O

Obesity, 311

anesthesia and postpartum problems, 315 cardiovascular disease (CVD), 315 cesarean delivery, 314 gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), 312 preeclampsia, 313 pregestational, consequences, 68 infertility and miscarriage, 68-69 macrosomia and shoulder dystocia, 71-72 neural tube defects and congenital malformations, 69-70 obstetric complications, 71-72 preeclampsia and gestational diabetes, 70-71 thromboembolic complications, 71 in pregnancy, 67

maternal and fetal complications, 70 type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), 313, 315 and women infertility, 68 OGCT. See Oral glucose challenge test OGTT. See Oral glucose tolerance test Oligomenorrhea, 118 Omega-6 fatty acid. See Linoleic acid Omega-3 fatty acids intake, for pregnant vegetarians, 221-223 Omega-3 for Baby and Me, 96 Ontogeny, of taste and smell, 57 Oral glucose challenge test, 146

Oral glucose tolerance test, 146 Over-the-counter (OTC), 250

PAC. See Pregnancy Aid Center

Parasitic infections, prevention and control of, 351

Parathyroid hormone (PTH), 86

role in calcium homeostasis, 263 PDSS. See Postpartum Depression Screening Scale

Phosphorus absorption, in pregnancy, 15 Physical activity, 38 Popular diets, 177-178 carbohydrates, 180-181 energy requirements, 179-180 micronutrients, 182 for pregnancy, 183-185 proteins and fats, 181-182 for weight gain, 178-179 Population Attributable Ratio (PAR), for severe maternal anemia, 321 Postoperative problems, 87 Postpartum, 49-50

care, planning for, 129-131 depression, 124

antidepressant therapy, 297 causes of, 285

and child development, 287-288 cultural perspectives of, 285 detection of, 283-284 incidence, 284 screening, 288-289 micronutrients and folic acid, 296 iron, 295-296 pyridoxine/vitamin B6, 297 vitamin B12, 296 6 and mother-infant interaction, 287 neurophysiological processes in, 289 nerve impulse conduction, 290-291 neuroanatomy, 291-292 neurotransmitters and brain function, 292-293 nutrition, role in carbohydrates, 293 fat/omega-3 fatty acids, 294 protein, 294 onset of, 284-285 phenomenology of

"teetering on the edge," 286-287 prevalence and incidence of, 284 risk factors for, 285-286 screening for, 288-289 symptoms of, 284

period exercising guidelines, 263 weight retention, 261-262 Postpartum Depression Screening Scale, 288, 289 Postpartum mood disorder. See Morbid unhappiness PPH. See Primary postpartum hemorrhage Preconception care, 87-88 Preeclampsia, 49, 70, 72, 155, 313, 326-328 diagnosis of, 156 management of, 158-159 nutrition and prevention of, 158, 327-328 oxidative stress and, 328 pathophysiology of, 156-157 Pregnancy adaptations in , cardiovascular and respiratory,

nutritional care of, 124-127 associated dyslipidemia, 47 behavior changes in, 124 body composition, changes in, 262 botanical supplements in, 203-205 breastfeeding and weight gain in, 186 calorie recommendations and weight gain, 89 clinical applications for exercise in, 47-49 and diabetes fetal complications in, 138-139 GDM, 144-150 historical background of, 136 maternal complications in, 139-140 meal-planning for, 141-142 medical nutrition therapy, 140-141 medications for, 142 preconceptional counseling, 144 self-management tools for, 143 type 1 and 2 diabetes, pathophysiology of, 137-138

dietary changes, 56-57 implications for, 183-185 dietary supplements definition and regulation of, 192-193 nutrient intake and usage of, 193 energy cost of, 30, 31 basal metabolism, 30-31 metabolic adaptations, 32 protein and fat deposition, 30 total energy cost and expenditure, 31-32 and gestational age, etiology for potential injury of exercise, 38 guidelines for weight gain in, 178-179 harmful botanicals in, 205-206 healthy eating recommendations in energy requirements, 179-180

macronutrients in, 180-182 micronutrients in, 182 iron (Fe) requirements, 343-346 maternal and fetal risks in, 122-123 maternal height, and operative delivery, 330 monitoring and evaluation, 129 MVMM supplementation in, 193-195 nonnutritive sweeteners role, in, 141 nutritional supplements in, 118-122, 127-128,

