Natural Cures For Prostate Cancer

The 21 Day Prostate Fix

21 Day Prostate Fix written by Radu Belasco is a healthier alternative to drugs and invasive medical procedures. Radu Belasco is an early prostate problem sufferer, with a family history of prostate pain, problems and cancer. Using a unique system of natural remedies, he fixed his prostate problems and wrote them in his smash hit eBook The 21 Day Prostate Fix. It is about miraculous herbs and fruits from all over the world. These unique foods have the power to cure your prostates inflammation in record time and shrink it to a healthier size. Also, you will learn how to concoct the miracle elixir that will not just cleanse your prostate, but also burn body fat. Aside from these, youll get topnotch information on nutrition, so you can keep your prostate healthy and your sex drive at its peak. Plus, youll learn other health conditions that might be contributing to your prostate issues, so you can also remedy them and get your body in its best shape ever.

The 21 Day Prostate Fix Overview

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Prostate Cancer In Western Countries

The incidence of prostate cancer in the U.S. and certain Western countries has risen sharply during the past decade. In U.S. men, between 1987 and 1992, prostate cancer incidence rate increased 85 , followed by a decline of 29 between 1992 and 1995, and then increasing again by 2.3 per year beginning in 1995. Recent prostate cancer incidence increased by 3.0 per year among white men and by 2.3 per year among black men.96 Prostate cancer mortality in the U.S. stopped increasing in 1991, and decreased an average of 4.4 annually from 1994 through 1997.97 Declines in prostate cancer mortality might reflect improvements in treatment and longer survival due to prostate specific antigen (PSA)-related early detection.98

Soy Isoflavones and Breast or Prostate Cancer Risk

The observation that both breast and prostate cancers are common in the Western industrialized nations, while relatively rare in oriental countries such as China and Japan, suggests that some component of the oriental diet may include substances that protect against these cancers. In addition, studies of migrants from these low-risk countries to the U.S. revealed that risk of breast and prostate cancer increased to the level of Caucasians in the U.S. after only a few generations. Although the biologic evidence suggesting that soy may be important in the development of prostate cancer is quite strong, only a few epide-miologic studies have evaluated this relationship. Among men of Japanese ancestry living in Hawaii, risk of prostate cancer was reduced 65 in those men who ate tofu more than five times per week, in comparison with those who ate it less than once per week. However, the number of men in the study was small and the finding was of borderline statistical significance.45 Among...

Prostate Enlargement Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

The prostate gland produces the fluid that surrounds and nourishes the sperm in semen. A common condition of older men is enlargement of the prostate gland (benign prostatic hyperplasia) three-quarters of men undergo some enlargement by their seventh decade. The prostate gland surrounds the urethra just below the bladder, and enlargement of the gland constricts flow of urine out of the bladder. This results in a frequent need to urinate, a slow, diminished stream of urine, and in- ability to fully empty the bladder. Although prostate enlargement can rarely be due to a cancer in the gland, in most cases, the process is benign and the cause unknown.

Micronutrients Prostate

Impaired zinc metabolism within the prostate gland may contribute to enlargement. Supplementation may reduce gland size and improve symptoms3 Supplementation may reduce risk of enlargement and prostate cancer1 prostate gland may contribute to enlargement. Supplementation can reduce activity of these substances and may reduce gland size and improve symptoms Fig. 5.31 Vitamin E supplementation and risk of prostate cancer. 30,000 50-69-year-old Finnish men were given 50 mg day alpha-tocopherol or placebo for 5-8 years. There were 151 new cases of prostate cancer in the placebo group, compared with only 99 new cases in the treatment group. (Source The ATBC Cancer Prevention Group. N Engl J Med. 1994 330 1029)

Prostate cancer and the diet factor

If you were one of the 19,000 Canadian men diagnosed with prostate cancer this year, then you've already faced some difficult treatment decisions. You may also be wondering if there's anything else you can do any other choices you can make to decrease your risk of recurrence, no matter what therapy you're undergoing. The good news is that all signs point towards yes. As with other cancers, a few important risk factors are linked to prostate cancer age, hormones, race and genes all play a role. For example, the disease seems to progress more rapidly in some groups, such as people of African descent, than in others. Likewise, your risk of developing prostate cancer is two to five times higher if your brother or father is affected. Unfortunately, these are the types of things we're born with after all, you can't very well change your family history at this point But there is at least one risk factor you can do something about your diet. Current research in prostate cancer suggests that...

Prostate Health

A small gland surrounding the urethra, the prostate supplies fluid that transports semen. The CDC reports that 31,078 men died of prostate cancer in 2000. Signs of prostate trouble are hesitant urination, weak urine flow and dribbling, and incontinence (inability to control urinary bladder). Nutrition may play a role in prostate health. Besides eating a varied diet focused on overall moderation, researchers have shown benefits from lycopene, a phy-tochemical (plant chemical) that gives plants a red color. Foods containing lycopene include processed tomato products, watermelon, and pink or red grapefruit.

Diet Prostate

High-fat diets, particularly saturated fat from animal sources (meat, eggs, dairy products), promotes enlargement of the prostate and may also increase risk of prostate cancer.1,2 Diets high in fruits and vegetables, particularly those rich in lycopene (a carotenoid found in large amounts in tomatoes), reduce risk of prostate enlargement and cancer.1 Overactivity of certain prostaglandins within the prostate gland may contribute to enlargement. Substituting high-quality, cold-pressed plant oils for saturated fat in the diet, along with eating fresh fish two to three times per

Whole Grains and Cancer

There is a wide range of protective substances found in whole grains that exert their effect through various mechanisms including antioxidant activity, hormonal effects, binding of carcinogens, and otherwise influencing the environment of the gut in a beneficial fashion.60 A recent review of some 40 case-control studies (involving 20 different types of cancer) found a pooled odds ratio of 0.66 (99 confidence interval 0.60-0.72) for high vs. low whole grain intake.61 Most odds ratios in this review were < 1 for studies of colorectal cancers (or polyps), other gastrointestinal cancers, all hormone-related cancers, and all studies of pancreas cancer. Most of the odds ratios for the various cancer sites that were reviewed were of the order of 0.5 to 0.8, although for both breast and prostate cancer the relationship was not as pronounced. The odds ratios for breast cancer studies was 0.86 and was even higher for the prostate cancer studies reviewed (odds ratio 0.90). Overall, there...

Recommended Daily Intakes

The usual therapeutic dose range is 15-45 mg day.10 Carotene supplements derived from natural sources are preferable. They contain, along with beta-carotene, a mixture of carotenoids, including lutein, alpha-carotene, and lycopene, and may have additional health benefits. For example, ly-copene is a potent antioxidant11 and may decrease the risk of prostate cancer and cataract.

