes of Hypertension

Many prescription and over-the-counter drugs can cause or exacerbate hypertension. For example, corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs increase blood pressure in most solid-organ transplant recipients. Medication taken for pain and inflammation such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors may raise blood pressure since their antiprostaglandin properties affect the kidneys.

EPA and DHA and innate immune function

Feeding fish oil to laboratory animals has been reported to decrease macrophage functions, including generation of reactive oxygen species and production of TNF-a, IL-1 and IL-6 (e.g. Billiar et al., 1988 Hubbard et al., 1991 Renier et al., 1993). Fish oil, compared with other fat sources, resulted in lower concentrations of TNF-a, IL-1 p and IL-6 in the bloodstream after endotoxin injection or burns (e.g. Hayashi et al., 1998 Sadeghi et al., 1999). Thus, these studies support the idea that fish oil has anti-inflammatory effects. There are, however, opposing studies. For example, Somers et al. (1989) reported that cultured peritoneal macrophages from mice fed fish-oil-supplemented diets exhibited higher TNF-a activity after endotoxin stimulation than did macrophages from mice fed a diet high in linoleic acid. Thus, studies in animals and humans have demonstrated that high levels of fish oil or its component n-3 PUFAs in the diet exert potent anti-inflammatory effects, particularly...

Mechanisms Glucosamine

It is still not clear what the actions are of glucosamine taken as a nutritional supplement. Purported effects are the promotion and maintenance of the structure and function of cartilage in the joints of the body. It has also been reported that glucosamine has anti-inflammatory effects. The biochemistry, however, has been known for quite some time. Glucosamine, a sugar and a sulfated amino monosaccharide, is involved in glycoprotein metabolism where it is found in proteoglycans as polysaccharide groups called GAGs. All GAGs contain derivatives of glucosamine or glactosamine. These polysaccharides comprise 95 of the ground substance in the intracellular matrix of connective tissue. One of the GAGs, hyaluronic acid, is essential for the function of articular cartilage and is responsible for shock absorbing and deformability functions.6 In vitro studies show that it can alter chondrocyte metabolism it is not clear whether oral glucosamine can reach chondrocytes in vivo.8 Over 90 of the...

Direct effects of glutathione

Enced a fall in concentration after exercise showed a 30 fall in CD4+ T-cell numbers. The decline in T-cell number was prevented by administration of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) (this is metabolized to cysteine (see later)). This study suggests that immune cell function may be sensitive to a range of intracellular sulphydryl compounds, including glutathione and cysteine. In HIV+ individuals and patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), a reduction in cellular and plasma glutathione has been noted (Staal et al., 1992). It is unclear at present whether the depletion in lymphocyte population that occurs in these subjects is related to this phenomenon. However, in a large, randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled trial, administration of 600 mg day-1 of NAC for 7 months resulted in both anti-inflammatory and immunoenhancing effects (Breitkreutz et al., 2000). A decrease in plasma IL-6 concentration occurred, together with an increase in lymphocyte count and in the...

Phytochemical Diversity And Associated Biological Activities

The alkamides (isobutylamides) (Figure 2.2) and related polyacetylenes are fatty-acid derived molecules with unsaturated double and triple bond systems and are distributed in roots and flowers. E. angustifolia roots are an especially rich source of these compounds. The isobutylamides are the taste-tingling components of Echinacea that have analgesic properties and provide relief for sore throat symptoms. The isolated alkamides are also known to be mammalian lipoxygenase (LOX) and cyclo-oxygenase (COX) inhibitors (Muller-Jakic et al., 1994) which confer an anti-inflammatory activity. New research from our group has shown that lipophilic extracts of Echinacea containing isobutylamides and polyacetylenes are toxic to a variety of pathogenic fungi, including multidrug-resistant Candida spp. (Binns et al., 2000). This activity is enhanced by light and is relevant to traditional uses for treatments of sores and wounds and modern uses of Echinacea as a topical agent. Further studies by J....

