Poultry byproduct meal

Other Names: Poultry Meal, PBM Nutritional Characteristics:

As for meat meal, poultry by-product meal is produced essentially from waste generated during poultry meat processing. Because only one species is used, PBM should be a more consistent product than is meat meal, and certainly calcium and phosphorus levels will be lower. Variability in composition relates to whether or not feathers are added during processing or kept separate to produce feather meal. PBM and feathers are best treated using different conditions, because feathers require more extreme heat in order to hydrolyze the keratin proteins. PBM with feathers may therefore mean that either the feather proteins are undercooked or that the offal proteins are overcooked. Overcooking usually results in a much darker colored product. PBM contains more unsaturated fats than does meat meal, and so if much more than 0.5% fat remains in the finished product, it should be stabilized with an antioxidant.

Because of problems of disposal of spent layers, there is now some production of 'spent hen meal' which is essentially produced by rendering the whole body, including feathers. Such spent hen meal contains around 11% fat and 20% ash, with 70% crude protein. Methionine, TSAA and lysine in such samples are around 1.2%, 2.5% and 3.5% respectively, with digestibility of methionine and lysine at 85%, while cystine is closer to 60% digestible. As with poultry byproduct meal, the ME of spent hen meal is influenced by content of ash, fat and protein, with a mean value around 2,800 kcal/kg.

There is also current interest in ensiling various poultry carcasses and/or poultry by products prior to heat processing. Ensiling allows for more control over microbial contamination prior to processing, and allows the potential to better utilize smaller quantities of poultry carcasses on-farm or from sites more distant to the PBM processing plant. Ensiling is also being considered as a means of handling spent layers prior to production of PBM. Poultry carcasses or offal do not contain sufficient fermentable carbohydrate to allow lactic acid fermentation which will quickly reduce pH to about 4.2 and stabilize the product. These lactic acid producing microbes can therefore be encouraged to proliferate by adding, for example, 10% molasses or 10% dried whey to ground carcasses. These mixtures quickly stabilize at around pH 4.2 - 4.5, and can be held for 10 - 15d prior to manufacture of PBM. Carcasses from older birds may require slightly higher levels of theses carbohydrates, and because of their inherently high fat content, may be mixed with products such as soybean meal in order to improve handling characteristics. Ensiled whole carcasses, as is now being produced with spent fowl, may present problems with availability of feather proteins for reasons outlined previously in terms of ideal processing conditions for tissue versus feathers. In the future, this problem may be resolved by adding feather-degrading enzymes to the ensiling mixture.

Potential problems:

Nutritive value will be positively correlated with protein and fat content and negatively correlated with ash. Cystine content will give an indication if feathers were included during processing, which will detract from amino acid digestibility.

Dry Matter

90.0

Methionine

1.3

Crude Protein

60.0

Methionine + Cystine

3.3

Metabolizable Energy:

Lysine

3.4

(kcal/kg)

2950

Tryptophan

0.4

(MJ/kg)

12.34

Threonine

2.2

Calcium

3.60

Arginine

3.5

Av. Phosphorus

2.10

Sodium

0.36

Dig Methionine

1.1

Chloride

0.40

Dig Meth + Cys

2.3

Potassium

0.28

Dig Lysine

2.7

Selenium (ppm)

0.90

Dig Tryptophan

0.3

Fat

8.50

Dig Threonine

1.8

Linoleic acid

2.50

Dig Arginine

3.0

Crude Fiber

1.9

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