1. Nair KS, Schwartz RG, Welle S. Leucine as a regulator of whole body and skeletal muscle protein metabolism in humans. Am J Physiol 1992; 263:E928-E934.
  2. Frexes-Steed M, Lacy DB, Collins J, Abumrad NN. Role of leucine and other amino acids in regulating protein metabolism in vivo. Am J Physiol (Endocrinol Metab) 1992; 262:E925-E935.
  3. Nissen S, Sharp R, Ray M, Rathmacher JA, Rice J, Fuller JC, Jr., Connelly AS, Abumrad N. The effect of the leucine metabolite ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate on muscle metabolism during resistance-exercise training. J Appl Physiol 1996; 81:2095-2104.
  4. Nissen SL, Abumrad NN. Nutritional role of the leucine metabolite ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB). J Nutr Biochem 1997; 8:300-311.
  5. Vukovich MD, Dreifort GD. Effect of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate on the onset of blood lactate accumulation and VO2 peak in endurance-trained cyclists. J Strength Cond Res 2001; 15:491-497.
  6. Knitter AE, Panton L, Rathmacher JA, Petersen A, Sharp R. Effects of ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate on muscle damage following a prolonged run. J Appl Physiol 2000; 89:1340-1344.
  7. Kreider RB, Ferreira M, Wilson M, Almada AL. Effects of calcium beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation during resistance-training on markers of catabolism, body composition and strength. Int J Sports Med 1999; 20:503-509.
  8. Panton LB, Rathmacher JA, Baier S, Nissen S. Nutritional supplementation of the leucine metabolite ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) during resistance training. Nutrition 2000; 16:734-739.
  9. Gallagher PM, Carrithers JA, Godard MP, Schulze KE, Trappe SW. ß-Hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate ingestion. Part I. Effects on strength and fat free mass. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32:2109-2115.
  10. Vukovich MD, Stubbs NB, Bohlken RM. Body composition in 70-year old adults responds to dietary ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) similar to that of young adults. J Nutr 2001; 131:2049-2052.
  11. Jowko E, Ostaszewski P, Jank M, Sacharuk J, Zieniewicz A, Wilczak, J, Nissen S. Creatine and ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) additively increases lean body mass and muscle strength during a weight training program. Nutrition 2001; 17:558-566.
  12. Slater G, Jenkins D, Logan P, Lee H, Vukovich MD, Rathmacher JA, Hahn A. ß-Hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation does not affect changes in strength or body composition during resistance training in trained men. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2001; 11:384-396.
  13. Nissen SL, Sharp RL. Effect of dietary supplements on lean mass and strength gains with resistance exercise: a meta-analysis. J Appl Physiol 2003; 94:651-659.
  14. Eubanks May P, Barber A, Hourihane A, D'Olimpio JT, Abumrad NN. Reversal of cancer-related wasting using oral supplementation with a combination of ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate, arginine, and glutamine. Am J Surg 2002; 183:471-479.
  15. Clark RH, Feleke G, Din M, Yasmin T, Singh G, Khan F, Rathmacher J. Nutritional treatment for acquired immunodeficiency virus-associated wasting using ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate, glutamine and arginine: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Parenter Enter Nutr 2000; 24:133-139.
  16. Levenhagen DK, Vaughan SR, Niedernhofer E, Carr C, Flakoll PJ. Dietary supplementation of arginine, lysine and ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) to blunt loss of muscle, strength and functionality in elderly females. FASEB J 2001; 15:A277 (abstract).
  17. Sabourin PJ, Bieber LL. Formation of ß-hydroxyisovalerate from a-ketoisocaproate by a soluble preparation from rat liver. Dev Biochem 1981; 18:149-154.
  18. Wagenmakers AJM, Salden HJM, Veerkamp JH. The metabolic fate of branched chain amino acids and 2-oxo acids in rat muscle homogenates and diaphragms. Int J Biochem 1985; 17:957-965.
  19. Krebs HA, Lund P. Aspects of the regulation of the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids. Adv Enzyme Regul 1977; 15:375-394.
  20. Sabourin PJ, Bieber LL. Subcellular distribution and partial characterization of an a-ketoisocaproate oxidase of rat liver: formation of ß-hydroxyisovaleric acid. Arch Biochem Biophys 1981; 206:132-144.
  21. Sabourin PJ, Bieber LL. Formation of ß-hydroxyisovalerate from a-ketoisocaproate by a soluble preparation from rat liver. In Metabolism and Clinical Implications of Branched Chain Amino and Ketoacids, Walser M, Williamson JR, Eds. Elsevier North Holland, New York, 1981, pp. 149-154.
  22. Sabourin PJ, Bieber LL. Purification and characterization of an alpha-ketoisocaproate oxygenase of rat liver. J Biol Chem 1982; 257:7460-7467.
  23. Sabourin PJ, Bieber LL. The mechanism of a-ketoisocaproate oxygenase. Formation of ß-hydroxyisovalerate from a-ketoisocaproate. J Biol Chem 1982; 257:7468-7471.
  24. Sabourin PJ, Bieber LL. Formation of ß-hydroxyisovalerate by an a-ketoisocaproate oxygenase in human liver. Metabolism 1983; 32:160-164.
  25. Lee MH, Zhang ZH, MacKinnon CH, Baldwin JE, Crouch NP The C-terminal of rat 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase is indispensable for enzyme activity. FEBS Lett 1996; 393:269-272.
  26. Mock DM, Henrich CL, Carnell N, Mock NI. Indicators of marginal biotin deficiency and repletion in humans: validation of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid excretion and a leucine challenge. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 76:1061-1068.
  27. Mock DM, Mock NI, Weintraub S. Abnormal organic aciduria in biotin deficiency: the rat is similiar to the human. J Lab Clin Med 1988; 112(2):240-247.
  28. Van Koevering M, Nissen S. Oxidation of leucine and a-ketoisocaproate to ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate in vivo. Am J Physiol (Endocrinol Metab) 1992; 262:E27-E31.
  29. Vukovich MD, Slater G, Macchi MB, Turner MJ, Fallon K, Boston T, Rathmacher J. ß-Hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) kinetics and the influence of glucose ingestion in humans. J Nutr Biochem 2001; 12:631-639.
  30. Nissen SL, Abumrad NN. Nutritional role of the leucine metabolite ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB). J Nutr Biochem 1997; 8:300-311.
  31. Bloch K, Clark LC, Haray I. Utilization of branched chain acids in cholesterol synthesis. J Biol Chem 1954; 211:687-699.
  32. Adamson LF, Greenberg DM. The significance of certain carboxylic acids as intermediates in the biosynthesis of cholesterol. Biochim Biophys Acta 1957; 23:472-479.