Vitamin A And Cancer In Experimental Animals

Lasnitski28 developed organ culture of mouse prostate and demonstrated with it that RA and synthetic retinoids could inhibit or reverse MC-induced neoplastic changes. This, of course, generated a great deal of interest in the potential use of retinoids to prevent and or treat prostate cancer. A subsequent study demonstrated that fenretinide, a retinoid active against carcinogen-induced breast cancer, caused a 76 decrease in prostate cancer in rats treated with the carcinogen MNU and testosterone.29 In addition, RA and other retinoids at higher doses inhibited the growth of established prostate cancer cell lines and induced apoptosis.30 Perhaps not surprisingly, given previous experience with retinoids and with established cell lines, retinoid effects on cultured prostate cancer cells are retinoid-and cell line-dependent. RA, for example, is effective with LNCaP cells, WPEI-NB11, and WEI-NB14 cells, but not with DU-145 or PC-3 cells. Fenretinide, however, was more effective than RA in...

Minerals And The Elderly Vegetarian Or Vegan

Dietary intake of selenium depends on the soil and water content of selenium. Many areas of the world contain soils that are selenium-deficient. Dietary selenium intake of the vegetarian is dependent on Brazil nuts, wheat germ, molasses, sunflower seeds, and whole wheat bread.97 Eggs and milk products are too low in selenium to be considered as sources. A recommended daily allowance for the elderly would be from 60 to 70 micrograms day. Absorption efficiency improves with deficiency. Prediagnostic levels of selenium can be made from toenail samples. When matched case-control data were analyzed, higher selenium levels were associated with a reduced risk of advanced prostate cancer.108 A study by Clark et al.109 revealed that prostate cancer incidence was reduced by two thirds among those in the selenium-supplemented group compared with the placebo group. The synergistic relationship between vitamin E and selenium may be a major factor in this reduced prostate cancer rate.110 Selenium...

Strength of evidence

Prostate cancer incidence rates are strongly affected by diagnostic practices and therefore difficult to interpret, but mortality rates show that death from prostate cancer is about 10 times more common in North America and Europe than in Asia (11). Little is known about the etiology of prostate cancer, although ecological studies suggest that it is positively associated with a ''westernized'' diet (19). The data from prospective studies have not established causal or protective associations for specific nutrients or dietary factors (9, 34). Diets high in red meat, dairy products and animal fat have frequently been implicated in the development of prostate cancer, although the data are not entirely consistent (9,51-53). Randomized controlled trials have provided substantial, consistent evidence that supplements of b-carotene do not alter the risk for prostate cancer (40, 41, 54) but have suggested that vitamin E (54) and selenium (55) might have a protective effect....

Studies in Seventh Day Adventists

These studies are reviewed below. However, as early as 1958, Wynder and Lemon examined cancer and heart disease in SDA hospital patients compared with non-SDA patients.18 In this early study, based on 564 SDA and 8128 non-SDA patients admitted to eight SDA hospitals throughout the U.S., lower risk of epidermoid lung, mouth, esophagus, larynx, and bladder cancer were found in the SDAs than in the non-SDAs. Colon and rectum cancer, however, were not found less frequently in the SDA than the non-SDA comparison group, while prostate and breast cancer were found somewhat more frequently in the SDA patient series. Interviews with study subjects indicated that only 41 of the SDA patients consumed any meat, whereas 95 of the general population consumed meat. Between the years 1958 and 1965, an updated analysis that examined mortality in the SDA population was conducted wherein various adjustments were made to make the SDA non-SDA comparison more valid. In...

Alternative Explanations for Low Cancer Risk in Vegetarians

Data have suggested that colon cancer may be associated with cigarette smoking (but only after a long latency period).64-65 The more relevant question today may be which cancer sites are not associated with tobacco the list appears to be quite short and currently includes prostate, endometrium, and breast cancer. Screening Bias For some forms of cancer, screening is effective in early detection. Specifically, some of the female cancers such as cervix and breast, as well as prostate cancer in men may be detected more frequently in populations that have a greater than normal degree of access to screening programs. For example, in the Adventist Health Study in which cancer incidence was monitored among SDA between 1976 and 1982, elevated incidence of skin cancer, prostate, and cervix cancers was observed.28 These findings may not be a reflection of an actual increased biologic risk of these forms of cancer in SDAs, but an artifact of more intense screening for cancers among SDAs than in...

Cadmium Toxicity in Adults

Studies of men exposed to industrial levels of cadmium have shown statistically higher incidences of prostate cancer. Experimentally, injection of cadmium into test animals resulted in damage to the testicles and eventually led to testicular tumors. Long term, low-level exposure in experimental animals also led to testicular and prostate tumors.'0 In cases of heavy exposure, cadmium accumulated in the testes and reduced testosterone production. The mechanism of action is unknown, but cadmium is not thought to have a direct effect on the prostate and testes. It may be that cadmium has an indirect effect on zinc and androgen hormone production. There is no direct evidence that low-level cadmium exposure is a cause of prostate cancer in humans, but it also doesn't hurt to err on the side of safety.

The Relationship between Diet Physical Activity and Cancer

Studies have shown the risk of prostate cancer drops for men who eat tomato products, possibly because of the phytochemical lycopene. In addition, it has been shown that colon cancer declines among those who drink green tea, which contains antioxidants and phytochemicals, and who regularly eat soy products and foods rich in selenium, an antioxidant.

New Adventist Health Study

Prostate Using an external reference population (i.e., Connecticut Tumor Registry) to generate expected numbers of cancer cases (adjusting for age, sex, and calendar year), the California SDA population was found to experience decreased cancer risk, although the reduction was more apparent in males than females. For all cancer sites combined, the standardized incidence ratio in males was 0.73, and for females it was 0.92 the result in females was of borderline statistical significance.28 (See Figure 4.10.) For most of the major cancer sites, the SDAs experienced low cancer risk (e.g., colon, lung) although for other cancer sites, risk was not substantially different in the SDAs (e.g., breast) or even somewhat elevated (e.g., prostate, corpus uteri). Relationships between several foods and food groups have been examined in relation to cancer within the Adventist cohort for the years 1976 and 1982. Currently, results have been presented for breast, prostate, lung, colon, bladder, and...

Epidemiologic Studies of Cancer in Vegetarian Societies

The Health Food Shoppers Study12 in the U.K. recruited both vegetarian (n 3790) and non-vegetarian (n 6088) study subjects. Participants were identified via health food shops, magazines, and vegetarian societies between 1973 and 1979. Follow-up was completed by record linkage with National Health Service Central Register through 1995. SMRs were calculated based on the national mortality rates for England and Wales. For all malignant neoplasms combined, the SMR was significantly reduced in both males and females (0.50 and 0.76, respectively). Risk of stomach and colorectal cancer death was also lower, although the SMR for breast, ovary, and prostate cancers were close to 1.0 (See Figure 4.3). Death rate ratios (and 95 confidence limits) comparing vegetarians with non-vegetarians within the study were reported for stomach, colorectal, lung, breast, and prostate cancers after adjustment for age, sex, and smoking status.14 The rate ratios were as follows for stomach, 1.23 (0.62-2.47) for...

