Classification of diabetes

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The American Diabetes Association defines diabetes mellitus as a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both [12]. The main classification of diabetes mellitus is type 1, type 2, and GDM.

Type 1 diabetes, formerly known as insulin-dependent or juvenile-onset diabetes, is characterized by autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic beta-cells and accounts for 5-10% of all diabetes cases. Type 1 diabetes requires exogenous insulin for survival and is diagnosed primarily in persons less than 30 years of age. Type 2 diabetes, which accounts for almost 90% of diabetes cases, was previously known as adult-onset or non-insulin dependent diabetes. Insulin resistance rather than insulin deficiency and obesity are associated with type 2 diabetes. GDM is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. The definition applies if medication or MNT is used in treatment or the condition persists after pregnancy. It does not exclude the possibility that the diabetes may have existed prior to pregnancy.

Diabetes in pregnancy is classified whether the condition predated (type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes) or was diagnosed during pregnancy (GDM). Other classifications have been used to identify risk factors associated with diabetes in pregnancy, including age of onset, presence of preexisting complications and degree of metabolic control [13, 14].

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