The Red Wine Diet
Does red wine protect against heart disease There's no conclusive answer. Research suggests that a moderate amount of alcoholic beverages-red wine as well as white wine, beer, and distilled spirits-may help lower the risk for heart disease. Possibly a small amount may help increase HDL blood cholesterol, or good cholesterol, and it may prevent LDL, or bad cholesterol, from forming. However, factors other than ethanol (alcohol) also may play a role. Phytonutrients such as resveratrol and tannins in wine may offer heart-healthy benefits. Resveratrol, a flavonoid in the skins and seeds of grapes, has estrogenlike qualities that may help increase HDLs or increase the oxidation, or breakdown, of LDLs. (Grape skins are needed to make red wine.) Also speculated, resveratrol may boost the body's natural clot-dissolving enzyme when blood platelets clot, they decrease blood flow, which can lead to a heart attack or a stroke. Tannins also may inhibit platelet clotting.
A few years back it was recognized that there was a decreased incidence of heart disease in France despite the consumption of a high fat diet, a phenomenon referred to as the French Paradox. Since it was well known that this population and others such as Denmark also drink a lot of red wine, scientists began to investigate the potential benefits of red wine. The consumption of wine in these regions is chronic yet only moderate one to four glasses daily. Red wine consumption has been recognized to reduce the incidence of heart disease by perhaps helping keep blood pressure lower, reducing blood clot formation, and reducing LDL oxidation. It is also likely that substances found in red wine, such as quercetin, resveratrol, and similar molecules, provide much of the benefit. Interestingly, the prophylactic effects of alcohol are not limited only to red wine. Researchers have determined that alcohol in a variety of forms (that is, liquor, wine, and beer) consumed chronically but in smaller...
Dark purple grape juice, for example, has more resveratrol than red grape juice, which has more resveratrol than white grape juice. Because wine is made from grapes, it, too, contains resveratrol (red wine has more resveratrol than white wine). USDA Agricultural Research Service in Raleigh, North Carolina, showed that peanuts have 1.7 to 3.7 micrograms of resveratrol per gram of nuts. Compare that to the 0.7 micrograms of resveratrol in a glass of red grape juice or 0.6 to 8.0 micrograms of resveratrol per gram of red wine.
However, the details and recommendations are still a little out of reach at this point. Flavonoids (isoflavones or isoflavonoids, flavones, flavonols, catechins, and anthocyanins) are a class of chemicals produced by plants and are often called polyphenolic compounds with respect to their molecular structure. Onions, citrus, some teas, and red grapes (red wine) contain a flavonoid called quercetin which is a potent antioxidant and seems to favorably impact blood pressure. Researchers in the United States, Finland, and around the world have determined that people who eat or drink less of flavonoids have a higher death rate from heart disease. Some of these flavonoids may act to decrease the level of total and LDL-cholesterol in the blood, while others may decrease free-radical activities, thereby protecting LDL from oxidation as well as helping to protect the walls of the arteries. So again, eat more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains and, if you like, enjoy a...
Salicylates are irreversible inhibitors of cyclo-oxygenase, and hence inhibit the synthesis of thromboxane A2 and have an anticoagulant action. They occur in many fruits (and red wine) in amounts similar to the dose of aspirin recommended to prevent excessive blood clotting in patients at risk of thrombosis.
Two types of iron are present in the diet heme and nonheme iron. Heme iron is obtained from animal sources such as meat, poultry, and fish, and is about 20-30 absorbed. Non-heme iron, present in plant foods, iron fortificants, and iron supplements, is less bioavailable with absorption of 5-10 81 . Dietary factors such as vitamin C and the presence of meat, fish or poultry can enhance the absorption of non-heme iron, while phytates found in legumes, grains and rice, polyphenols (in tea, coffee, and red wine) and vegetable proteins, such as those in soybeans, can inhibit non-heme iron absorption. Iron sources obtained from a typical Western diet consisting of abundant animal foods and sufficient sources of vitamin C were estimated to be approximately 18 bioavailable the bioavailability of iron from a vegetarian diet is approximately 10 81 . As a result, the requirement for iron is 1.8 times greater for vegetarians. The average iron content of fruit, vegetables, breads, and pasta ranges...