Fruits And Vegetables A Population Studies

Different fruits and vegetables have been investigated separately and appear to provide protection against cancer at certain locations. For example, the use of carrots and green, leafy vegetables provides substantial protection against lung and stomach cancers, while the cruciferous vegetables (cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, etc.) provide useful protection against colorectal and thyroid cancers. In addition, the regular use of onions or garlic can decrease the risk of stomach and colon cancer by 50-60 ,3,10,11 while the regular consumption of tomatoes and strawberries was recently found to substantially protect against prostate cancer.12 High levels of lycopene are found in the prostate. The consumption of tomato products, rich in the red lycopene pigment, is associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. In the Adventist Health Study, men who consumed tomatoes more than five times a week had a 40 lower risk of prostate cancer than men consuming tomatoes less than once a week.38...

Enhancement of Apoptosis

Tumor growth is thought to require activation of telomerase, making it a target for chemoprevention.39 Retinoids induce senescence in malignant and pre-malignant human and rat breast carcinoma cells, in vitro and in vivo.40 Retinoids also synergize with vitamin D in inhibiting telomerase. The combination of vitamin D3 and 9-cis-retinoic acid inhibited telomerase activity through direct interaction of the heterodimer of the vitamin D3 receptor and retinoid X receptor (RXR) in prostate cancer cells.41 Other nutritional factors, including EGCG and curcumin, also regulate telomerase activity. In nude mice models bearing both telomerase-dependent and -independent xenograft tumors cloned from a single human cancer progeny, only the telomerase-dependent tumors responded to prolonged oral administration of EGCG.42 Furthermore, curcumin inhibits telomerase activity in MCF-7 breast cancer cells via downregulation of hTERT expression.43

AOhd Analogs In The Treatment Of Cancer

There is extensive literature available on the use of deltanoids as anticancer agents. With VDR being expressed in more than 30 nonclassical target tissues and many cancer-related cells, the deltanoids have been shown to inhibit cell proliferation in many tumor cell types in culture. Initial findings using hemato-poietic-derived tumor cells showed inhibition of cell proliferation. Further evidence indicated the versatile use of deltanoids across several nonhematopoietic malignancies including transformed breast, prostate, skin, lung, colon, ovary, pancreas cells, as well as neuroblastoma and melanoma cells.6675-7980 Although much of the mechanistic data gathered in vitro point toward cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and induction of apoptosis, the proposed mechanism of action of deltanoids is likely to differ based on the type of tumor model examined. No unified hypothesis has emerged so far on the basis for the anticancer effects of 1a,25-(OH)2D3and its analogs. In addition, as...

Chi Chun Wong KaWing Cheng Jianfei Chao Xiaofang Peng Zongping Zheng Jiajun Wu Feng Chen and Mingfu W

Green tea, oolong tea, and black tea differ in their polyphenolic contents .7 Cat-echins are the major flavanoids present in green tea, accounting for up to 30 of the dry weight of the leaves .6 They are flavan-3-ols, which are either dihydroxyl-ated (3,4-OH) or trihydroxylated (3,4,5-OH) on the B-ring . There are eight major catechins in green tea 8 (+)-catechin (C), (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-gallocatechin (GC), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-catechin gallate (CG), (-)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) . Catechins are best known for their potent antioxidant activities, being more effective radical scavengers than vitamins C and E .9 The antioxidant properties of catechins may contribute to the beneficial effects of tea on a number of diseases related to reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Alternative mechanisms to the chemopreventive properties of catechins have also been...

Rationale for the Use of Soy Phytoestrogens for Neuroprotection

The purpose of this chapter is to stimulate thinking, not just about the potential benefits of the soy phytoestrogens in the brain, but also about the larger issue of the role of diet in general in determining late life health. This chapter will discuss experimental approaches taken to address whether soy phytoestrogens, or isoflavones, can have neuroprotective actions in the mammalian brain. The structural similarity between the soy isoflavones and the natural estrogen, 170-estradiol (Figure 8.1), has been the rationale for experiments by many others that have shown that soy isoflavones can have beneficial effects in models of cardiovascular disease (Anthony et al., 1996 Clarkson et al., 1997), breast cancer, and prostate cancer (both

Inhibition of Tissue Invasion and Metastasis

As outlined above, green tea and EGCG are effective antiangiogenic agents. They also are found to inhibit genes related to adhesion, invasion, and metastasis, including urokinase, MMP-2, and MMP-9.4748 Interestingly, when black tea and a soy phytochemical concentrate were combined in a mouse model of orthotopic androgen-sensitive human prostate cancer, the combination resulted in a syner-gistic interaction to inhibit prostate tumorigenicity, final tumor weight, and metastases to lymph nodes in vivo.49

Mechanism Of Vitamin A Action

Despite the expectation of exquisite specificity fostered by the various discrete combinations of RAR and RXR isoforms, these receptors exhibit a great deal of apparent functional redundancy and or ability to compensate for loss of another. In gene knockout experiments, more than one receptor can perform the same function in vivo, although this may represent an artifact of the knockouts and demonstrate what can happen, not necessarily what does occur.11 Nevertheless, receptor ablation has provided enormous insight into receptor function. Deletion of the RARa gene results in postnatal lethality within 24 h RARa-null mice represent only 3 of the population by 1 to 2 months of age. Of these, 60 have webbed digits on both fore and hind limbs. A few mice survive 4 to 5 months, but no males are fertile, and all have severe degeneration of the testis germinal epithelium. RARP-null mice have locomotor defects, reminiscent of Parkinson's disease, but are fertile with normal longevity....

Analysis Interpretation

Of the 145 SMRs or relative risks that were less than 100, 39 were deemed to be statistically significant (i.e., not due to chance). These figures varied when evaluating specific cancer sites, however. For colon cancer, out of a total of 20 studies, 19 (95 ) reported an SMR RR less than 100 (or 1.0). Six of these were statistically significant. For the other cancer sites evaluated, this figure was lower. For prostate cancer, only 55 of the SMRs reviewed were < 100 (none significantly so) while for breast cancer 67 were < 100, of which one was significantly less than 100 and two were significantly greater than 100. Table 4.3 summarizes the percent of SMRs and or RRs less than the null value for all cancer sites combined as well as for colon, prostate, breast, lung, stomach, pancreas and ovarian cancer as well as for the lymphatic hematopoietic cancers. Prostate When within-group comparisons are evaluated where dietary variation exists (e.g., within the SDA populations), several...

Using supplements as insurance

Taking supplements may reduce the likelihood of some types of cancer and other diseases. After analyzing data from a survey of 871 men and women, epidemiologists at Seattle's Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center found that people taking a daily multivitamin for more than ten years were 50 percent less likely to develop colon cancer. In addition, selenium supplements seem to reduce the risk of prostate cancer, and vitamin C seems to lower the risk of cataracts.

