Production

Page

  1. 1 World animal production 1
  2. 2 Poultry meat production 3
  3. 3 Egg production 4
  4. 4 Future considerations for poultry production 5
  5. 5 Global feed production 7
  6. 1 World Animal Production

Production of most farm animal species has increased over the last 10 years, and predictions are for this trend to continue in the near future. Poultry has seen the greatest increase in production and again, this trend will likely continue. Both poultry meat and eggs are well positioned to meet demands for increased supply from our growing world population. Prediction of world populations is always subject to adjustment, but it seems as though we will have around 7 billion people to feed by 2008. However, an obvious trend occurring is that this population is quickly aging and also living in urban settings of ever increasing size. Today almost 2% of the world's population live in the 10 largest cities in the world, and by 2008, we will likely have 20 cities with populations in excess of 10 million people. These large urban populations obviously rely almost 100% on food supply from rural areas. Traditionally such rural food supply has been grown adjacent to the urban populations, but this situation is becoming increasingly more difficult as these urban populations reach 10-15 million. National and international movement of feed and food will become critical to feeding these large expanding populations. The population in the developed world is predicted to change little in the next 10 years, and so virtually all growth will be in developing countries, and especially in Africa and Asia. With its unpredictable weather patterns, Africa has always had difficulty feeding its growing population, and with increased urbanization, this situation will only deteriorate.

In all countries, there is an aging of the population, and it is predicted that the proportion of people □ 60 years of age, will double in the next 30 years. The purchasing power of many such individuals may not be adequate to sustain their usual diet supply. Up to now, and in the near future, we have been able to meet increased demands for food through a combination of increased supply coupled with improved production efficiency. Such improvements in efficiency of production will allow us to gradually upgrade the general nutritional status of the world population as a whole and it is evident that

SECTION 1.1 World Animal Production the poultry industry is playing a major role in this important development. In the past, we have had to face criticism of the energy used in animal production and especially from the point of view of the inefficiency of consuming animal vs. vegetable protein. Of the total energy used by most developed countries, less than 4% is used for food production. During this food production, by far the greatest quantities of energy are used during processing and household preparation to meet the stringent demands of the consumer. Consequently, of the 4% of energy used by the agrifood business, only 18% (or 0.7% of total energy needs) is actually used in primary animal production. Increased human consumption of vegetable proteins as an alternative to meat and eggs has failed to materialize, essentially due to excessive energy use necessary during manufacture, which is the same criticism originally aimed at animal production. The production of synthetic meat analogues is thus very energy intensive, and their limited impact over the last decade attests to problems with economic viability and/or consumer acceptance. With the economy of many third world countries improving, there appears to be increased demand for animal products and especially poultry meat and eggs.

In developed countries, the current concerns regarding meat and eggs are not lack of supply, but rather wholesomeness and food safety. The concern about genetic modification of plants and animals quickly evolved in Europe, such that currently their use is not allowed in food production. Many plant species such as corn and soybean meal are now routinely genetically modified and used as ingredients in diets for poultry and other animals in many countries.

Concern about using animal proteins in diets for farm animals also arose in Europe following the outbreak of BSE in the mid 1990's. Europeans are still uncertain about the health status of their ruminant animals, and the ban on using products such as meat meal continues. While it is possible to formulate diets without meat meals, it is more expensive, and does add a major financial burden on most animal industries since they have to find alternative means of disposal of waste by-products.

It is impossible to produce meat or eggs that are guaranteed to be free of pathogens. A non-tolerance scenario for organisms such as salmonella is untenable, and any such regulations are unrealistic. Certainly there will be increased emphasis on pathogen reduction, and both the poultry meat and egg industries have made significant progress with programs such as HACCP at processing plants, feed mills and poultry farms. Feed is one potential route of entry for pathogens into meat and eggs, and so formulation will have to be modified, or alternate additives used, to try to reduce pathogen load of feed to acceptable levels of tolerance. Feed processing is now viewed with an aim to pathogen control, in addition to concerns about feed intake and bird growth. There will undoubtedly be reduced emphasis on antibiotic growth promoters as are now commonly used in broiler and turkey production and this situation adds even more demand on feed pathogen control programs.

On a more positive note, the production of so-called designer foods continues to increase; with the best example being omega-3 enriched eggs. It is simple to modify the fat-soluble nutrient profile of meat and eggs, and so there will be an increased demand, within niche markets, for food products modified in relation to improved human nutrition.

1.2 Poultry Meat Production

The broiler chicken industry has shown unparalleled growth over the last 30 years, although there are now signs of a maturing market in many countries. The industry is relatively easy to establish and while there are regional differences, production systems in most countries are modeled in a similar manner. Because of the increased growth potential in modern strains of broiler, it is now realized that some degree of environmental control is essential. Such systems can be full environmental control through to curtain sided houses in tropical countries. Even with the latter, cheaper type housing, it seems essential to ensure adequate air movement and so tunnel ventilation has become popular over the last 10 years. Optimum growth rate cannot be achieved much beyond the range of 15-30°C and so the ventilation systems are designed to hopefully maintain the birds' environment within this temperature range.