Health problems caused by food intolerance vary depending upon the food and chemical involved. The amount of a food eaten may also play a role. Lactose intolerance is usually characterized by gastrointestinal problems such as bloating and diarrhea. Sulfite intolerance is typically characterized by difficulty in breathing. Those sensitive to MSG may experience a variety of symptoms, such as headache, numbness, and rapid heartbeat. Tyramine, found in pickled herring, soy sauce, red wine, and other foods, has been linked to migraine headache. Capsaicin can cause a burning pain in the mouth and other problems, such as nausea and vomiting. Myristicin has been associated with anxiety, chest pressure, hallucinations, fever, and skin redness.
Chocolate is made from cocoa, a plant food. It contains health-protective compounds called flavonoids that help relax and dilate blood vessels, reduce blood pressure, and increase blood flow to the brain. These flavonoids are also found in other plant foods, such as green tea, red wine, apples, and onions, so think twice before you plan to replace an apple with a chocolate bar.
Several studies in humans have suggested that the consumption of wine or ethanol was associated with lower serum total cholesterol and LDL levels, and higher HDLs (Schneider et al., 1996 Hein et al., 1997 Lavy et al., 1994). Wine or grape seed extract was also observed to be more effective than ethanol in preventing the development of atherosclerotic lesions in cholesterol-fed rabbits (Klurfeld and Kritchevsky, 1981 Yamakoshi et al., 1999). Another investigation observed that red wine consumption decreased plasma concentrations of lipoprotein a (Sharpe et al., 1995), an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis (Cao et al., 1998), but this observation was not supported in another study (Goldberg et al., 1996).
A medication has ingredients, just as food does, that allow it to function correctly when taken in order to help the body in some way. A food may interfere with the effectiveness of a drug if the food interacts with the ingredients in the medication, preventing the drug from working properly. Nutrients in food may either delay absorption into the body or speed up elimination from the body, either or which can impact a drug's effectiveness. For example, the acidic ingredients in fruit juices are capable of decreasing the power of antibiotics such as penicillin. Tetracycline, another infection-fighting drug, is impacted by the consumption of dairy products. Many medications that are taken to fight depression can be dangerous if mixed with beverages or foods that consist of tyramine, which is found in items such as beer, red wine, and some cheeses.
Nevertheless, studies continue to investigate the absorption and metabolism of single polyphenolic compounds. In general, the absorption of polyphenols varies depending on the type of food, the chemical form of the polyphenols (polymerized forms may be less absorbed (Muller & Fugelsang, 1997) , and their interactions with other substances in food, such as protein, ethanol, and fiber (Bravo 1998 Scalbert and Williamson, 2000). It is important to note that polyphenols from wine may be absorbed better than the same substances from fruits and vegetables, because the ethanol may enhance the breakdown of the polyphenols into smaller products that are absorbed more readily (Goldberg, 1995). The elimination of free catechin, consumed as reconstituted red wine, was increased 22 by ethanol in human subjects (Bell et al., 2000). However, since these substances rarely exist as free compounds in plasma (Manach et al., 1995, 1999), the true significance of this observation remains unknown.
The Spanish include a lot of seafood in their diet. Meats are served alongside plenty of vegetables. Soups and stews are staples and are flavored with garlic and tomatoes. Red wine and crusty bread accompany each meal. Portuguese dishes are very similar to those of Spain, but generally include more spices.
Meals are based on grain products, such as rice, pasta, and bread. In addition, southern Europeans consume large amounts of fruits and vegetables, which provide plenty of vitamins, minerals, and fiber. Red meats, chicken, and eggs are used sparingly. Fish is popular and provides omega-3 fatty acids. A moderate intake of red wine also provides health benefits. Additionally, southern Europeans tend to lead a more relaxed, stress-free life. They often have a post-lunch siesta, which aids proper digestion. They also tend to be physically active.