Introduction Cancer Epidemiology

On the other hand, cancer may be characterized at the same time by a high incidence rate and a quite long natural history, having a large prevalence in the population under consideration (e.g., prostate cancer). In defining the relationship between incidence rate and prevalence of a disease of interest, many factors, not only the disease mean duration, should be taken into account, since, in the same population, subgroups of individuals might deeply differ in terms of measures of disease occurrence on the basis of parameters such as gender, age, ethnicity, education, income, social class, disability, geographic location.1

Nuts Seeds And Oils

Nuts, especially peanuts, are a good source of saponins which are reported to have both anticarcinogenic activity and hypocholesterolemic activity.135,136 Most nuts and oilseeds are a good source of phenolic acids (such as caffeic and ellagic acids). In particular, pecans and walnuts have high levels of the cancer-preventive ellagic acid,71 the majority of which is lost when the nuts are blanched.137 Typically, nuts also contain 300-500 mg of phytates per ounce.138 Phytates are known to reduce the risk of various cancers and reduce cell proliferation.139 Nuts are also rich in tannins, which are water-soluble polyphenolic compounds.49 Tannins have antioxidant, mutagenic and antimicrobial activities. Some are reported to possess anticarcinogenic activity.140 Tannins have also been reported to decrease blood lipid and blood pressure levels and modulate immunore-sponses, depending on the amount and type of tannins consumed.140 With such an array of cancer-preventive substances in nuts, it...

The Story on Soy Products

Substituting steaks, burgers, and franks with tofu, tempeh, miso, and veggie burgers can work to your advantage. (You vegetarians are definitely on to something.) That's because soy foods contain phytoestrogens called isoflavones, weak estrogens that help fight against certain cancers, including prostate. However, soy protein may sometimes be contraindicated for women with

Making a Baby Is Complicated How Does Conception Occur

A female ovulates once a month during her reproductive years. Ovulation culminates in the liberation of an egg, which then settles in one of the fallopian tubes. There the egg sits and plays a waiting game, as it has but 24 hours or so to become fertilized by a sperm. Semen from a male counterpart is a mixture of sperm (produced by the testes) and nourishing and supporting fluids from various accessory reproductive glands, such as the prostate and Cowper's gland. Ejaculation produces about one-half teaspoon of semen, which will contain millions of sperm. This high number of sperm is very important because the task at hand is so great. Ultimately, however, only one sperm will fertilize the egg and initiate the genesis of human life.

Does Obesity Place Us at a Higher Risk for Cancer

Large studies of populations have indicated that obesity is a significant risk factor for almost all types of human cancer including endometrial, colon, breast, and prostate. Quite simply, individuals who eat less energy and maintain body weights closer to their ideal body weight tend to be at a lower risk for most cancers. Whether increased body fat directly causes cancer is doubtful, but research suggests that some of the chemicals that swollen fat cells release can increase the rate of developing cancer. This is because some of these chemicals are associated with the growth of cells and tissue.

How Does Cancer Develop

It is important to realize that almost all of the cells in the body inherently possess the ability to grow and divide and that these functions are tightly regulated by certain proteins within these cells. These cell proteins are ultimately produced from DNA genes. Quite simply, cancer is a disruption in this fine regulation. Cells that are arrested in their ability to reproduce can begin to reproduce. Or cells that are already reproducing at a specific rate, such as in the colon, uterus, or prostate, can reproduce at a rate greater than normal, thus resulting in more cells being produced than broken down.

Role of Exercise in Disease Prevention

Studies have shown that exercise can have a direct effect on preventing heart disease, cancer, and other causes of premature death. Furthermore, participation in regular physical activity may reduce the rate of occurrence of these maladies. An inverse relationship exists between disease and exercise, meaning that with increased levels of physical activity there is a decreased prevalence for certain diseases. Currently, there is strong evidence that exercise has powerful effects on mortality, CAD (including blood lipid profiles), and colon cancer. Research has also confirmed that aerobic exercise can reduce high blood pressure, obesity, type II diabetes, and osteoporosis. In addition, stroke and several types of cancer (such as breast, prostate, and lung cancer) can also be reduced with regular physical activity. prostate male gland surrounding the urethra that contributes fluid to the semen

Evidence Linking Diet To Cancer

Chapter 1 describes the worldwide epidemiology of cancer. The estimated incidence rates for various cancers worldwide in 2002 found lung, colon rectum, and stomach to be the most common cancers in both men and women, as well as prostate and liver cancer in men, and breast and cervical cancer in women.3 The pattern of cancer distribution based on incidence and mortality rates varies geographically. In general, the predominant cancers in economically developing countries contrast to those in the industrially developed world. For Asia, Africa, and Latin America, there is a relatively high rate of cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract, stomach, liver, and cervix, whereas in Europe and North America there is a relatively high rate of cancer of the colon rectum, breast, and prostate. These Western cancers have a strong environmental component, with diet and lifestyle factors particularly important, while in developing countries, infections with such agents as viral hepatitis and...

Too Much of a Good Thing

High-fat eating, especially high saturated fat and excessive trans fats, is linked to higher blood cholesterol levels and so a greater chance for heart disease. There's more reason for caution eating a high-fat diet also increases the risk for obesity, and a diet high in saturated fat, for colon and prostate cancers.

Estrogenlike Actions Of Soy Isoflavones In Models Of Human Chronic Disease

The correlation between estrogen loss and risk for osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease development has been strongly demonstrated by epidemiological data (Rosano and Panina, 1999). Sufficient experiments have been carried out to warrant the conclusion that dietary intake of soy protein, or specifically the soy isoflavones, results in estrogen-like protection against the development of the hormone-dependent breast and prostate cancers (Barnes, 1997 Lamartiniere and Fritz, 1998), as well as atherosclerosis (Anthony et al., 1996 Adlercreutz and Mazur, 1998 Setchell and Cassidy, 1999).

Other Additives to Avoid Aspartame Nutra Sweet Equal

This particularly nasty substance should have never even been approved for human use. In fact, had it not been for some fancy footwork by those in power in the FDA, it never would have. Early experiments using low, medium, and high doses with aspartame all found dramatic tumor increases in test animals. These included brain, pancreas, and breast tumors, and tumors of the testes, thyroid, and prostate. Experiments also demonstrated a direct correlation between intake quantity and tumor incidence.

Use in Prevention and Therapy

Vitamin A is one of nature's primary anticancer substances, particularly in the skin and mucous membranes. Ample intakes of vitamin A have been shown to protect against cancers of the lung, bladder, prostate, larynx, esophagus, stomach, and colon. Vitamin A can prevent precancerous lesions, such as oral leukoplakia (white patches on the lips and mouth often found in smokers) and cervical dysplasia, from developing and may produce regression and disappearance of these disorders.15 As a cancer treatment, large doses of retinoic acid may reduce growth and recurrence of certain forms of skin cancer.16 As an antioxidant, beta-carotene helps provide protection against damage from many xenobiotics (such as polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs ). It may also reduce the risk of skin cancer associated with exposure to sunlight6 and radiation.2

Other nutritional changes Antinutrients

Phytoestrogens in soy and other foods may protect post-menopausal women from osteoporosis and heart disease and protect men against prostate and other testosterone-dependent cancers. Extrusion can transform soy into food products with broad appeal for consumers, but processing effects on soy isoflavones and other phytoestrogens should be evaluated for any products for which health effects are intended. Blends of soy protein concentrate and cornmeal (20 80) were processed under different extrusion conditions (Mahungu et al, 1999). Increasing barrel temperature caused decarboxylation of isoflavones, with increased proportions of acetyl derivatives, but total isoflavones also decreased.

Nonbiogenic Toxic Substances Metals

Some of the toxic effects of these metals involve hematopathies, neuropathies, nephropathies, and carcinogenesis attributed to lead pulmonary edema, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, prostate, and lung cancer attributed to cadmium neuropathies, teratogenesis, and mutagenesis attributed to mercury and both central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervouos system (PNS) pathologies, including muscle weakness and loss of sensory perception, attributed to arsenic.47

Vitamin D And The Cancer Connection

The role of vitamin D in cancer prevention perhaps has been known for more than 50 years. Although excessive sun exposure has been documented to increase the risk of skin cancer, research conducted starting as early as 1936 has proved this population of patients with skin cancer to be at a lower risk for other types of cancer. Sun exposure has been correlated with decreased incidence of certain types of cancer such as cancers of the prostate, breast, and colon. Individuals residing in the U.S., which lies in the northern latitudes, have a risk for cancer incidence which is two to three times higher than the risk of cancer incidence of people living in sunnier, equatorial parts of the world.40 This intriguing observation by Apperly40 was followed by several epidemiological studies that demonstrated an inverse relationship between 25-(OH)D3 levels and cancer risk and

Increased Antioxidant Capacity and Genomic Stability

Prostaglandins and other members of the eicosanoid pathway are thought to induce carcinogenesis through action on nuclear transcription sites and downstream gene products important in the control of cell proliferation. Eicosanoids are locally acting hormone-like compounds derived predominantly from arachi-donic acid in tissue cells and tumor-infiltrating leukocytes.56 The most well-known eicosanoids, prostaglandins, are produced by the action of the cyclooxygenases (COX), but the lipoxygenase group of enzymes produce the leukotrienes and hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acids, which also have important proinflammatory effects.57 Substantial evidence from animal studies and human epidemiological and clinical trials show that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are inhibitors of COX, are associated with reduced risk of a number of cancers, including those of the colon-rectum, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, breast, lung, prostate, bladder, brain, and cervix.57

Nutrients Vitamin D In Colon Cancer

Vitamin D is an example of a nutrient that exhibits many of the mechanisms described above in inhibiting cancer development, particularly in inhibition of proliferation, induction of differentiation, activation of apoptosis, and blocking initiation. Vitamin D and its analogs have been investigated for some time for their anticancer properties in a number of cancers, including colorectal, prostate, breast, and leukemia.9 The classical role of the most bioactive form of vitamin D, 1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1a,25(OH)2D3), is to regulate calcium absorption in the intestine, maintain mineral homeostasis in the kidney, and regulate bone remodeling. This function can lead to toxic hypercalcemia when exogenous 1a,25(OH)2D3 is administered in therapeutic doses therefore, a number of pharmaceutical analogs have been developed that retain their anticancer properties with minimal effects on circulating calcium.71 Many tissues other than those involved with mineral metabolism have specific...

Meat And The Pathology Of Human Disease

The fat in red meats has been identified as having a very high content of saturated fat (Table 7.2). Thus, based on fat content alone, red meat could be considered an atherogenic risk factor that contributes to coronary heart disease and ischemic strokes. A number of prospective studies have linked red meat intake to higher rates of coronary heart disease and stroke.18-22 Recent laboratory data also raise the possibility that the low polyunsaturated to saturated fat ratio in red meats (Table 7.2) increases the permeability of the cell membrane to insulin receptors and thus increases insulin resistance.23-25 This mechanism suggests that increased red meat intake (relative to other meats or no meat intake) could potentially produce a hyperinsulinemic state that would contribute to a higher risk of diabetes, and perhaps certain cancers (prostate, colon, breast). In this context, it is noteworthy that Snowdon has reported a prospective association between red meat intake and increased...

Meat and micronutrients Iron in meat

Selenium acts as an antioxidant and is considered to protect against coronary heart disease and certain cancers, such as prostate. Meat contains about 10 mg selenium per 100 g, which is approximately 25 of our daily requirement. Beef and pork contain more selenium than does lamb, which may be due to the age of the animal as selenium may collect in the meat over time. Bioavailability of selenium from plant foods was thought to be greater than that from animal foods, but

Antioxidantsyour Ace Against Oxygen Rebels

As an antioxidant, beta-carotene is a star performer. Doctors at Harvard Medical School, who have been following twenty-two thousand male physicians as part of a ten-year health study, found that men with a history of cardiac disease who were given beta-carotene supplements every other day suffered half as many heart attacks, strokes, and deaths as those given a placebo. A study is now underway to evaluate forty-five thousand postmenopausal women to determine if the treatment protects women in the same way. Scientists speculate that beta-carotene may help to decrease the impact of toxic radicals on blood lipids like LDL and lipoprotein-a, which are instrumental in the development of heart disease. Special interest has been directed toward the role of beta-carotene in combating cancer. In countries with a diet rich in beta-carotene, incidence of lung, colon, prostate, cervical, and breast cancer is low. That, of course, could be attributed to a number of factors, and there are some...

Pathogenesis Of Cancer Acquired Capabilities

Neoplasia Diagram

Research over the past 25 years has produced a deeper understanding of the molecular, biochemical, and cellular changes that occur as cells are transformed from normal cells to malignant cancers. The multiple genetic defects leading to cancer cell production can result from exposure to environmental, dietary, and lifestyle factors, as well as infectious agents. The multistep, multistage process of gradual carcinogenetic changes in the biological behavior of a clonogenic population of cells is illustrated schematically in Figure 2.1.20As indicated, this progression of cellular changes may span years or decades.21 Among the epithelial cancers, such as colorectal, breast, prostate, lung, pancreas, and others, a diffuse genomic instability after exposure to damaging agents (inflammation, toxins, etc.), and increased epithelial hyperplasia is the initiating act. A single basal cell may develop one or more mutations of a number of critical oncogenic or tumor suppressor genes, allowing...

Free Radical Production

In this respect scientific interest over the years was focused on the effect of antioxidant status on free radical damage. In vitro studies had shown that lack of antioxidants in a biological system resulted in significant free radical pathology, whereas addition of antioxidants to the system reduced pathology partly or totally. Epidemiologic studies indicated that low dietary intake of antioxidant nutrients is associated with increased incidence of tissue pathology, in particular lung (beta-carotene), breast, colon and prostate (selenium) or overall cancer (vitamin C). The organism must be equipped, therefore, with potent defence mechanisms to prevent such damage. The human body has a variety of mechanisms to protect itself against the effects of free radicals enzymes, scavengers and antioxidants.