Essential fatty acids and other specific fatty acids

In the context of wound healing, the obvious role for essential fatty acids is on modulation of inflammation and the immune response.112-114 An examination of the literature in this area will uncover some conflicting data as to the benefits of essential rn-3 and rn-6 fatty acids in wound healing. One study in essential fatty acid deficient (EFAD) rats found that the healing rate of partial-thickness cutaneous burns was significantly decreased compared to controls.115 However, this study also found that healed single dorsal skin incisions were stronger in control animals, but there was no difference between the groups when ventral skin incisions with underlying fascial incisions were measured. These results would suggest that the type of wound or wound location and regional environment (adipose tissue ) may influence healing. Another study on cutaneous wound healing in EFAD rats concluded that essential fatty acids were not necessary for cutaneous wound repair.116 In this study, there...

Effects on physical performance

Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation has been utilized for muscle inflammation and soreness, and its use is based on the anti-inflammatory response that these The effect of ro-3 fatty acids, specifically EPA and DHA, has been tested on cytokine production during strenuous exercise due to their modulation on the production of pro-inflamatory and immunoregulatory cytokines.109 Strenuous exercise induces an acute-phase response with increased plasma concentration of IL-6,110 IL-1 receptor antagonist,111 and TNF-a.112 It is also thought that the anti-inflammatory cytokine, and transforming growth factor (TGF)- 1, is increased in physiological states similar to strenuous exercise.109 Therefore, the effect of 6.0 g day of fish oil supplementation containing 3.6 g of ro-3 fatty acids (approximately 1.9 g of EPA and 1.1 g of DHA), and tocopherol for 6 weeks on male runners before participating in a marathon was examined.109 The study aimed to investigate whether fish oil supplementation could...

Bad Cardio vs Good Cardio

Function, causes muscle wasting, and can cause a pro-inflammatory response in the body that can potentially lead to chronic diseases. On the other hand, highly variable cyclic training has been linked to increased anti-oxidant production in the body and an anti-inflammatory response, a more efficient nitric oxide response (which can encourage a healthy cardiovascular system), and an increased metabolic rate response (which can assist with weight loss). Furthermore, steady state endurance training only trains the heart at one specific heart rate range and doesn't train it to respond to various every day stressors. On the other hand, highly variable cyclic training teaches the heart to respond to and recover from a variety of demands making it less likely to fail when you need it. Think about it this way -- Exercise that trains your heart to rapidly increase and rapidly decrease will make your heart more capable of handling everyday stress. Stress can cause your blood pressure and heart...

Fruits And Vegetables A Population Studies

The many flavonoids in fruit and vegetables have extensive biological properties that reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Flavonoids are among the most potent antioxidants. They protect LDL cholesterol from oxidation inhibit the formation of blood clots and have vasopressive and hypolipidemic effects and anti-inflammatory action.49,50 Some polyphenols have hypocholesterolemic effects mediated by reduced intestinal cholesterol absorption and increased bile acid excretion. European studies have found flavonoid intake to be inversely associated with heart disease mortality, and the incidence of heart attack and stroke over a 5-year Anthocyanin pigments, the water-soluble, reddish pigments found in fruits such as strawberries, cherries, cranberries, raspberries, blueberries, grapes, and black currants, are reported to be antioxidants and are very effective in scavenging free radicals, inhibiting LDL cholesterol oxidation and platelet aggregation, and protecting against...

Strength of evidence

When substituted for saturated fatty acids in metabolic studies, both monounsaturated fatty acids and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids lower plasma total and LDL cholesterol concentrations (10) PUFAs are somewhat more effective than monounsaturates in this respect. The only nutritionally important monounsaturated fatty acids is oleic acid, which is abundant in olive and canola oils and also in nuts. The most important polyunsaturated fatty acid is linoleic acid, which is abundant especially in soybean and sunflower oils. The most important n-3 PUFAs are eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid found in fatty fish, and a-linolenic acid found in plant foods. The biological effects of n-3 PUFAs are wide ranging, involving lipids and lipoproteins, blood pressure, cardiac function, arterial compliance, endothelial function, vascular reactivity and cardiac electrophysiology, as well as potent anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory effects (11). The very long chain n-3 PUFAs...