Gey KF, Pletsher A, Isler O, Ruegg R, Wursch J. Influence of iosoprenoid C5 and C6 compounds on the incorporation of acetate in cholesterol. Helv Chim Acta 1957; 40:2354-2368.

Zhang Z, Rathmacher J, Coates C, Nissen S. Occurrence of p-hydroxy-p-methyl butyrate in foods and feeds. FASEB J 1994; 8:A464 (abstract). Zhang Z. Distribution of p-Hydroxy-p-Methylbutyrate in Plant and Animal Tissues. M.S. thesis, Iowa State University, Ames, 1994.

Zhang Z, Talleyrand V, Rathmacher J, Nissen S. Change in plasma p-hydroxy-p-methylbutyrate (HMB) by feeding leucine, alpha-ketoisocaporate (KIC) and isova-leric acid (IVA) to pigs. FASEB J 1993; 7:A392 (abstract).

Zachwieja JJ, Smith SR, Nissen SL, Rathmacher JA. B eta-hydroxy-beta-methyl -butyrate (HMB) is produced in vivo in humans from leucine. FASEB J 2000; 14: A747 (abstract).

Gakhokidze AM. Condensation of ketones with esters of organic acids. I. Condensation of acetone with esters of formic, acetic and propionic acids. J Gen Chem (Russian) 1947; 17:1327-1331.

Gresham TL, Jansen JE, Shaver FW, Beears WL. Beta-propiolactone. XIV. Beta-isovalerolactone. J Am Chem Soc 1954; 76:486-488.

