Index

Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range

(AMDR), 164 Acetylcholine synthesis, 293 ACOG. See American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), 161 ACSM. See American College of Sports Medicine Actaea racemosa, 205 ADA. See American Dietetic Association Adequate intake (AI) level, definition of, 193, 264 Adjustable gastric band (AGB), 82 Adolescent pregnancy caffeine, 105 counseling, 108 development of, 102-103 health care and nutrition recommendations for, 110-111

nutritional requirement for, 103-106 pregnancy outcomes, 102 pregnancy rates, 101-102 resources and programs for, 106-110 WIC, 107

AEE. See Energy expended in physical activity Aesculus hippocastanum, 205 Agave atrovirens, 56

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), on postpartum depression, 284 Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), 221-223 Amenorrhea, 118 American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines, for echinacea usage, 205 policy, on breastfeeding, 258 American College of Gynecology guidelines ginger usages for, 204 vitamin B6 intake for, 198

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 41, 42-43, 105 exercise recommendations for, 42-43, 263 weight gain guidelines of, 178 American College of Sports Medicine, 41 American Dietetic Association, 106, 178 guidelines for vegetarian diets, 216 MVMM supplements recommendation for, 195 weight gain guidelines of, 179 American Psychiatric Association, 116 American Thyroid Association guidelines, for iodine supplementation, 203 Amniotic fluid, 57-58 Anemia, 13, 46, 164 etiology of, 338, 339 iron deficiency and birth outcomes, 345-346 childhood growth and development, 346 and maternal mortality, 343-345 pregnant women and, 237-240 and iron status, assessment of, 339-341 macrocytic, 165

maternal mortality relationship, 321-326 strategies to combat, 346

dietary diversification and modification,

347, 350-351 food fortification, 347, 349-350 infant neurodevelopment, 240-242 infection control, 347, 351 supplementation, 347-349 Anorexia nervosa (AN), 115-116 etiology of, 116-117 hypercarotenemia, 127 infant Apgar scores, 123 nutritional requirements, 118-122 nutrition therapy, 124-127 pregnancy and, 118

Antenatal iron supplementation, 323

Anthropometric measurement, 34

Anticonvulsants, 251

Antiretroviral mediations, 166, 167

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, 205

Aspirin, role in preeclampsia prevention, 158

Atkins Diet, 183-184

Bariatric surgery, 81-82 protein for patient, 89 standard prenatal supplementation for women, 88 types of, 82-84

adjustable gastric band (AGB), 82-83 biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS), 83-84 Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), 82 sleeve gastrectomy (SG), 83 Vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG), 83 Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 287 B-Complex vitamins, role in pregnancy, 121-122 Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch

(BDP-DA), 83, 84 Binge eating disorder (BED), 115 Blood urea nitrogen, 122

Blue and black cohosh, effects on pregnancy, 206 Body mass index (BMI), 8, 30, 94, 105, 162, 178 Borg Scale Rating of Perceived Exertion, 40 Botanical supplements, 203-207 Brainstem, 292

Breast feeding. See also Pregnancy

American Academy of Pediatrics Policy, policy on, 258 antidepressant effects on, 297 benefits of, 257-258 and breast milk, 58-60

calcium concentration in, 263-264 postpartum depression effects on, 298 weight management, 186 Britain's Medical Research Council, in folic acid supplement, 196 Bulimia nervosa (BN), 115-116 etiology of, 116-117 nutritional requirements, 118-122 pregnancy and, 118 BUN. See Blood urea nitrogen

Caesarean delivery, 123, 314-315 Caffeine, role in pregnant women, 105 Calcium adequate intake (AI), during lactation, 264 dietary sources, 265, 266

importance of, 263

intake, for pregnant vegetarians, 219-220 and maternal mortality, 326-327 preeclampsia prevention role in, 158 requirements in pregnancy, 15 role in pregnant women, 104 vegetarian diets, 219-220 women intakes of, 265 Calorie availability, in Latin America, 309 Carbohydrates and postpartum depression, 293 Caulophyllum thalictroides, 205 Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depressive Symptomatology Scale (CES-D), 295 Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion, 17 Centering Pregnancy, 108, 110 Center of Disease Control (CDC), 41, 102, 104, 168, 247

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 197 Cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD) obstructed labor, 329-330 Cerebral cortex, 291-292 Cesarean section, 71

Chamomile, effects on pregnancy, 205-206 Chronic hypertension, in pregnancy, 156 Cimicifuga racemosa, 205 CNPP. See Center for Nutrition Policy and

Promotion Cobalamin (B12). See also Vitamin B12 breastmilk, 271-272 role in pregnancy, 121-122 vegetarians, 220-221 Community-based nutrition programs, 106-107 Congenital malformations, 14, 69-70, 138-139, 194 Constipation, 87

Continuing Food Survey of Food Intake by

Individuals (CSFII), 265 Copenhagen Consensus, 355-356

Depression, DHA intake, 294-295

medications, 130 Detemir insulin, 142 DHA. See Docosahexaenoic acid Diabetes breast feeding, 144, 150 classification of, 136-137 and pregnancy fetal complications, 138-139 GDM, 144-150

maternal complications, 139-140 meal planning in, 141-142 medical nutrition therapy, 140-141 medications for, 142 preconception counseling, 144

self-management tools, 143 type 1 diabetes, 137 type 2 diabetes, 138 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