Strengthening the Heart Muscle

This extract has been shown to improve blood flow through all tissues, especially the heart and brain. It also contains numerous antioxidant flavonoids and special substances called ginkgolides, which have been shown to reduce blood viscosity and improve blood flow through the microvessels. There is also evidence that it reduces the irritability of the heart muscle (arrhythmia). It should not be taken with anticoagulants, aspirin, or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications.

Mechanism of the Effect of Oxidants and Antioxidants on Inflammation and Immune Function

Thus it can be hypothesized that antioxidants exert an immunoenhancing effect, by activating transcription factors that are strongly associated with cell proliferation (e.g. AP1), and an anti-inflammatory effect, by preventing activation of NFkB by oxidants produced during the inflammatory response.

Gastropathies due to drugs toxins and other agents

Acetylsalicylic acid and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs It is well known that acetylsalicylic acid and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can cause gastric injury including gastritis, gastric ulcers and gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Gastroduodenal damage can be seen at endoscopy in 20-40 of adults taking NSAIDs, and the overall risk for peptic complications (hemorrhage and perforation) in these patients is about three times greater than in controls.15 There are no data on the frequency of upper gastrointestinal injury in children related to NSAID use. Because of the risk of Reye syndrome and the availability of different types of antipyretic drugs, the use of acetylsalicylic acid and NSAIDs in children has significantly diminished.

Interactions with other nutrients and drugs

Omega-3 fatty acids may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with drugs that increase the risk of bleeding, including aspirin, anticoagulants such as warfarin or heparin, antiplatelet drugs such as clopidogrel, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen or naproxen.38 A reported case of 1000 to 2000 mg day intake of fish oil with warfarin medication indicated increased anticoagulation, and the ro-3 fatty acid in the oil may have affected platelet aggregation or vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors, and lowered thromboxane and decreased factor VII concentrations.69 In contrast, there was no effect on vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors, but lowered platelet integrin activation and plasma levels of fibrinogen factor V have been reported with an intake of 3 g of ro-3 fatty acids daily for 4 weeks.

Genetic and environmental factors

Esophagus is in part genetically determined.24 There is much information (in adults) demonstrating the aggravating effects of alcohol, smoking, drugs, dietary components, etc. on the incidence of GER. A detailed discussion on these environmental factors is beyond the scope of this chapter. Changes in lifestyle in men and women may result in the fact that the differences in incidence in GERD between both sexes may be disappearing. With pH monitoring, we could not demonstrate a male predominance in children. All forms of GERD affect Caucasians more often than African-Americans or Native Americans (adult data).14 However, the same prevalence of troublesome infant regurgitation was found in Caucasian and Indonesian infants.27 The importance of the genetic background was hypothesized by demonstrating that esophagitis and hiatus hernia were more common in a population with the same genetic background with dyspeptic symptoms in England than in Singapore.28 Race, sex, body mass index and age...

Effects of Selenium on the Immune System

Studies over the past 30 years have demonstrated that an adequate Se intake is essential for both cell-mediated and humoral (antibody-mediated) immunity (for reviews, see Spallholz ei al., 1990 Kiremidjian-Schumacher and Roy, 1998 McKenzie ei al., 1998 Kiremidjian-Schumacher ei al., 2000 Rayman, 2000). The immunomodulatory effects of Se occur through three principal mechanisms (i) anti-inflammatory effects of selenoproteins or selenocom-pounds (ii) selenoenzymes or Se compounds altering the redox state of the cell by acting as antioxidants and (iii) through the generation of cytostatic and anticancer compounds as products of Se metabolism.