The regular use of red wine is suggested for lowering the risk of heart disease. Two possible mechanisms explain this effect. First, alcohol raises HDL cholesterol levels.58 Second, wine inhibits the formation of blood clots. Since purple grape juice and dealcoholized red wine inhibit platelet aggregation, it is clearly not an effect of alcohol, but appears to be related to the flavonoid pigments in the grape juice or wine.59,60 Dealcoholized red wines and red grape juice inhibit platelet aggregation by blocking thromboxane B2 synthesis in the platelets. This inhibition was found to be in direct proportion to the content of a stillbene, trans-resveratrol, which is found in wine and grape juice.59 Resveratrol is a phytochemical found mainly in the skins of grapes and is readily transferred to red wine Dealcoholized red wine and red grapes are also rich in phenolic compounds such as anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and hydroxy-cinnamates, which act as antioxidants. These compounds...
Which are inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase in the biosynthesis of cholesterol. Hence, tocotrienols are effective hypocholesterolemic agents, as well as potent cancer-preventive substances.68-70 Peanuts contain substantial levels of trans-resveratrol, the protective compound in red wine and grape juice shown to inhibit the formation of blood clots. As far as phytoestrogens are concerned, nuts and sunflower seeds have a substantial lignan content, while peanuts contain small amounts of isoflavones.65,85
And Goldberg, 1999 Hertog et al., 1993b,c Lanningham-Foster et al., 1995). Overall, the total polyphenolic content of red wines has been estimated to be about 1200 mg L (Soleas and Goldberg, 1999), while others have reported concentrations as high as 4000 mg L, of which 500-900 mg L come from the tannins (Dresoti, 2000). Part of the discrepancy reported may relate to different extraction techniques. In contrast, the polyphenolic content of white wine is about 200-300 mg L (Frankel et al., 1995). It is also reported that the total flavonoid content of red wine can be 10-to 20-fold higher than in white wine (Soleas and Goldberg, 1999). Grape juice has about one half the flavonoid content of red wine by volume (Constant, 1997). The stilbene, resveratrol, is present mainly in grape skins, where concentrations are estimated to be 50-100 J.g g (Chun et al., 1999). Thus, resveratrol is found primarily in red wines, with concentrations around 1 mg L (Brouillard et al., 1997). The...
A number of in vitro studies have reported that wines possess intrinsic antioxidant activity. Maxwell et al. (1994) reported that red wines themselves had about 30fold greater antioxidant activity than normal human serum, and the contribution of various polyphenols to the total antioxidant activity of red wine has been described (Rice-Evans et al., 1996). It was also observed that the total reactive antioxidant potential of red wines was 6 to 10 times higher than white wine (Campos and Lissi, 1996). Antioxidant properties of wine have also been observed in vivo. For example, in nine healthy subjects who drank 300 mL of red wine, 18 and 11 increases in serum antioxidant capacity was observed after 1 h and 2 h, respectively, but less than the 22 and 29 increases seen at these times in subjects who took 1000 mg ascorbic acid (Whitehead et al., 1995). Lesser increases in serum antioxidant capacity were observed if the subjects drank white wine, or apple, grape, or orange juice. Plasma...
Various types of vinegars can add flavor to a wide variety of dishes, from salads to sauces. They have a light, tangy taste and activate the taste buds without the addition of fat. Popular vinegars include wine vinegars (made from white wine, red wine, ros wine, rice wine, champagne, or sherry), cider vinegar (made from apples), and balsamic vinegar. True balsamic vinegar, a dark brown vinegar with a rich sweetsour flavor, is made from the juice of a very sweet white grape and is aged in wooden barrels. Vinegars can also be infused, or flavored, with all sorts of ingredients, such as chili peppers, roasted garlic, herbs, vegetables, and fruits. For example, lemon tarragon vinegar works well in salad dressings and cold sauces.
Americans, they appear to have a markedly lower mortality rate from heart disease. Medical experts generally agree that a low-fat diet, exercise, and not smoking minimize the risk of heart attacks, which makes this paradox difficult to understand. Studies suggest that one of the reasons the French have a lower rate of heart disease may be their regular consumption of red wine. The specific mechanism by which the French paradox operates has not yet been identified. Some research suggests that antioxidants called flavonoids, natural chemical compounds found in red wine, may confer important health benefits to the heart and blood vessels. Red grapes are one of the richest sources of flavonoids, which may make red wine more heart-healthy than white wine, beer, or other spirits. Other research suggests that pigments in red wine called polyphenols are responsible for explaining the French paradox. Polyphenols, found in red grape skins, are believed to act as antioxidants, control blood...