Disorders, on postpartum depression, 284 Diclectin®, 197

Dietary Folate Equivalents (DFE), 246-247 Dietary guidelines for pregnancy, 15-16 Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), 4, 5-7, 32,

103-104, 179, 193, 246 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of

1994 (DSHEA), 192 Dietitians of Canada, guidelines for vegetarian diets, 216 1, 25-Dihydroxyvitamin D, 266 Docosahexaenoic acid, 98, 121, 181, 221-223,

294-295 Dopamine pathway, 293 Dumping syndrome, 87 Dystocia, 329-330

Eating disorders, diagnostic characteristics of, 115-117 MNT, 124-127 Echinacea spp., 204

Echinacea usages, in pregnancy, 204-205 Eclampsia, in pregnancy, 156 Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), 288-289

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), 221-223, 274-275 Elite athlete, limitations and physiological changes in pregnancy, 44-45 Emesis, 87

Energy control guidelines, during lactation, 264 Energy expended in physical activity, 31 Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), 342

Epidemiological transition, 307-308 Erythrocyte, 338, 341

Estimated Energy Requirements (EERs), 8, 9, 140-141, 258 calculation of lactating woman, 259-261 nonpregnant, nonlactating woman, 260 Exercise and lactation, 263

maternal , fetal response to, 41

Fast food. See Nutrition

Fat availability, in Latin America, 309

Fats, dietary, 181-182

FDA. See Food and Drug Administration

Fetal iodine deposition, 13

FNS. See Food and Nutrition Services

Folic acid (Folate), 268

deficiency and NTD, 196-197 deficiency of, 296

dietary intake, recommended, lactation, 269-270 pregnancy, 246-248

and non-neural tube defect birth defects, 249 role in pregnant women, 105 role on pregnancy, 121 sources of, 249, 270-271 adverse effects of, 250-251 food folate, 249 fortified foods, 250 supplemental folic acid, 250 status assessment and drug and alcohol impact on, 251 supplementation of, 196-197 Food and Drug Administration, 192 Food and Nutrition Board of Institute of Medicine (IOM), 28

Food and Nutrition Board's Committee on

Maternal Nutrition, 28 Food and Nutrition Services, 107 Foods flavor learning amniotic fluid, 57-58 breast milk, 58-60 long-term consequences of, 61 folate, 249 fortified, 250

guide pyramid, process, 17 pattern meeting nutrient recommendations, 16-18

pregnant women, patterns for, 18-22 vegetarian, 224

very low-calorie diet plans, for pregnancy, 185 Free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP), 338, 341, 342

Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), 293 Gastroparesis, 139

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), 48, 49, 70,

137, 144-150, 293 Ginger usages, in pregnancy, 204 Ginkgo biloba, 205 Glargine insulin, 142 Glyburide drug, 149-150 Goiter, 13

Healthy eating, recommmedations for, 179-182 "Healthy Foods, Healthy Baby," 110

Healthy pregnancies, exercise guidelines for, 41-44

exercise during pregnancy, contraindications for, 43

moderate exercise and of leisure activity, 44 safety concern, 42

warning signs, to terminate exercise, 43 weight lifting in pregnancy, 44 Hematocrit (Hct), 236, 341, 342 HemoCue™, 342 Hemoglobin, 338, 341, 342 HIV-infected pregnant women antiretroviral medications, elimination, and tolerance of, 166-167 energy needs for, 162-163 food safety, guidelines for, 167-168 iron and folate supplementation, 164-165 macronutrients need, 163-164 maternal nutritional care, goals for, 169 micronutrient need, 164 multivitamin supplementation, 165 nutritional care, approaches assessment, 169 counseling, 170 nutritional status, 162 nutrition and dietary management, 168 pregnancy based on pre pregnancy weight, 163 RDA for zinc supplementation, 166 symptoms affecting nutritional status, 166-167

timing of antiretroviral (ARV) medications, 166 transmitting HIV, breastfeeding, 167-169 vertical transmissions, 165 HIV-infected women, and micronutrients observational studies, 359 vitamin A, role of, 358 randomized trails, 361-363

multivitamin supplementation, 360 vitamin A impact, 359 zinc supplementation, 360 HIV-uninfected women, and micronutrients iron and folate supplementation, 356 multiple micronutrient supplementation, 357 vitamin A supplementation, 356 zinc supplementation, 357 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 161 Human insulin, role in pregnancy, 142 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, 267 Hypericum perforatum, 205 Hypertension, gestational, 313

in pregnancy, 156 Hyperthermia, 39-40 Hypoglycemia, 143 Hypothyroidism, 13

Impulse transmission, 291 Infant mortality and iron deficiency, 237-238, 240-242

Institute of Medicine (IOM), 103-104, 178, 193 guidelines for MVMM supplements, 195 iron supplementation, 200-201 magnesium supplementation, 202 recommendation for folic acid supplementation, 197 vitamin D supplementation, 199-200 zinc supplementation, 202 Insulin aspart, 149 and depression, 293 lispro, 149

therapy, role in pregnancy, 142, 149 types, dosages, 142 Internet-based programs and resources, 108-109 Intracytoplasmic sperm injection, 69, 157, 159 Intrauterine growth restriction, 123 Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), 123, 162,

