Neal F Spruce and C Alan Titchenal contents

  1. 1 Introduction 280
  2. 2 AA Chemical Structures and Classification 281
  3. 2.1 Chemical Structures 281
  4. 2.2 Classification of AAs by Chemical Structure 281
  5. 2.3 Classification of AAs by Essentiality 282
  6. 3 Commercial Purification and Synthesis of AAs 282
  7. 3.1 Extraction Method 286
  8. 3.2 Fermentation Method 286
  9. 3.3 Enzymatic Method 286
  10. 3.4 Chemical Synthesis Method 286
  11. 4 Body Reserves of AAs 287
  12. 4.1 Dynamic State of Body Protein 287
  13. 4.2 Importance of Body Protein Mass in Homeostasis 287
  14. 5 General Metabolism of AAs 288
  15. 5.1 Synthesis of Body Proteins 288
  16. 5.2 Catabolism of AAs for Energy Production 290
  17. 5.3 Synthesis of Other Nitrogen-Containing Compounds 290
  18. 6 Metabolism of Specific AAs 291
  19. 6.1 Alanine 291
  20. 6.2 Arginine 292
  21. 6.2.1 Research on ARG and Growth

Hormone (GH) 292

15.6.2.2 ARG Supplementation and Nitric Oxide

(NO) Production 292

  1. 6.2.3 ARG, Exercise, and Performance 293
  2. 6.2.4 Other Sport Concepts/Applications 294
  3. 6.3 Lysine 294
  4. 6.4 Aspartic Acid 295
  5. 6.5 Glycine 297
  6. 6.6 Cysteine 298
  7. 6.7 Tyrosine 298
  8. 6.8 Glutamic Acid or Glutamate 299
  1. 6.9 Histidine 300
  2. 6.10 Proline 300
  3. 6.11 Phenylalanine 301
  4. 6.12 Tryptophan 301
  5. 6.13 Serine 302
  6. 6.14 Methionine 302
  7. 6.15 Threonine 303
  8. 7 Blends of AAs in Sports (Not Including BCAA and Glutamine) 304
  9. 7.1 Introduction 304
  10. 7.2 Scientific Basis 304
  11. 7.2.1 Overview 304
  12. 7.2.2 AAs and GH Release 305
  13. 7.2.3 AAs and Cell Volume 306
  14. 7.2.4 AAs and NO Boosters 310
  15. 7.2.5 AAs and Muscle Protein Balance (PB) 311
  16. 7.3 Efficacy of Supplementing AA Mixtures in Sport and Exercise 316
  17. 7.3.1 Introduction 316
  18. 7.3.2 AAs and GH Release 317
  19. 7.3.3 AAs and Cell Volume 323
  20. 7.3.4 AAs and NO Boosters 323
  21. 7.3.5 AAs and PS 324
  22. 7.4 Conclusion and Suggestions 329
  23. 7.4.1 AAs as Hormonal Secretagogues 330
  24. 7.4.2 AAs as Cell Volume Contributors in PS 330
  25. 7.4.3 AAs as NO Boosters 330
  26. 7.4.4 AAs in Maximizing PS 330
  27. 8 AA Safety/Toxicity 331
  28. 9 Practical Recommendations for Meeting AA Needs 331
  29. 9.1 AA Recommended Dietary Allowances 331
  30. 9.2 Limiting AAs in Specific Dietary Patterns 332
  31. 10 Future Research Needs and Directions 333

References 333

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