Nutrient status assessment

The measurements of the total amount of various essential fatty acids as ro-3 fatty acids in plasma, serum, or erythrocyte membrane phospholipids have been indicated as useful markers of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids.5,26 Essential fatty acid deficiency is a clinical condition that derives from inadequate status of ro-3 and ro-6 fatty acids; however, the symptoms are nonspecific and may not present prior to marginal essential fatty acid status.48 Widely used biomarkers for biochemical essential fatty acid deficiency are mead acid and the triene/tetraene ratio.49-51 However, the total plasma triene/tetraene ratio has been considered the gold standard for essential fatty acid deficiency.48,52 Mead acid, or 5,8,11-eicosatrienoic acid (5,8,11-20:3 ro-9)5,52 is synthesized from endogenous oleic acid and is increased when there is insufficient concentrations of linoleic and a-linolenic acid to meet the needs of polyunsaturated fatty acids.5,52 Under normal conditions only trace amounts of mead acid are found in plasma.52 EPA and DHA inhibit mead acid synthesis.5 Mead acid measurement is an indicator of essential fatty acid deficiency state, while essential fatty acid depletion is associated with a decrease in plasma linoleate and arachidonate percentages.52 Assessment of long-term essential fatty acid intake is measured in adipose tissue, and it is considered the best indicator because of its slow turnover.53-55 Cutoff values for the assessment of essential fatty acids and ro-3 fatty acid status in erythrocytes have been reported.48 Proposed cutoff values for children older than 0.2 years are 0.46 mol% 20:3 ro-9 (mead acid) for early suspicion of essential fatty acid deficiency, 0.068 mol/mol docosapentaenoic/arachidonic acid

TABLE 4.3

Polyunsaturated (ro-3 and ro-6) Fatty Acid Composition of Food Commodities

TABLE 4.3

Polyunsaturated (ro-3 and ro-6) Fatty Acid Composition of Food Commodities

œ-

3 Fatty Acids

œ-6 Fatty Acids

LNA

EPA

DHA

LA

AA

Commodities

mg/100 g

mg/100 g

Poultry meats

73

5

25

1443

98

Chicken, with skina

140

10

30

2880

80

Chicken, without skina

20

10

30

550

80

Turkey, with skina

110

0

20

1700

110

Turkey, without skina

20

0

20

640

120

Pig meats

53

3

2

831

68

Pork loin, without fat

12

3

2

262

53

Pork loin, without fata

20

NA

NA

440

60

Pork, with fata

90

NA

NA

1310

80

Eggs

31

0

44

1272

156

Bovine meats

105

5

4

277

24

Beef rib eye

10

5

2

178

46

Beef rib eyea

10

NA

NA

240

20

Beef sirloin

20

5

10

94

9

Beef Swiss steak

61

9

8

182

18

Nelore longissimus dorsi

15

3

2

115

11

Canchim longissimus dorsi

13

4

2

101

9

Beefalo longissimus dorsi

16

3

2

98

9

Beef, with fata

190

NA

NA

410

30

Goat and mutton

178

5

21

460

64

Lamb loin chop

54

5

10

369

84

Lamb steak leg

126

14

84

202

12

Lamb, raw feet

27

0

9

198

66

Lamb, Australian1

202

NA

NA

422

69

Lamb, New Zealanda

420

NA

NA

550

10

Lamb, domestica

330

NA

NA

1090

70

Goat shoulder

44

9

5

337

109

Goat leg

49

0

9

262

65

Goata

20

NA

NA

100

60

Freshwater fish

93

245

461

295

104

Trout, rainbowa

58

260

668

710

25

Bass, freshwatera

111

238

357

87

144

Demersal fish

37

82

199

19

89

Flatfish, flounder and solea

8

93

106

8

38

Halibuta

65

71

292

30

139

Pelagic fish

74

185

619

60

90

Tuna, bluefina

0

283

890

53

43

Salmon, Atlantica

295

321

1115

172

267

Cod, Atlantica

1

64

120

5

22

Pollock, Atlantica

0

71

350

9

Polyunsaturated (ro-3 and ro-6) Fatty Acid Composition of Food Commodities

TABLE 4.3 (CONTINUED)

Polyunsaturated (ro-3 and ro-6) Fatty Acid Composition of Food Commodities

œ-

3 Fatty Acids

œ-6 Fatty Acids

LNA

EPA

DHA

LA

AA

Commodities

mg/100 g

mg/100 g

Crustacean, shrimp1

14

258

222

28

87

Mollusks, mussela

20

188

253

18

70

Marine fish, other

36

178

323

31

84

Coconut vegetable oila

0

0

0

1800

0

Cottonseed vegetable oila

200

0

0

51,500

100

Groundnut oil

0

0

0

32,000

0

Maize germ oil

700

0

0

58,000

0

Olive oil

600

0

0

7900

0

Palm kernel vegetable oila

0

0

0

1600

0

Palm vegetable oila

200

0

0

9100

0

Canola oila

9300

0

0

20,300

0

Rice bran vegetable oila

1600

0

0

33,400

0

Sesame oila

300

0

0

41,300

0

Soybean oila

6800

0

0

51,000

0

Sunflower vegetable oila

0

0

0

65,700

0

Note: LNA = a-linolenic acid; EPA = eicosapentaenoic acid; DHA = docoso-hexanoic acid; LA = linoleic acid; AA = arachidonic acid; NA = not available.

Note: LNA = a-linolenic acid; EPA = eicosapentaenoic acid; DHA = docoso-hexanoic acid; LA = linoleic acid; AA = arachidonic acid; NA = not available.

a Information retrieved from the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 17.

Adapted from Hibbeln, J.R. et al., Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 83, 1483S-1493S, 2006.

for ro-3 fatty acid deficiency, 0.22 mol/mol docosapentaenoic/docosahexaenoic acid for ro-3 fatty acid/docosahexaenoic acid marginality, and 0.48 mol/mol docosapen-taenoic/docosahexaenoic acid for ro-3 fatty acid/docosahexaenoic acid deficiency.48 Recently, fasting whole blood has been proposed as a biomarker of essential fatty acid intake.56

The triene/tetraene ratio (20:3 ro-9/20:4 ro-6) more commonly indicative of essential fatty acid deficiency is greater than 0.4,57,58 although ratios of 0.2 have been used.59,60 Currently, there is no accepted cutoff value of plasma or tissue DHA concentrations for indicating impaired health.20 The triene/tetraene ratio is considered a sensitive diagnostic index of essential fatty acid deficiencies associated with total parenteral nutrition.57 Food frequency questionnaires and 24-hour recalls to assess ro-3 fatty acid intake in cardiac patients,61 pregnant women,62 physically active adults,63 and hypercholestolemic subjects64 have been used.

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