ARG is a precursor for creatine synthesis. In a 1976 study, ARG with glycine in equimolar amounts increased the rate of creatine biosynthesis.29 Based on the availability and success of creatine supplementation, there appears to be no sport application for the use of supplemental ARG as a substrate for creatine synthesis.
L-Lysine is an indispensable dibasic AA (L-2,6-diaminohexanoic acid) required for human growth and for maintaining nitrogen balance in adults. Lysine cannot be synthesized by the body, and therefore must be supplied through diet.30 Lysine and threonine are the only essential AAs whose amino groups do not contribute to the total body amino pool because they do not participate in transamination reactions.31 Metabolites of lysine catabolism enter the TCA cycle only at the acetyl-CoA site, and therefore cannot serve as substrates for glucose synthesis. Consequently, lysine functions strictly as a ketogenic AA.31
Lysine, like most other AAs, is a building block of body proteins. Among the indispensable AAs, lysine is present in the greatest amounts, at 93.0 and 38 mmol/dl in tissues and serum, respectively (see Table 15.3). Carnitine, a compound responsible for transport of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria for oxidation, is synthesized in the liver and kidneys from lysine and methionine.32 Lysine is also required for collagen synthesis and may be central to bone health.3334 Lysine's effects
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