Chicken is usually the least expensive meat in most countries and consequently it is first or second for per capita consumption. This competitive situation has occurred due to continued improvements in efficiency of production that often necessitate acceptance of new ideas and innovations by poultry producers and agribusiness. On the other hand, production systems for competing meat products have shown little change over the last two decades. Interestingly, the swine industry is now starting to use 'poultry' models in production systems.

Much of the success of the chicken meat industry relates to development of new consumer products, largely because of continued advances in further processing. The most successful single product is undoubtedly the 'chicken nugget', now featured by most fast food and retail outlets. Over the last 10 years, some 30,000 non-chicken fast-food outlets in North America have added chicken products to their menu, and during special advertising campaigns, chicken products can be the leading sales item over such conventional products as hamburgers. So-called 'fast-food' stores are increasing in number in Europe, in Asia and in South America, and this will likely lead to increased demand for chicken. In addition to developing new uses for conventional parts of the chicken and turkey carcass, the industry has also been successful in developing technology to use its own 'byproducts' and then finding markets for these (or vice versa). The demand for chicken wings and chicken feet together with mechanically deboned meat exemplify these types of products. In addition to increasing overall poultry meat consumption, these products also lead to improved overall efficiency of production and help maintain the economic advantage seen with poultry meat.

Poultry meat is also ideally suited in terms of meeting demands for leaner meat by health conscious consumers. There has been considerable publicity over the last few years concerning the relative fat content of various meats, yet the fact remains that when comparisons are conducted on comparable products, poultry meat is the leanest product. Comparison of a highly trimmed steak or pork chop vs. a whole broiler carcass certainly reduces the advantage usually seen with poultry. However, the valid comparison is trimmed steak vs. poultry breast fillet, in which case the poultry product is by far the leanest. Broiler chicken and especially turkey are therefore ideal products for segments of the food industry wishing to provide low-fat meals. Poultry meat also has the almost unique advantage of not being discriminated against due to religious or cultural beliefs, making poultry products popular with airlines, hotels, institutions, etc.

The poultry meat industry has come under recent scrutiny regarding the use of growth promoters in the feed. When these are removed from diets, broilers most frequently develop necrotic enteritis and coccidiosis, and so their main mode of action seems to be control over clostridial infection. When growth promoters are not used in the feed, then alternate strategies such as competitive exclusion, water acidification, man-

nan-oligossaccharides and pro- and prebiotics are often considered. Ironically, while growth promoters are often banned as feed additives, an alternative strategy is to use them as water medication. Table 1.1 shows total poultry meat production worldwide, and in major producing areas, while Tables 1.2 and 1.3 show the breakdown for broiler and turkey meat production.

Table 1.1 Poultry meat production

Table 1.3 Turkey meat production

(million tonnes)

(million tonnes)

1993

2005

1993

2005

World

48

80

World

4

5.5

North America

15

25

North America

2

3

S. America

6

12

S. America

0.1

0.3

Europe

10

13

Europe

1.5

1.8

Asia

14

22

Asia

0.1

0.2

Table 1.2 Broiler meat production

Table 1.4 Egg production

(million tonnes)

(million tonnes)

1993

2005

1993

2005

World

41

68

World

38

57

North America

13

21

North America

6

8

S. America

5.5

11.5

S. America

2.5

3.4

Europe

9

10.5

Europe

10

10

Asia

12

20

Asia

18

The egg industry is enjoying increased production as consumers become more educated about the nutritive value of eggs and as more eggs are processed. The misinformation from the 1980's regarding the relationship between cholesterol intake and blood cholesterol levels has been superceded by pertinent information detailing the relevant contribution of various dietary nutrients to serum cholesterol in humans. Eggs are relatively inexpensive per unit of protein and energy contained in yolk and albumen, and so egg consumption continues to increase in developing countries.

The egg industry produces either brown- or white-shelled eggs. While white eggs predominate in North America, consumers in many countries demand a brown egg. Unfortunately, such demand is based on the naive view that brown-shelled eggs are more nutritious or wholesome. In developing countries, this myth is compounded with the demand for a highly pigmented yolk, and both of those factors add to the cost of production. North America has also seen great success in production of designer eggs, since some 5% of shell eggs are now enriched with nutrients such as omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E. This profitable segment of the egg industry has not merely displaced demand for normal eggs, but rather has created a genuine increased demand for eggs and egg products.