Increased Response to Antigrowth Signals and Induction of Differentiation

Of specific phenotypic traits characteristic of the mature cell type. As cells move toward the differentiated state, the rate of proliferation slows, so that fully differentiated cells do not proliferate, or at least do so at a very slow rate. Cancer cells are poorly differentiated yet retain the potential to differentiate into more mature cells. Thus, induction of differentiation (or redifferentiation) is a cancer prevention and treatment strategy, although its effectiveness is lower for relatively slow-growing cancers like breast or prostate than for faster ones such as leukemia. Several nuclear acting nutrients, including vitamins D and A, have been the most comprehensively studied as differentiation-promoting agents, although a number of other compounds have been shown to induce cellular markers of differentiation in vitro, including a variety of flavonoids, the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and resveratrol.36

Biochemistry And Bioavailability Of Carvocrol

Prevention, dietary guidelines for, 399-401 prostate, 67, 72, 76-77, 346 risk, dietary fiber and, 81 stomach, 65, 75, 334 thyroid, 335 uterine, 65 whole grains and, 82 Cancer risk, vegetarian diets and, 55-90 analysis interpretation, 74-78 components of vegetarian diets that may be associated with altered cancer risk, 79-85 risk in vegetarians, 83-85 dietary fiber and cancer risk, 81-82 fruits and vegetables, 83 soy, isoflavones and breast or prostate

Inhibition of Cellular Replication

Via Perillyl Alcohol

A comprehensive catalog of bioactive food components has been shown to inhibit cell proliferation in vitro at physiologically relevant doses, although there is specificity in the effects depending on dose, length of treatment, and cell type tested. A prominent example is genistein, an isoflavone and the major phytoestro-gen in soybeans and other legumes. Genistein and other phytoestrogens have a chemical structure reminiscent of 17P-estradiol, can bind the estrogen receptors (ERa and ERP), although with stronger affinity to ERP, and exhibit estrogenlike biological activity.9 Human breast and prostate cancer cell lines stimulated by EGF are inhibited by genistein independently of whether the cells express estrogen or androgen receptors. When all cell culture media are depleted of estrogens, genistein at concentrations < 1 pmol L acts as a growth stimulant to estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells in the presence of 17P-estradiol (0.3 nmol L, a physiological concentration) the effect...

Fruits and Vegetables

The term vegetarian implies a lifestyle characterized by a diet rich in vegetable intake. A recent review based on 206 human epidemiologic studies and 22 animal studies concluded that fruits and vegetables were effective in the prevention of several forms of cancer including stomach, esophagus, lung, oral cavity, pharynx, endometrium, pancreas, and colon.62 Twenty cohort studies (perhaps offering the strongest type of evidence) were reviewed and indicated that fruit and vegetable consumption afforded protection against lung cancer across all studies reviewed. The 174 case-control studies that were reviewed indicated that there was convincing evidence for a protective role for fruits and vegetables for cancer of the lung, stomach, and esophagus and probable evidence for protection against cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx, colon, breast, pancreas, and bladder. In this review, prostate cancer was the one form of cancer not found to be associated with fruit and vegetable consumption....

Hormonelike compounds

Like natural or synthetic estrogens, daidzein and genistein hook onto sensitive spots in reproductive tissue (breast, ovary, uterus, prostate) called estrogen receptors. But phytoestrogens have weaker estrogenic effects than natural or synthetic estrogens. It takes about 100,000 molecules of daidzein or genistein

Types of dtc genetic tests on the market

In a December 2007 report, the UK Human Genetics Commission (2007, Appendix 2) identified 26 companies based in the USA, UK and Europe that advertise and or sell DTC genetic tests. While not an exhaustive count of the number of firms currently operating in this field, the tests provided by these 26 companies reveal the range of health concerns for which testing is available and the variable models by which services are offered. DTC tests assess genetic predisposition for a range of diseases and conditions, including cancer (mainly breast, ovarian, prostate and colorectal cancer), cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, diabetes (type 1 and type 2), obesity, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, hemochromato-sis, factor V Leiden, thrombophilia, glaucoma, macular degeneration and Alzheimer's disease. They may test for genetic factors that affect lipid, glucose, caffeine, alcohol and pharmaceutical metabolism. Pregnancy and newborn screening tests are also available. Some tests are...

Youre a man

Men who take a daily supplement of 200 micrograms selenium seem to cut their risk of prostate cancer by two-thirds. The selenium supplement also produces an overall drop in cancer mortality, plus a significantly lower risk of prostate cancer, colon cancer, and lung cancer in both men and women.

Studies of migrants

Both breast and prostate cancer are rare in China and Japan compared with the Figure 7.3 Cancer of the breast and prostate in Chinese andJapanese immigrants to the U SA compared with incidence of the diseases in first-degree relatives in China and Japan and the local population in the USA (SFO, San Francisco). From data reported by Haenzel W and Kurihawa M (1965) Journal of the National Cancer Institute 40 43 68. and Yu FL et al. (1991) International Journal of Epidemiology 20 76-81. The next step is to test the hypothesis derived, from epidemiological and prospective studies, that a change in diet, or provision of a nutritional supplement, will reduce the risk of developing a disease. Figure 7.7 shows the results of such an intervention trial in Finland in the 1980s to test the protective effect of P-carotene against lung cancer. Altogether some 10,000 people were involved half received supplements of P-carotene and half did not, and they were followed for 5 10 years. The results...

Endocrine Factors

Human prostate carcinomas are often androgen sensitive and react to hormonal therapy by temporary remission, followed by relapse to an androgen-insensitive state. These well-established features of prostate cancer strongly suggest that steroid hormones, particularly androgens, play a major role in human prostatic carcinogenesis, but the precise mechanisms by which androgens affect this process are unknown. In addition, the possible involvement of estrogenic hormones is not entirely clear.107 Estrogens induce mitosis of both normal and malignant prostatic epithelial cells in many species, including humans.108,109 An important metabolic pathway of the estrogens is the formation of hydroxylated estrogens. Muti et al.,110 in a case-control study on urinary estrogen metabolites and prostate cancer risk, showed a protective effect of the metabolic pathway favoring 2-hydroxylation over 16-hydroxylation on risk of prostate cancer. Two distinct lines of epidemiologic and basic science research...

Demographic Factors

Prostate cancer is a disease that typically strikes older men. It is usually diagnosed in very few people aged younger than 50 years (< 0.1 of all patients). The mean age of patients with this disorder is 72 to 74 years, and about 85 of patients are diagnosed after age 65.99 There are striking international differences, as much as 90-fold, in prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates between highly developed countries and less-developed countries. The lowest rates are found in Asia, especially among Chinese men in Tianjin, China (1.9 per 100,000 per year), and the highest are in North America and Scandinavia, especially in African American men in the U.S. (137 per 100,000 per year).100 Results of migrant studies appear to show some real shift in incidence toward the new host country, providing evidence that these international and racial differences in prostate cancer incidence are not based entirely on genetic predisposition or differences in health care and cancer...

