Physiological Functions of Glutamine

  • Nitrogen carrier
  • Interorgan transporter
  • Metabolic intermediate
  • Energy source
  • Oxidation to lactate (partial) or carbon dioxide (full)
  • Main energy substrate for:
  • Immune system
  • Gastrointestinal system
  • Respiratory substrate
  • Enterocytes
  • Lymphocytes
  • Regulator of protein synthesis
  • Regulator of peptide synthesis
  • Precursor of nonessential amino acid synthesis
  • Purine, pyrimidine, nucleotide synthesis (amine group)
  • Formation of glucosamine (amine group)
  • Fatty acid synthesis (acetyl group)
  • Gluconeogenesis (carbon skeleton)
  • Glutathione metabolism
  • Muscle-sparing effect
  • Acid-base homeostasis
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