In North America, the most dynamic segment of the egg industry relates to processing and further processing of eggs, paralleling the success seen in the poultry meat industry. By 2008, it is estimated that at least 50% of eggs in North

America will be processed in some way or expressed in an alternate way, only 50% of eggs will be marketed in the shell. Expansion of egg processing is raising new challenges to production, where for instance egg mass is much more important than egg size per se, and where shell quality is of lesser importance. It is likely that the white-egg strains will be developed for the processing industry, while brown-shelled strains will be selected for characteristics important for the shell egg market. Disposal of the end-of-lay bird is becoming more difficult in many regions and so it seems important to develop new food products from this potentially valuable resource. Converting spent fowl into animal feed ingredients and especially for layer feed seems a very shortsighted approach in terms of consumer perception. Table 1.4 shows global and regional egg production.

Over the last 20 years, developments in poultry nutrition have paralleled, or made possible, increased productivity of the various poultry industries. As production conditions and goals have changed, we have been able to revise our estimates of nutrient requirements. Greater variation in production goals has imposed some degree of complication to feeding programs, because 'global' recommendations are now often not applicable. The future emphasis in poultry nutrition must be the development of life-cycle feeding programs for various classes of birds, rather than consideration of individual diets in isolation. Unfortunately, there is still a dearth of research information that views recommendations within the context of an overall program. With the sophistication we have today in our production systems, birds seldom fully recover from inappropriate nutrient intake at any time in their production cycle.

Because feed still represents 60 - 70% of the cost of production of most poultry products, there is a continual need to evaluate new or different sources of ingredients and to continually re-examine the more common ingredients. A yearly review of the published research data indicates that ingredient evaluation occupies the major portion of practical poultry nutrition research, and feed manufacturers should be aware of the potential of such new ingredients. Often, so-called new ingredients are not new in the sense of being novel to poultry feeding per se, rather they have not been as seriously considered in a particular geographical location. A

1.4 Future Considerations for Poultry Nutrition good example is the consideration of wheat as an ingredient in many areas of North America, whereas wheat has been a standard in other countries for 20-30 years. Under such conditions, feed manufacturers are encouraged to take a more global perspective on ingredient evaluation, because, for example, if wheat can be used successfully in Europe with strain A of broiler, in all likelihood it will be appropriate in another country assuming comparable conditions. Nutritionists must now have first-hand knowledge of production techniques to ensure that all conditions are comparable, as failure to do so is undoubtedly the reason for problems that periodically occur with such 'new' ingredients. In this context, justification of ingredient max/min constraints used during formulation is becoming more critical. As previously mentioned, the goals in many production situations vary commensurate with consumer demand for end products and/or manipulation of bird management. As such, nutritionists are now faced with an array of alternate programs dependent upon such specific, and often specialized, needs. The best example of this trend is nutritional modification aimed at manipulating meat or egg composition. Changing the proportion of energy:protein or amino acids or limiting feed intake during specific grow-out periods is known to influence fat deposition in the carcass. Likewise, choice of ingredients may well influence egg composition in relation to needs to improve human health. It is likely that nutritionists will be faced with increasing pressure from their customers, in terms of diets and programs aimed at meeting such market niches. In these situations, knowledge of ingredient profile and compatibility

Table 1.5 Bird numbers (millions)

1993

2006

BROILERS

World

30,700

46,000

North America

8,500

13,000

South America

3,700

7,500

Europe

6,600

6,600

Asia

9,700

18,000

TURKEYS

World

580

700

North America

300

320

South America

20

40

Europe

230

280

Asia

25

30

LAYERS

World

3,800

5,500

North America

480

600

South America

300

350

Europe

770

750

Asia

1,850

3,500

within a diet and feeding program become even more critical. A more holistic approach in the development of feeding programs will allow the poultry industry to pursue its goals of increased production, improved efficiency and increased specialization. It is hoped that the material provided in the following chapters will give the reader a background in developing such programs. Table 1.5 shows the expected number of birds that we will likely have to feed by 2006.

1.5 Global Feed Production

The poultry industry accounts for 20-40% of animal feed use in most countries, and this proportion is invariably increasing over time. Table 1.6 shows estimates of feed production for broilers, turkeys, layers and associated breeders.

As a generalization, the numbers shown in Table

1.6 can be multiplied by 0.6 for an estimate of cereal needs and by 0.3 for needs of ingredients such as soybean meal. The feed industry will undoubtedly become more regulated and become part of any tracking initiatives introduced for eggs or meat. Regulation concerning the use and reconciliation for most drugs is now mandatory in many countries, through such programs as HACCP. Undoubtedly the cost of such extra regulation and control will be passed on to the poultry industry and eventually to the consumer.

Table 1.6 2006 Feed production (million tonnes)

Broiler

Broiler Breeder

Turkey

Turkey Breeder

Pullet

Layer

Total Poultry

World

184

15

28

2.8

30

192

452

North America

52

4.2

7.9

0.8

8.4

54

127

South America

30

2.4

4.6

0.5

4.9

31

73

Europe

26

2.1

4.0

0.4

4.3

28

65

Asia

72

5.9

11.0

1.0

11.7

75

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