Soy and Cancer

Soybeans and soy foods in the diet may provide strong anticancer activity because they are natural sources of isoflavones. A specific isoflavone called genistein, which is found is soy, appears to help block tumor-cell growth. Current studies indicate that consuming soy may reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer, while isoflavone supplements may help physicians stabilize prostate cancer by decreasing the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level used to measure how well the cancer is being controlled.

Cancer

Intake than the control group developed colon cancer at the same rate as the control.78 As with colon cancer, the study showed similar rates of breast cancer risk in women eating a low-fat diet (8.1 decrease from comparison) and in those without diet modification. The Nurses' Health Study also reported no association between total fat intake or specific types of fat and breast cancer risk.79 In contrast, a higher risk of prostate cancer progression is seen in men with a high fat intake, with fat of animal origin correlating to the highest risk of prostate cancer.80,81

Conclusion

P., Albanes, D., and Virtamo, J., Prostate cancer and supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene incidence and mortality in a controlled trial, J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 1998 90 440-446. Helzlsouer, K. J., Huang, H.-Y., Alberg, A. J., Hoffman, S., Burke, A., Norkus E. P., Morris, J. S., and Comstock, G. W., Association between alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, selenium, and subsequent prostate cancer, J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 2000 92 2018-2023. Moyad, M. A., Brumfield, S. K., and Pienta, K. J., Vitamin E, alpha- and gamma-tocopherol, and prostate cancer, Semin. Urol. Oncol., 1999 17 85-90.

Whole Grains

Epidemiological studies support the notion that whole grains are protective against cardiovascular disease and cancers, especially gastrointestinal can-cers.107,108 In a review of 40 case-control studies involving 20 cancers and colon polyps, 95 of the studies showed whole grains to be protective. Overall, the risk of most cancers was 20-50 lower (average risk was 34 lower) in those with a high vs. low consumption of whole grains.109 The risks of breast and prostate cancer were only 14 and 10 lower, respectively. In a recent study from northern Italy, researchers found that those who had the highest consumption of refined cereals (pasta, breads, or rice) experienced a 30 to 60 higher incidence of cancer of the gastrointestinal tract (mouth, esophagus, stomach, colon, and rectum) than those who had the lowest intake of refined grains.110 Americans are encouraged to consume at least three of their daily servings of grains and cereals in the form of whole grains.107 At present, the...

Cancer Connection

After heart disease, cancer is the second leading cause of illness and death in the United States, currently accounting for one in four deaths. According to 2005 data, cancer will strike about one in three adults. For new cases among men, the incidence of prostate cancer is highest, followed by lung and bronchial cancer, then colorectal cancer. And for women, the prevalence of breast cancer is highest, followed by lung, then colorectal cancer. The overall death rate follows a similar order except that lung cancer for both men and women leaps to the top.

Lutein

Tomato intake was associated with a 50 reduction of mortality from cancers at all sites.8 In a case-control study in Italy, high consumption of lycopene from tomatoes was shown to have a potential protective effect against cancers of digestive tract.9 An inverse association between high intake of tomato products and prostate cancer risk was also reported.10

Chapter Thirteen

The first case I want to discuss is that of a patient I will call Mr. R.H. I saw this 73-year-old man for the first time in November, 1981. Seven months prior to this he had been found to have cancer of the prostate. He received 35 radiation treatments. A scan done before the radiation showed no tumor activity in any of the bones. A scan done a few months after the radiation did show tumor activity in some of the bones. It was at this point that he decided to go on nutritional therapy. In August, 1982, he began to have some pain in his left hip. Several doctors told him that they were sure that this was from the spread of his cancer and wanted to do more radiation. I suggested that he see an orthopedic surgeon and say nothing about his prostate cancer. The orthopedic Mr. R.H. died in December, 1993, at the age of 85. My last contact with him was in October, 1991. At that time he was well, traveling a lot and enjoying life. So here was a man who had cancer of the prostate with...

Antioxidants

Antioxidants also slow the normal wear-and-tear on body cells, so some researchers noted that a diet rich in plant foods (fruits, vegetables, grains, and beans) seems likely to reduce the risk of heart disease and maybe reduce the risk of some kinds of cancer. For example, consuming lots of lycopene (the red carotenoid in tomatoes) has been linked to a lower risk of prostate cancer as long as the tomatoes are mixed with a dab of oil, which makes the lycopene easy to absorb.

Unexpected bonuses

Food is a package deal containing vitamins, minerals, protein, fat, carbohydrates, and fiber, plus a cornucopia of as-yet-unidentified substances called phytochemicals (phyto plant, chemicals well, chemicals) that may be vital to your continuing good health. Think of lycopene, the red pigment in tomatoes that recently was found to reduce the risk of prostate cancer. Think of genistein and daidzein, the estrogen-like substances in soybeans that appear to reduce your risk of heart disease. Who knows what else is hiding in your apples, peaches, pears, and plums Do you want to be the only one on your block who misses out on these goodies Of course not. For more about the benefits of phytochemicals, see Chapter 12.

Fiber and Diabetes

Fiber, especially soluble fiber, lowers elevated blood sugar levels. Fruits, vegetables, and some seeds, such as pectins, gums, and mucilages are good sources of soluble fiber. Flaxseed has one of the highest levels of both soluble and insoluble fiber known for any food. It also contains a substance called lignan, which inhibits breast and prostate cancer.

Impact and Influence

Prostate male gland surrounding the urethra that contributes fluid to the semen support. In addition, the panel agreed with the physicians' claim that whole milk consumption may actually increase the risk of heart disease and prostate cancer, and recommended that this information be included in advertisements.

Soy and Your Heart

Among the many benefits of soy are the potential for lowering one's risk of heart disease, menopausal bone loss, breast and prostate cancer, and osteoporosis. The results of a 1995 meta-analysis (combining results from separate but related studies) published in the New England Journal of Medicine found that consuming an average of 47 grams of soy protein a day, rather than animal protein, significantly decreased LDL cholesterol in people with moderately elevated or elevated cholesterol levels (low-density lipoproteins (LPLs) are the bad type of cholesterol and have been associated with clogged arteries and heart attacks). The study also found that high-density lipoprotein HDL cholesterol (the beneficial, or good, cholesterol) was not affected by the consumption of soy protein. prostate male gland surrounding the urethra that contributes fluid to the semen

Introduction

It was not until the 20th century, however, that systematic study of the diet-cancer relationship emerged. More recent interest in diet and cancer was spurred by the report of Doll and Peto (1981), who released a comprehensive analysis of avoidable cases of cancer mortality in the U.S.1 Their analysis indicated that about 35 of cancer deaths in the U.S. were attributable to dietary practices and this estimate was second only to the impact of cigarette smoking on cancer death. However, their estimate was associated with a large degree of uncertainty (10 -70 ). In 1995, Willett updated the estimate and indicated that about 32 of all cancer deaths in the U.S. may be associated with diet and this estimate ranged only from 20 to 42 .2 Regardless of which figure is accurate, these data indicate that dietary habits may be responsible for about 177,000 cancer deaths and 394,000 new cases of cancer in the U.S. every year, thus making diet a major source of public health concern. The estimate...

