Risk Factors for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

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There is considerable controversy over the screening and diagnosis of GDM. The American Diabetes Association recommends assessing all pregnant women for risk of GDM at their first prenatal visit. Risk factors for diabetes are categorized as low, average, and high [3]. Women in the low risk category must meet all of the following criteria and require. No further screening:

  • Less than 25 years of age
  • Normal BMI
  • No first-degree family history of diabetes
  • No history of glucose intolerance
  • No history of poor perinatal outcome
  • Not a member of a group with a high prevalence of diabetes, which includes those of African, Hispanic, Asian, Pacific Islander, or Native American descent

Women at high risk must meet one or more of the following criteria:

  • Obese
  • Previous history of GDM
  • Glycosuria
  • Strong family history of diabetes
  • Member of an ethnic group with a high prevalence of diabetes (see above)

High-risk women are screened at their first prenatal visit. The test is repeated between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation if the initial screen was normal.

Women at average risk are those not at low or high risk. They are screened for GDM at 24-28 weeks of gestation.

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Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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