In fact, even when diluted to a concentration of 1 1,000 red wine still inhibited LDL oxidation. White wine was much less effective, with about one-tenth the benefits of red wine. While this seems to explain the phenomenon, little was known about how well wine flavonoids worked in humans. Using human volunteers, he found that supplying 400 mg of red wine a day for two weeks to these happy guinea pigs, significantly reduced the ability of LDL to be oxidized in the presence of copper, a standard measure of LDL oxidizability.369 Other studies did not reproduce this effect.370 In fact, this same study found that white wine actually increased the risk of oxidizing LDL. Another way red wine may reduce atherosclerosis is by the action of flavonoids, such as catechin, epicatechin, and quercetin, to bind free iron. In humans, drinking red wine, especially with bread, significantly inhibits iron absorption.371 This is an important property since as we age we absorb and retain more iron in our...
Use This aphrodisiac dilates blood vessels of the skin and mucus membranes (including those of the sexual organs). It is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, which means that you should strictly avoid nasal decongestants, foods containing tyramine (such as liver, cheese, and red wine), and certain diet aids containing phenylpropanolamine. The drug should not be taken by anyone suffering from hypotension (low blood pressure),
The causes of migraine headaches are complicated and not well understood. Certain food components-natural or added-have been suspected, not proven, to cause headaches in some people. Tyrosine (in cheese and chocolate), histamine (in red wine), caffeine (in coffee and cola), benzoic acid (a preservative), and alcohol may be food-related triggers. Susceptible individuals may be affected by several factors, not just food.
Hypertension, atherosclerosis, and diabetes decrease arterial flexibility, contributing to poor blood flow and plaque formation. Rat aortas exposed to antho-cyanin-enriched blueberry extract in vitro exhibited relaxation caused by endothe-lium-generated nitric oxide (Andriambeloson et al., 1996). Delphinidin induced a maximal relaxation of 89 , which was comparable to red wine polyphenols
In fact, in recent years, nutritionists have dedicated much interest to the presence of antioxidants in vegetable foods. Some traditional products, such as extra virgin olive oil, red wine and tomato, have received great promotion from a better comprehension of their beneficial role in diet. Tomato is an interesting case because it has been demonstrated that in contrast to what one might superficially expect processing enhances the antioxidant activity (Anese et al, 1999). This fact has opened completely new scenarios to the possibilities offered in this field by processed foods.
The connection between vasoactive amines and headache was initially identified in patients taking monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. MAO is commonly thought to absorb vasoactive substances in the gut. Individuals taking MAO inhibitors for depression reported severe headaches after ingesting foods containing tyramine, a vasoactive substance commonly found in foods such as aged cheese, processed meats and red wine. (11)
Warm meats that supplement qi, yang and blood Lamb, venison, game, beef, poultry, duck, stews with legumes and meat also grapes and red wine. The cold season diet should focus on strengthening kidney and spleen yang with lamb, venison, prawns, high-proof alcoholic beverages, acrid spices, aniseed (star anise), cloves, tea with spices, fennel, leek, walnuts, chestnuts, black sesame, oysters.
Wait as long as possible into the meal before you start to drink. Give priority to drinking some red wine with the cheese. Should the whole situation turn out to be worse than you expected, and, despite being still in Phase I, all your ingenuity could not protect you from the assaults of the bad carbohydrates, then your only recourse is to be more vigilant than ever thereafter in pursuit of your
Epidemiological evidence suggests a beneficial effect of a high intake of bioflavonoids with respect to cardiovascular disease (accounting for perhaps 8 of the international variation in coronary heart disease). However, despite the actions noted above, there is no epidemiological evidence of a negative association with cancer. Intakes of bioflavonoids are estimated to be around 23 mg day, of which almost half comes from tea onions, apples and red wine are also good sources.
Engendering (sheng) cycle Bitter (fire) supplements spleen pancreas and stomach (earth). Its drying property prevents the formation of damp throughout the body. When taken in appropriate dosages, bitter is a spleen qi tonic, preferably during moist-cool weather (coffee, red wine).
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