Paint Your Plate with Color

Garnish your salad with sliced beets. Tuck spinach leaves in your sandwich. Color offers much more than eye appeal to a wonderful meal A rainbow of fruits and vegetables creates a palette of nutrients and phytonutrients on your plate, each with a different bundle of potential benefits in a healthful diet from oxidizing free radicals that may damage healthy cells, to having anti-inflammatory qualities, to lowering LDL cholesterol. See Phy-tonutrients-a 'Crop' for Good Health in chapter 4.

Vitamin C Blocks Carcinogenic Tumor Formation

7.5.2 Anti-Inflammatory A promising strategy applicable to the identification and development of chemopreventive agents is the inhibition of inflammation. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) are important enzymes that mediate inflammatory processes. Improper upregulation of COX-2 and or iNOS is associated with the pathophysiology of certain types of human cancers as well as with inflammatory disorders. Tumor promoters and lipopolysaccharide can induce inflammation through the overexpression of COX-2 and iNOS with the concomitant generation of ROS and RNS. Because inflammation is closely linked to tumor promotion, substances with potent anti-inflammatory activities are anticipated to exert chemopreventive effects on carcinogenesis, particularly in the promotion stage. 7.5.2 Anti-Inflammatory Activity compounds with antioxidant capability can inhibit tumor promotion and inflammation.1263 Since several studies have provided strong evidence that gastric...

Antioxidant Properties Of Wine

In addition, both red and white wine contain significant amounts of salicylic acid and its dihydroxybenzoic acid metabolites, which also have vasodilator and anti-inflammatory activities (Muller and Fugelsang, 1994). The concentrations of these compounds in wine range from 11-28.5 mg L, with the concentrations being higher in red than white wine. Again, it remains to be determined whether these compounds are absorbed after drinking wine or whether plasma concentrations attained would have the physiologic effect observed in vitro.

Increased Antioxidant Capacity and Genomic Stability

Prostaglandins and other members of the eicosanoid pathway are thought to induce carcinogenesis through action on nuclear transcription sites and downstream gene products important in the control of cell proliferation. Eicosanoids are locally acting hormone-like compounds derived predominantly from arachi-donic acid in tissue cells and tumor-infiltrating leukocytes.56 The most well-known eicosanoids, prostaglandins, are produced by the action of the cyclooxygenases (COX), but the lipoxygenase group of enzymes produce the leukotrienes and hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acids, which also have important proinflammatory effects.57 Substantial evidence from animal studies and human epidemiological and clinical trials show that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are inhibitors of COX, are associated with reduced risk of a number of cancers, including those of the colon-rectum, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, breast, lung, prostate, bladder, brain, and cervix.57 However, chronic...

Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act DSHEA and Spirulina

Spirulina is sold in health food stores and similar outlets as a dietary supplement. There appears to be a lack of understanding about their regulatory status. Until 1994 dietary supplements were regulated as foods by FDA. However, with passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), Congress amended the food regulations to include several provisions that apply only to dietary supplements and dietary ingredients of dietary supplements. As a result of these provisions, dietary ingredients used in dietary supplements are no longer subject to the premarket safety evaluations required of other new food ingredients or for new uses of old food ingredients. They must, however, meet the requirements of other safety provisions. FDA defines a dietary supplement as a product (other than tobacco) that is intended to supplement the diet that bears or contains one or more of the following dietary ingredients a vitamin, a mineral, an herb or other botanical, an amino...

Micronutrients RA

May reduce inflammation, pain, and swelling12 May help reduce joint pain and stiffness13 Copper stimulates the enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) that can reduce oxidative damage, stiffness, and pain.14 Zinc15,16 and selenium may reduce inflammation and help relieve symptoms17

Flavonoids

Flavonoids are a group of highly complex molecules found in all plants over five thousand have been described thus far, and these God-created chemicals have been shown to possess many miraculous properties. They are very powerful and versatile antioxidants, reduce inflammation, improve blood flow to the brain, chelate several dangerous metals, improve cell-membrane quality, protect the blood-brain barrier, strengthen blood vessels, inhibit viral replication, and increase glutathione levels. Recent studies have shown that blueberries, strawberries, and spinach are excellent sources of flavonoids that protect the brain from metal toxicity.

Ulcers

Stress is giving me an ulcer In truth, it's not, although your body may secrete more stomach acid if you're under emotional strain. Most ulcers in the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine are caused by bacteria called Heliobactor pylori in addition, the use of some anti-inflammatory medications and too much stomach acid, resulting from other health problems, are other causes. When the lining of the gastrointestinal tract is impaired for any number of reasons, the cells underneath can't protect themselves from stomach acids. If the damage goes deep enough, the ulcer may bleed and cause pain.

Micronutrients Ulcer

Blood tests are available to detect the presence of Helicobacter infection. If tests are positive, along with antibiotic therapy, the nutritional regimen suggested to support the immune system should be followed (see pp.195). Taking drugs that can irritate the stomach lining, such as aspirin, other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), and steroids, should be avoided. Smoking should be reduced or stopped, as smokers have sharply increased risk for ulcers.

Role of Inflammation

Both case-control studies127 and prospective cohort studies128 have shown with good consistency that aspirin users experience lower risks of colorectal cancer compared to nonusers. These findings have emphasized the role of inflammation in carcinogenesis, and also suggested that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are potential chemopreventive agents. Some randomized clinical trials have shown that aspirin can reduce the incidence of adenomas in participants with a history of adenomatous polyps129 and may induce regression of adenomas in participants with FAP.130 Caution must be advised in applying this preventive strategy since NSAIDs, and even very specific cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, when used regularly and at effective doses, could have adverse health effects that tip the balance of the risk-benefit equation.131

Salicylates

There is strong epidemiological evidence that regular consumption of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) aspirin (acetyl salicylate) is associated with reduced risk of CRC (Giovannucci et al., 1994). The effect is similar for both men and women and appears to be dose and time dependent. At first, it was assumed that this protection was mediated by COX-dependent

Etiology

PUD is the progressive loss of the mucosal integrity up to the formation of a crater (ulcer). This is the final process of different etiological factors, which produce lesions by different mechanisms. These factors and mechanisms are not mutually exclusive and may co-operate to bring about their damage. The classical pathogenic theory was that an ulcer develops when the equilibrium is lost between defensive factors and aggressive factors. Defensive factors are the mucus layer, constituted by glycoproteins, bicarbonate and prostaglandins and the gastric mucosa barrier, constituted by the epithelial layer, submucosal tissue and microcirculation. The best known aggressive factors are gastric acid, pepsins, gastrolesional substances, such as alcohol, drugs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and, last to be identified, H. pylori infection). In primary ulcers (deep erosive lesions not secondary to other known causes) the most important factor was considered to be the acid...

Anticarcinogenicity

Orner et al .17,18 examined the relative effectiveness of white and green teas in suppressing heterocyclic amine-initiated intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(min) mice . After 12 weeks of treatment, mice given white tea, green tea, or sulindac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug known to be highly effective in Apc(min) mice, had significantly fewer tumors than the controls (p < 0 . 05) . The protection provided by 1 . 5 green or white tea was comparable to that provided by 80 ppm sulindac. Mice treated with a combination of white tea and sulindac had significantly fewer tumors than either treatment alone This research provided evidence that teas, particularly when administered in combination with sulindac, were highly effective in inhibiting intestinal neoplasia in mice via direct or indirect effects on the beta-catenin-APC pathway, and are also effective against intermediate and late stages of colon cancer, via effects on the beta-catenin-Tcf signaling pathway Consistent with the...

Your Health Ulcers

Until the 1980s, ulcers were believed to be caused by stress, alcohol use, or taking excessive amounts of aspirin. Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen, are still believed to be a cause of ulcers, but they are not the most common cause.