Coffman DD, Cramer R, Mochel WE. Synthesis by free-radical reactions. V. A new synthesis of carboxylic acids. J Am Chem Soc 1958; 80:2882-2887. Searles S, Ives EK, Nukina S. Base-catalyzed cleavage of 1,3-diols. J Organ Chem 1959; 24:1770-1775.

Watanabe S, Suga K, Fujita T, Fujiyoshi K. The direct synthesis of beta-hydroxy-acids by lithium naphthalene and acetic acid. Isr J Chem 1970; 8:731-736. Chen HW. Role of cholesterol metabolism in cell growth. Fed Proc 1984; 43:126-130. Dabrowski MP, Peel WE, Thomson AE. Plasma membrane cholesterol regulates human lymphocyte cytotoxic function. Eur J Immunol 1980; 10:821-827. Ostaszewski P, Kostiuk S, Balasinska B, Jank M, Papet I, Glomot F. The leucine metabolite 3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyrate (HMB) modifies protein turnover in muscles of the laboratory rats and domestic chicken in vitro. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Swiss) 2000; 84:1-8.

Jank M, Ostaszewski P, Rosochacki S, Wilczak J, Balasinska B. Effect of 3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyrate (HMB) on muscle cathepsins and calpain activities during the post-dexamethasone recovery period in young rats. Polish J Vet Sci 2001; 3:213-218. Panton L, Rathmacher J, Fuller J, Gammon J, Cannon L, Stettler S, Nissen S. The effect of p-hydroxy-p-methylbutyrate and resistance training on strength and functional ability in elderly men and women. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998; 30:S194 (abstract).

Fujioka S, Matsuzawa Y, Tokunaga K, Tarui S. Contribution of intra-abdominal fat accumulation to the impairment of glucose and lipid metabolism in human obesity. Metabolism 1987; 36:54-59.

Ernst ND, Obarzanek E, Clark MB, Briefel RR, Brown CD, Donato K. Cardiovascular health risks related to overweight. J Am Diet Assoc 1997; 97(Suppl):S47-S51. O'Connor DM, Crowe MJ. Effects of p-hydroxy-p-methylbutyrate and creatine monohydrate supplementation on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity of highly trained athletes. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2003; 43:64-68.

Byrd P, Mehta P, DeVita P, Dyck D, Hickner R. Changes in muscle soreness and strength following downhill running: effects of creatine, HMB and Betagen supplementation. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999; 31:S263 (abstract).

  1. Williams J, Abumrad N, Barbul A. Effect of a specialized amino acid mixture on human collagen deposition. Ann Surg 2002; 236:369-375 (abstract).
  2. Kirk SJ, Hurson M, Regan MC, Holt DR, Wasserkrug HL, Barbul A. Arginine stimulates wound healing and immune function in elderly human beings. Surgery 1993; 114:155-159.
  3. Karinch AM, Pan M, Lin CM, Strange R, Souba WW. Glutamine metabolism in sepsis and infection. J Nutr 2001; 131(Suppl):2535S-2538S.
  4. Field CJ, Johnson I, Pratt VC. Glutamine and arginine: immunonutrients for improved health. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32(Suppl):S377-S388.
  5. Nissen S, Panton L, Sharp RL, Vukovich M, Trappe SW, Fuller JC, Jr. ß-Hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation in humans is safe and may decrease cardiovascular risk factors. J Nutr 2000; 130:1937-1945.
  6. Russell JA. A circumplex model of affect. J Pers Soc Psychol 1980; 39:1161-1178.
  7. Gallagher PM, Carrithers JA, Godard MP, Schutze KE, Trappe SW. ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate ingestion. Part II. Effects on hematology, hepatic, and renal function. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32:2116-2119.
Lower Your Cholesterol In Just 33 Days

Lower Your Cholesterol In Just 33 Days

Discover secrets, myths, truths, lies and strategies for dealing effectively with cholesterol, now and forever! Uncover techniques, remedies and alternative for lowering your cholesterol quickly and significantly in just ONE MONTH! Find insights into the screenings, meanings and numbers involved in lowering cholesterol and the implications, consideration it has for your lifestyle and future!

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment