References For Pregnancy Nutrition

  1. Mangels AR, Messina V, Melina V (2003) Position of The American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Vegetarian diets. J Am Diet Assoc 103:748-765
  2. Messina V, Mangels R, Messina M (2004) The Dietitian's Guide to Vegetarian Diets: Issues and Applications, 2nd edn. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, Mass.
  3. Koebnick C, Garcia AL, Dagnelie PC, Strassner C, Lindemans J, Katz N, Leitzmann C, Hoffmann I (2005) Long-term Consumption of a Raw Food Diet is Associated with Favorable Serum LDL Cholesterol and Triglycerides but also with Elevated Plasma Homocysteine and Low Serum HDL Cholesterol in Humans. J Nutr 135:2372-2378
  4. Barr SI, Chapman GE (2002) Perceptions and practices of self-defined current vegetarian, former vegetarian, and non-vegetarian women. J Am Diet Assoc 102:354-360
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  6. Haddad EH, Tanzman JS (2003) What do vegetarians in the United States eat? Am J Clin Nutr 78(Suppl):626S-632S
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  8. The Vegetarian Resource Group. How many adults are vegetarians? Available via http://www.vrg. org/journal/vj2006issue4/vj2006issue4poll.htm
  9. Key TJ, Appleby PN, Rosell MS (2006) Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diets. Proc Nutr Soc. 65:35-41
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  11. Davey GK, Spencer EA, Appleby PN, Allen NE, Knox KH, Key TJ (2003) EPIC-Oxford lifestyle characteristics and nutrient intakes in a cohort of 33883 meat-eaters and 31546 non meat-eaters in the UK. Public Health Nutr 6:259-68
  12. Koebnick C, Heins UA, Hoffmann I, Dagnelie PC, Leitzmann C (2001) Folate status during pregnancy in women is improved by long-term high vegetable intake compared with the average Western diet. J Nutr 131:733-739
  13. Koebnick C, Leitzmann R, Garcia AL, Heins UA, Heuer T, Golf S, Katz N, Hoffmann I, Leitzmann C (2005) Long-term effect of a plant-based diet on magnesium status during pregnancy. Eur J Clin Nutr 59:219-225
  14. Carter JP, Furman T, Hutcheson HR (1987) Preeclampsia and reproductive performance in a community of vegans. South Med J. 80:692-697
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  16. Fraser GE (2003) Diet, life expectancy, and chronic disease. Studies of Seventh-Day Adventists and Other Vegetarians. Oxford University Press, New York, N.Y.
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  18. Institute of Medicine (1990) Nutrition during pregnancy. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.
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  20. Ward RJ, Abraham R, McFadyen IR, Haines AD, North WR, Patel M, Bhatt RV (1988) Assessment of trace metal intake and status in a Gujerati pregnant Asian population and their influence of the outcome of pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynecol 95:676-682
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  22. Lakin V, Haggarty P, Abramovich DR (1998) Dietary intake and tissue concentrations of fatty acids in omnivore, vegetarian, and diabetic pregnancy. Prost Leuk Ess Fatty Acids 58:209-220
  23. Dagnelie PC, van Staveren WA, van Klaveren JD, Burema J (1988) Do children on macrobiotic diets show catch-up growth? Eur J Clin Nutr 42:1007-1016
  24. Dagnelie PC, van Staveren WA, Vergote FJ, Burema J, van't Hof MA, van Klaveren JD, Hautvast JG (1989) Nutritional status of infants aged 4 to 18 months on macrobiotic diets and matched omnivorous control infants: A population-based mixed-longitudinal study. II. Growth and psychomotor development. Eur J Clin Nutr 43:325-338
  25. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine (2002) Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.
  26. Cook JD (1990) Adaptation in iron metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr 51:301-308
  27. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine (2000) Dietary Reference Intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.