165, 238 In vitro fertilization (IVF), 69 Iodine intake, for pregnant vegetarians, 219 supplementation, in pregnancy, 202-203 Iron absorption, inhibitors and enhancers of,

350-351 breastmilk, 273-274 deficiency, 337, 338 deficient erythropoiesis, 338 dietary intake of, 273-274 dietary recommendations, 273 function of, 273 HIV replication, 165 in pregnant women, 104 absorption of, 236 deficiency and anemia, 237-242 status assessment of, 236-237 postpartum depression, 295-296 sources of, 274

supplementation in pregnant women of, 200-201

maternal red cell mass and anemia,

234-236 mother and fetus, 234 with vegetarian diet, 218-219 Iron-deficiency anemia (IDA), 338 IUGR. See Intrauterine growth restriction

Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health, 110

Ketoacidosis, 139-140 Ketonuria, 98

Lactation, 50. See also Pregnancy body composition, changes in, 262 calcium demands of, 263-264 energy demands of, 258-262 exercise and, 262-264 in HIV, 167-169 success of, 258 weight loss in, 262 Late-gestation fetal demise, 72-73 Limbic system, 292 Linoleic acid, 181 Lipodystrophy, 166 Listening to Mothers II report, 284 Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), 274 dietary intake, 275 sources of, 276 Long-chain triglycerides (LCT), 164 Low birth weight (LBW), 73, 123, 162, 237 Low-carbohydrate diets, in pregnancy, 183-185 Low-fat diet plans, for pregnancy, 185

Macronutrients, 8

energy needs in pregnancy, 8-10 in HIV-infected pregnant women, 163-164 protein, 10-12

role in pregnancy, 118-121, 141 Macrosomia, 72, 98 Magnesium sulfate drug, 158

and maternal mortality, 327-328 Magnesium supplementation, in pregnancy, 202 Marticaria recutita, 205 Maternal mid-upper arm circumference

(MUAC), 331 Maternal mortality, causes of, 319 anemia, maternal, 321-326 health risks, 122-123 hypertensive disorders, 327 nutritional factors, 326-328 obstructed labor, 329 undernutrition, 331 Medical nutrition therapy, 124, 146-148

diabetes in pregnancy, 140-142 Medium chain triglyceride (MCT), 164 Melissa officinalis, 205 Metabolic equivalents (METs), 40 Methotrexate, 251

Micronutrients adolescent pregnancy, 104 deficiencies in HIV-infected pregnant women, 164 risks and popular diets, 182 role in pregnancy, 121-122, 141 Vegetarian diets, 218-221 Milk, human, importance of, 257-258 Minerals iodine, 13 iron, 13-14 role in pregnancy, 122 zinc, 14-15 Miscarriage, 68. See also Pregnancy MNT. See Medical nutrition therapy Monoamine reuptake inhibitors (MAOI), 293 Monoamines, 292-293 Morbid unhappiness, 285

Mother-infant dyads and postpartum depression, 287 Mother to child transmission (MTCT), 167,

357-358 Multifetal pregnancies, 93 confounding variables, 97-98

difference in fetal growth and birth weights, 97 discordancy, 97 fasting glucose, 98

risk for perinatal morbidity and first-born twin, 97 length of gestation fish oil, 98 measurement of weight, 94

guidelines, weight gain in twin pregnancy, 95 Higgins Nutrition Intervention program, 94 specific dietary recommendations, 95 nutrition supplements daily iron supplementation, 95-96 fish oil supplementation, 96-97 mineral supplements, 96 Multivitamin mineral supplements role of, 348-349 timing of, 349 multimineral, 191

pregnant vegetarians for, 225-227 supplementation in pregnancy, 193-195 use, definition of, 194

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

(NHANES), 12, 47, 203 National Institutes of Health's (NIH) Office of

Dietary Supplements (ODS), 203 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey (NMIHS), 32 supplements, 192

Neural tube defects (NTDs), 12, 69, 121, 196, 245 and periconceptional folate requirement,

247-248 (See also Folic acid (Folate)) Neuron anatomy, 290-291 Neurotransmitters, role in brain, 291-293 Non-heme iron absorption, 350-351 Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), 166

Nutrition deficiencies after weight loss surgery calcium and vitamin D, 86 fat-soluble vitamins, 87 protein, iron, cobalamin and folate, 85 and life-cycle approach, 22-23 and nutrient content, of food patterns, 19 recommendations for pregnancy, 4 and postpartum depression, 293-295 transition dietary habits change, 308-310 physical activity, 310 and pregnancy, 310-315 Nutrition and the Pregnant Adolescent:

A Practical Reference Guide 2000, 109

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