QA Schedule

Moisture

CP

Fat

Ca/P

AA's

Other

All deliveries

Wkly

6 mos

12 mos

12 mos

Xylan, AME each 12 mos1

1 Assay to be conducted within 30 d of yearly harvest.

1 Assay to be conducted within 30 d of yearly harvest.

3. Milo

Other Names: sorghum, kaffir corn Nutritional Characteristics:

In many characteristics, milo is almost comparable to corn in feeding value. There seem to be more varietal differences with sorghum, although on average, its energy value will be slightly less than that of corn. For those not wanting any marked degree of pigmentation of eggs or skin, milo offers the best high energy alternative to corn.

The feeding value of milo is essentially 95 - 96% that of corn, although in many markets it is priced at less than this. The starch in milo is intimately associated with the protein, and this leads to slightly reduced digestibility, especially in the absence of any heat processing. The major concern with milo, is the content of tannins, which are a group of polyphenols having the property of combining with various proteins. Birds fed tannins therefore exhibit reduced growth rate and in some instances increased incidence and severity of skeletal disorders. Hydrolyzable tannins are characterized by having a gallic acid unit combined by ester linkages to a central glucose moiety. Condensed tannins on the other hand are based on flavan-3-ols (catechin). Because tannins in milo are essentially condensed tannins, studies involving tannic acid (hydrolyzable) as a source of tannin may be of questionable value. The tannins are located in the outer seed coat and the underlying testa layer. Generally, the darker the seed coat, the higher the tannin content, although the tannins in the testa layer may be more indicative of general tannin content in the milo.

So-called bird resistant milos are usually very high in tannin, and are characterized by a darker seed coat color. These higher levels of tannin can result in up to 10% reduction of dry matter and amino acid digestibility. There is a good correlation between tannin content and AMEn, and as a generalization the following formula can be used:

Tannins are most detrimental when fed to young birds, and especially when protein content of the diet is marginal. For example, it is usually recommended that milo with more than 1% tannin not be used for turkeys under 8 weeks of age. The relationship between tannins and diet protein or amino acids is not clear. Certainly feeding more protein or higher levels of certain amino acids seems to temper any growth retardation. The fact that methionine supplementation can overcome detrimental effects of tannins on growth rate, without alleviating problems with digestibility, suggests that birds can compensate for inferior digestibility by increasing their feed intake. Tannins also seem to increase the incidence of leg problems, especially in broiler chickens. The exact mechanism is unknown, although because bone mineral content is little affected, it is assumed to relate to derangement in the development of the organic matrix, especially in the region of the growth plate. There seems no advantage to increasing supplemental levels of any minerals or vitamins when high-tannin milos are necessarily used.

Various mechanisms have been tried to reduce the level or effect of tannins in milo. Unfortunately, most of these processes involve wet chemical treatment, which although quite simple, are expensive when re-drying of the milo is considered. Water treatment (25% with propionic acid for 10 d) has been shown to improve protein and energy availability by up to 10%. Alkali treatment seems the most effective means of reducing tannin levels, and products such as potassium and sodium hydroxide have both been used. Adding non-ionic polymers, such

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