Zinc

Zinc deficiency has been associated with impaired growth outcomes [68]. In one study of women in the United States with low serum zinc concentrations, there was a significant increase in fetal growth among the group receiving zinc supplementation [69]. Both the control and supplemented groups received a multivitamin preparation. Results from trials of zinc supplementation in uninfected pregnant women are mixed, and although some benefit has been shown, the data are not conclusive.

The RDA for zinc supplementation during pregnancy is 12 mg/day for 14- to 19-year-olds and 11 mg/day for women ages 19-50 [49]. However, in developing countries, where there is an increased likelihood of chronic zinc deficiency, prophylactic doses of zinc have been used. The WHO set the Upper Limit (UL) for zinc supplementation at 35 mg/day [70, 29].

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