  28. Hunt JR (2003) Bioavailability of Iron, Zinc, and Other Trace Minerals from Vegetarian Diets. Am J Clin Nutr 78(Suppl):633S-639S
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  37. Lighttowler HJ, Davis GJ (1998) The effect of self-selected dietary supplements on micronutrient intakes in vegans Proc Nutr Soc 58:35A
  38. Krajcovicova M, Buckova K, Klimes I, Sebokova E (2003) Iodine deficiency in vegetarians and vegans. Ann Nutr Metab 47:183-185
  39. Key TJA, Thorogood M, Keenant J, Long A (1992) Raised thyroid stimulating hormone associated with kelp intake in British vegan men. J Human Nutr Diet 5:323-326
  40. Teas J, Pino S, Critchley A, Braverman LE (2004) Variability of iodine content in common commercially available edible seaweeds. Thyroid 14:836-841
  41. Nishiyama S, Mikeda T, Okada T, Nakamura K, Kotani T, Hishinuma A (2004) Transient hypothy-roidism or persistent hyperthyrotropinemia in neonates born to mothers with excessive iodine intake. Thyroid 14:1077-1083
  42. Guan H, Li C, Li Y, Fan C, Teng Y, Shan Z, Teng W (2005) High iodine intake is a risk factor of postpartum thyroiditis: result of a survey from Shenyang, China. J Endocrinol Invest 28:876-81
  43. Prentice A (2000) Maternal calcium metabolism and bone mineral status. Am J Clin Nutr 71(Suppl):1312S-1316S
  44. O'Brien KO, Donangelo CM, Vargas Zapata CL, Abrams SA, Spencer EM, King JC (2006) Bone calcium turnover during pregnancy and lactation in women with low calcium diets is associated with calcium intake and circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 83:317-323
  45. Koo WW, Walters JC, Esterlitz J, Levine RJ, Bush AJ, Sibai B (1999) Maternal calcium supplementation and fetal bone mineralization. Obstet Gynecol 94:577-582
  46. Donaldson MS (2001) Food and nutrient intake of Hallelujah vegetarians. Nutr Food Sci 31:293-303
  47. Waldmann A, Koschizke JW, Leitzmann C, Hahn A (2003) Dietary intake and lifestyle factors of a vegan population in Germany: results from the German Vegan Study. Eur J Clin Nutr 57:947-955
  48. Heaney R, Dowell M, Rafferty K, Bierman J (2000) Bioavailability of the calcium in fortified soy imitation milk, with some observations on method. Am J Clin Nutr 71:1166-1169
  49. Weaver C, Plawecki K (1994) Dietary calcium: adequacy of a vegetarian diet. Am J Clin Nutr 59:1238S-1241S
  50. Weaver C, Proulx W, Heaney R (1999) Choices for achieving adequate dietary calcium with a vegetarian diet. Am J Clin Nutr 70:543S-548S
  51. Luhby AL, Cooperman JM, Donnenfeld AM, Herman JM, Teller DN, Week JB (1958) Observations on transfer of vitamin B12 from mother to fetus and newborn. Am J Dis Child 96:532-533
  52. Allen LH (1994) Vitamin B-12 metabolism and status during pregnancy, lactation, and infancy. Adv Exp Med Biol. 352:173-186
  53. Groenen PM, van Rooij IA, Peer PG, Gooskens RH, Zielhuis GA, Steegers-Theunissen RP (2004) Marginal maternal vitamin B12 status increases the risk of offspring with spina bifida. Am J Obstet Gynecol 191:11-17
  54. Sanchez, SE, Zhang C, Rene-Mallinow M, Ware-Jauregui S, Larrabure G, Williams MA (2001) Plasma folate, vitamin B and homocysteine concentrations in preeclamptic and normotensive Peruvian women. Am J Epidemiol 153:474-840
  55. Bj0rke Monsen AL, Ueland PM, Vollset SE, Guttormsen AB, Markestad T, Solheim E, Refsum H. (2001) Determinants of cobalamin status in newborns. Pediatrics 108:624-630
  56. Martinez M (1992) Tissue levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids during early human development. J Pediatr 120:S129-S38
  57. Koletzko B, Larque E, Demmelmair H (2007) Placental transfer of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) (1997) J Perinat Med 35(Suppl):S5-S11
  58. Gibson RA, Neumann MA, Makrides M (1997) Effect of increasing breast milk docosahexaenoic acid on plasma and erythrocyte phospholipid fatty acids and neural indices of exclusively breast fed infants. Eur J Clin Nutr. 51:578-84
  59. Jensen CL, Maude M, Anderson RE, Heird WC (2000) Effect of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation of lactating women on the fatty acid composition of breast milk lipids and maternal and infant plasma phospholipids. Am J Clin Nutr 71:292S-299S
  60. McCann JC, Ames BN (2005) Is docosahexaenoic acid, an n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, required for development of normal brain function? An overview of evidence from cognitive and behavioral tests in humans and animals. Am J Clin Nutr 82:281-295
  61. Williams CM, Burdge G (2006) Long-chain n-3 PUFA: plant v. marine sources. Proc Nutr Soc. 65:42-50
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  63. Cheatham CL, Colombo J, Carlson SE (2006) n-3 fatty acids and cognitive and visual acuity development: methodologic and conceptual considerations. Am J Clin Nutr 83(Suppl):1458S-1466S
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  65. Judge MP, Harel O, Lammi-Keefe CJ (2007) A docosahexaenoic acid-functional food during pregnancy benefits infant visual acuity at four but not six months of age. Lipids 42:117-122
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  67. Colombo J, Kannass KN, Shaddy DJ, Kundurthi S, Maikranz Jm, Anderson CJ, Blega OM, Carlson SE (2004) Maternal DHA and the development of attention in infancy and toddlerhood. Child Develop 75:1254-67
  68. Krajcovicova-Kudlackova M, Simoncic R, Babinska K, Bederova A (1995) Levels of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in vegetarians. Eur J Epidemiol 111:207-211
  69. Geppert J, Kraft V, Demmelmair H, Koletzko B (2005) Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in vegetarians effectively increases omega-3 index: a randomized trial. Lipids 40:807-814
  70. Rosell MS, Lloyd-Wright Z, Appleby PN, Sanders TA, Allen NE, Key TJ (2005) Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma in British meat-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men. Am J Clin Nutr 82:327-334
  71. Sanders TAB, Reddy S (1992) The influence of a vegetarian diet on the fatty acid composition of human milk and the essential fatty acid status of the infant. J Pediatr 120:S71-S77
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Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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