Background

Cancer is caused by a variety of identified and unidentified factors. The most important established cause of cancer is tobacco smoking. Other important determinants of cancer risk include diet, alcohol and physical activity, infections, hormonal factors and radiation. The relative importance of cancers as a cause of death is increasing, mostly because of the increasing proportion of people who are old, and also in part because of reductions in mortality from some other causes, especially infectious diseases. The incidence of cancers of the lung, colon and rectum, breast and prostate generally increases in parallel with economic development, while the incidence of stomach cancer usually declines with development.

Survival signals

Raff (1992) pioneered the idea of social controls on cell survival, citing, for example, the importance of neurotrophic factors secreted by target cells for the survival of vertebrate neurons. Epithelial cells in the ventral prostate die by apoptosis in the absence of testosterone, as do cells of the adrenal cortex in the absence of adrenocorticotrophic hormone. T lymphocytes require IL-2, and endothelial cells require fibroblast growth factor (among other growth factors) to prevent apoptosis. As a means of ensuring that only the appropriate cells survive in a given body location, this inverse relationship between survival signals and apoptosis has universal utility (Fig. 6.2). If a cell loses contact with its appropriate neighbouring cells, that cell is likely to die (Ashkenazi and Dixit, 1998). Cancer cells can establish metastases only if they acquire by mutation the capacity to survive without external survival signals (Raff, 1992).

Prevalence

Prostate male gland surrounding the urethra that contributes fluid to the semen Cancer can affect any site in the body. About one hundred human cancers are recognized. The four most common cancers in the United States are lung, colon rectum, breast, and prostate. Together, these cancers account for over 50 percent of total cancer cases in the United States each year.

Carotenoids

Lycopene is a carotenoid that offers protection to the prostate and the intestines. It has also been associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer. Found in tomatoes, it remains intact despite the processing involved in making ketchup and tomato paste. The carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin seem to aid in the prevention of cataracts and macular degeneration, and can be found in spinach and collard greens. see also Antioxidants Beta-Carotene Vitamins, Fat-Soluble. prostate male gland surrounding the urethra that contributes fluid to the semen

Vitamin A Toxicity

Concern has been raised recently by the ATBC and CARET clinical trials involving beta-carotene supplementation and a link to increased cancer rates of the lungs and prostate in those exposed to asbestos or engaged in heavy smoking and or heavy alcohol consumption. It should be noted that those who only smoked occasionally did not show an increased cancer rate with supplement use. In the Physicians' Health Study, no increase in cancer was seen with prolonged supplementation.

Overview

In humans, some, but not all, epidemiological studies have suggested an inverse correlation between Se intake and the prevalence of malignancy. The most convincing evidence for Se having an anti-cancer effect in humans comes from a recent randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, supplementation study (Combs and Clark, 1999). In this study, 1300 subjects from the USA received 200 g of Se daily (given as Se-rich yeast) or a placebo for approximately 5 years. Total cancer incidence was 42 lower in the Se-supplemented group compared with the placebo group, with significant decreases in the incidence of prostate, gastric and colorectal cancers. Similarly, the total death rate from malignancy was 52 lower in the subjects who received Se supplementation when compared with the placebo group. The multicentre PRECISE trial has recently been started in the USA, Finland, Denmark, Sweden and the UK with a view to extending these observations to European populations (Rayman, 2000).

Future trends

Another emerging benefit for meat is that it supplies selenium. Up to the middle part of the last century the main source of selenium in the diet was from wheat-containing products. Wheat, which was imported mainly from the United States, was high in selenium. Nowadays, there is a much greater reliance on European wheat, which is much lower in selenium. This has resulted in the fact that our intake of selenium has decreased steadily during the past fifty years, but the proportion of selenium we get from meat has increased. Recent studies have found that selenium may reduce the risk of heart disease and certain types of cancer such as prostate and enhance the body's ability to fight infections.

Days of Treatment

Apo Trail Dr4 Apoptosis

Although the mitochondrial pathway is central to the apoptogenic action of VE analogs, there are other pathways that may play an important role in the effects of the agents. Kline's group reported regulation of the AP-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular-regulated protein kinase pathways as additional signaling routes for apoptosis induced by a-TOS.82-86 Some but not all papers suggested that a-TOS induces apoptosis by interfering with the tumor necrosis factor-P (TGF-P) signaling, compromising the expression of pro-survival factors.87-89 These findings may be related to the effect of the VE analog on transition of cell through the cell cycle. Several reports showed that the agent caused arrest in G1 or G2. Turley et al.90 presented evidence that a-TOS inhibited proliferation of breast cancer cells by interfering with the cyclin A-E2F restriction point machinery. Yeh's group reported that a-TOS inhibited proliferation of cancer cells by modulation of the cell cycle...

Ideal Foods

Apricots are a sweet fruit (sugar) with an edible kernel which tastes like an almond (fat). They also have the sugar and fat wrapped in one package. The Hunzas, one of the longest-lived tribes on Earth, are world-renowned for the diet of apricots. The apricot kernel contains specific compounds that work to repair the prostate. They should be immediately included into the diet of anyone experiencing prostate troubles. I know of several people who have healed themselves of prostate cancer naturally, and who swear by these kernels.

Saw Palmetto

Serenoa reopens, AKA saw palmetto, has been a popular herbal extract for years with athletes and non-athletes alike. Advertised as the cure for almost everything from hair loss to benign prostate enlargement (AKA, BPH), Saw Palmetto is often added to many supplement formulas or sold alone. treatment for men who suffer from an enlargement of the prostate that is not cancerous. Whether saw palmetto blocks 5ar, blocks the uptake of testosterone and DHT into the prostate, or actually blocks certain pro inflammatory enzymes responsible for other problems in the formation of BPH, is not certain at this time. Regardless, other than BPH, there is not enough research to add saw palmetto to andro products. For athletes looking to get some sort of anabolic advantage from SP, or avoid side effects from taking andro supplements, I have to give it a big thumb's down at this point. If you have an enlarged prostate, it might be worth a try. Delos, S. and J. L. Carsol, et al. Testosterone metabolism...

Legumes

The isoflavones are well known for their estrogenic activity, which varies substantially from one compound to another. These nonsteroidal phytoestrogens have an array of potent biological activities, of both a hormonal and non-hormonal nature, which influence the development of chronic diseases. The isoflavones can undergo enterohepatic recycling and reach circulating levels that exceed, by several orders of magnitude, the amounts of natural endogenous estrogens.82 The major tissues targeted by the phytoestrogens are the reproductive tissues (uterus, breast, and prostate), the cardiovascular tissues (arteries and blood lipids) and the skeletal tissues.83 About 30-60 mg of isoflavones, per day appear to be the required threshold level needed to lower the risk of heart disease and cancer in humans. Higher levels are apparently needed for improving bone health.82,84 These levels can be achieved from a modest intake of a variety of soy products in the diet (see Table 14.3). Consumption of...