185-186 obesity and, 311

delivery time complications, 314-315 gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), 312-313 hypertension disorders, 313-314 lactation, 315 physical activity and exercise plans in, 182 physiological changes in, 38-39 preeclampsia, 155-156 diagnosis of, 156 management of, 158-159 nutrition and prevention, 158 pathophysiology of, 156-157 risk factors, 157 recommendations during, 90 recommendations for healthy, 186-187 single-mineral supplements in iron, 200-201

magnesium and iodine, 202-203 zinc, 201-202 single-vitamin supplements in folic acid supplementation, 196-197 vitamin A, 198-199 vitamin B6, 197-198 vitamin D, 199-200 undernutrition and, 310-311 vegetarian diet in, 215-216

food guides and nutrient supplements for,

224-227 health advantages of, 216-217 nutrients recommendations, 217-223 woman, nutritional requirements, 45-47 dietary reference intakes (DRIs) for, 45 Pregnancy Aid Center, 107 Prenatal depression, and postpartum depression,

285-286 Pre pregnancy weight, 34 Preterm delivery, 71

Primary postpartum hemorrhage, 323-325

Prolactin, 262

Protein pregnant women for, 103-104 role in postpartum depression, 294 supplementation, for pregnant vegetarians, 217-218

Pulque, a low-alcoholic beverage, 56 Pyridoxine (B6), role in pregnancy, 121

Recommended Daily Allowances (RDAs), 3, 95,

164, 193, 246 Red blood cell (RBC), 251 Red cell distribution width, 237 Registered dietitian (RD), 74 Respiratory exchange ratio (RER), 47 Resting metabolic rate (RMR), 30 Riboflavin, role in postpartum depression, 296 Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), 82 RPE See Borg Scale Rating of Perceived Exertion Rubus idaeus folio, 205

S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM), 246, 296 Safe Motherhood Initiative, 319-320 Salvia officinalis, 205

Screening, postpartum depression, 288-289 Serotonin, role in postpartum depression, 293, 294 eating disorders, 121 Serum ferritin, 340, 342 Serum transferrin concentration, 340 Shoulder dystocia, 72 Sleeve gastrectomy (SG), 83 Small for gestational age (SGA), 123 Soluble serum transferrin receptor (STfR), 340 South Beach Diet, 184 Standard supplement recommendations, 88 Stillbirths, 138 Sulfonylureas drug, 149 Supine hypotensive syndrome, 40

T-cells, HIV, 165

Teen pregnancy, 101-102

TfR. See Transferrin receptor

Thromboembolic disease, 71

Thyroid stimulating hormones, 203

TIBC. See Serum transferrin concentration

Total energy expenditure (TEE), 8, 31

Transferrin receptor, 237

Trial of Vitamins (TOV) study, 360

TSH. See Thyroid stimulating hormones

Type 1 and 2 diabetes, 136-137, 313

Ultraviolet-B (UVB) photons, absorption by skin,

265-266 Upper Intake Levels (UL), 193

US Department of Agriculture (USDA), 17,

28, 107 US Institute of Medicine adequate intake level, definition of, 264-265

US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), 265

Vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC), 72 Vegetarian prenatal supplements, 226 Vitamin A

and pregnancy, 328-329 supplementation, in pregnancy, 198-199 teratogenicity, 198-199 Vitamin B6, 297

supplementation, in pregnancy, 197-198 Vitamin B12

dietary intake of, 272 function and deficiency effects, 271 intake, for pregnant vegetarians, 220-221 sources of, 272 Vitamin D

breastfed infants requirement, 267 dietary intake of, 268 importance and synthesis of, 265-266 for pregnant vegetarians, 219-220 sources of, 268

supplementation, in pregnancy, 199-200 Vitamin E, 22

Vitamins, role in pregnancy, 121-122 W

Water-soluble vitamins, 12 folate, 12-13 Vitamin B6, 13 Weight gain gestational factors associated with, 27 recommendations for, 28-30 HIV-infected pregnant women, 162-163 optimal gestational general guidelines, 33 optimal , in pregnancy, 27 in pregnancy, 140

in pregnancy, guidelines for, 178-179 recommendations and consequences of noncompliance, 73-74 in vegetarian pregnancy, 217 Weight loss after surgery and postoperative recommendations for pregnancy, 84-85

strategies for prepregnancy and postpartum, 74 bariatric surgery, 74-75 compliance to IOM recommendations, 75 successful interventions, 75-77 Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), 15, 73, 106

World Health Organization (WHO), recommendation for iron supplementation, 200 for vitamin A supplementation, 199

Zidovudine, 166 Zinc during pregnancy, 14, 166 for pregnant vegetarians, 219 supplementation antenatal, 329 in pregnancy, 201-202 Zingiber officinale, 204 Zone Diet, 182

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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