Contents

  1. 1 Introduction 110
  2. 2 Protein Metabolism 110
  3. 2.1 Protein Synthesis 110
  4. 2.2 Protein Breakdown 112
  5. 2.3 Models and Measurement of Protein Metabolism 113
  6. 3 Acute Exercise Effects on Protein Metabolism 114
  7. 3.1 Endurance Exercise 114
  8. 3.2 Resistance Exercise 115
  9. 3.3 Factors Affecting Protein Metabolism 116
  10. 3.3.1 Energy Intake 116
  11. 3.3.2 Carbohydrate (CHO) Intake 116
  12. 3.3.3 Dietary Protein Intake 117
  13. 3.3.4 Amino Acids 118
  14. 3.3.5 Interaction of Nutrients 118
  15. 3.3.6 Timing of Nutrient Delivery 119
  16. 3.3.7 Hormones 120
  17. 3.3.8 Hydration Status 120
  18. 3.3.9 Gender/Sex 121
  19. 4 Chronic Exercise Effects on Protein Metabolism 121
  20. 4.1 Endurance Training 121
  21. 4.2 Resistance Training 122
  22. 5 Assessment of Dietary Protein Requirements 123
  23. 5.1 Nitrogen Balance 123
  24. 5.2 Tracer Methods 124
  25. 6 Habitual Protein Intakes of Athletes 124
  26. 7 Dietary Protein Requirements for Athletes 127
  27. 7.1 Protein Requirements for Endurance Athletes 127
  28. 7.2 Protein Requirements for Resistance Athletes 129
  29. 8 Potential Side Effects of Excessive Protein Intake 131
  30. 9 Summary 132

References 133

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