Emotional changes were measured using the circumplex test of emotion.57 This consists of a questionnaire of 48 words that describe various emotions and the subjects are instructed to rate each on a scale from 1 (very slightly or not at all) to
5 (extremely) based upon their degree of feeling for that emotion. When compared with the placebo-supplemented group, no negative changes in emotional profile were noted with HMB supplementation during the studies. Supplementation with HMB resulted in a decrease of about 10% in the "unactivated unpleasant affect," which is described by the words tired, drowsy, sluggish, dull, bored, and droopy, indicating HMB had a slight but positive effect on emotion.
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