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Due to its conjugated unsaturation, ferulic acid strongly absorbs UV radiation, and at high concentrations may protect other light-sensitive compounds against oxidative damage by preferentially absorbing UV. As pointed out by Graf (42) this may have biological significance, as the highest concentrations of ferulic acid occur in leaves, seeds and other organs with a high surface to volume ratio. This effect has already been harnessed for human health, by its topical use in skin lotions and sunscreens. It has been investigated as an agent to lessen the side-effects of chemo-and radiotherapies of carcinoma by increasing the natural immune defence. There are also reports (cited by Graf (42)) of anti-inflammatory activity, inhibition of chemically induced carcinogenesis as well as an antidiarrhoeal activity.

Treatment

The anti-inflammatory effects of this class of medication results from the inhibitory effect of 5-ASA on leukotriene biosynthesis. Effective delivery of these drugs is achieved by various structural modifications that permit the medication to reach the area of inflamed mucosa. Sulfasalazine, a prototype of this class of drug, consists of 5-ASA linked to sulfapyridine via an azo bond. The sulfa moiety serves as a carrier to facilitate delivery of therapeutically active 5-ASA to the colon, which is achieved by bacterial cleavage of the diazo bond and release of the 5-ASA in the intestinal lumen. A number of different 5-ASA preparations have been developed based on a similar strategy. A summary of the different chemical modifications of 5-ASA preparations, and their release mechanisms are listed in Table 23.7. The dosage and site of effect as well as side-effects are listed in Tables 23.8 and 23.9, respectively. A profile of release within the gastrointestinal tract of the different...

Future trends

This chapter clearly outlines ways to reduce the fat content of meat and manipulate its fatty acid composition. The meat that is on sale today has never been leaner. Fortunately, most of the valuable nutrients of meat are located in the lean component, so reducing the visible fat of meat has little bearing on its micronu-trient status. Researchers are focusing on ways of further improving the fatty acid composition of meat, using the knowledge that grass feeding results in high levels of both n-3 PUFAs and CLA content. Both n-3 PUFAs and CLA may have many possible benefits for human health, and in particular may offer protection against predicted future health problems (Cordain et al, 2002). N-3 PUFAs, in particular those that have very long chains, are cardioprotective and have anti-inflammatory and anti-tumourigenic properties. CLA can prevent formation and slow the growth for tumour development (Ip et al, 1994), reduce atherosclerosis development (Lee et al, 1994) and can help...

Epidemiology

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs Taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been associated with an increased risk for the development and exacerbation of IBD.52-55 A retrospective study by Bonner et al failed to demonstrate an association between NSAID use and an increased risk for active IBD 56 however, there may be subsets of IBD patients who can tolerate NSAIDs with less likelihood of an exacerbation of disease.57 Although the mechanisms of NSAID-associated gastric toxicity have been extensively studied, the mechanisms leading to intestinal damage are poorly understood, but may be related to damage of enterocyte mitochondria causing enhanced intestinal permeability,58 inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase (COX),59 enterohep-atic recirculation,60 and formation of drug entero-cyte adducts.61,62

Immune function

Phagocytes and lymphocytes can concentrate vitamin C up to 100 times higher than the plasma and this may indicate a physiological role for AA in these immune cells (Thurnham, 2000). The vitamin also affects many immune modulators like blood histamine, serum complement, prostacyclin, prostaglandins and B- and T-cell cyclic nucleotides (Jariwalla and Harakeh, 1996 Siegal, 1993). Results from studies on the effects of supplementation on the immune functions have been inconsistent. Many studies show the vitamin has beneficial effects while others show no effect. For example, a double blind study giving 1 or 4g AA daily to 24 free-living women produced increases in serum AA concentrations but no difference in leukocyte AA concentrations or function (Ludvigsson et al, 1979). AA inactivates or inhibits a wide range of viruses in vitro including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), yet no clinical efficacy has been demonstrated (Jariwalla and Harakeh, 1996). A review of 21 controlled human...

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