Cottonseed meal

Nutritional Characteristics:

Cottonseed meal is not usually considered in diets for poultry, although for obvious economic reasons it is often used in cottonseed producing areas. A high fiber content and potential contamination with gossypol are the major causes for concern. Gossypol is a yellow polyphenolic pigment found in the cottonseed 'gland'. In most meals, the total gossypol content will be around 1%, although of this, only about 0.1% will be free gossypol. The remaining bound gossypol is fairly inert, although binding can have occurred with lysine during processing, making both the gossypol and the lysine unavailable to the bird. So-called 'glandless' varieties of cottonseed are virtually free of gossypol.

Birds can tolerate fairly high levels of gossypol before there are general problems with performance although at much lower levels there can be discoloration of the yolk and albumen in eggs. Characteristically the gossypol causes a green-brown-black discoloration in the yolk depending upon gossypol levels, and the duration of egg storage. As egg storage time increases, the discoloration intensifies, especially at cool temperatures (5°C) where there is more rapid change in yolk pH. Gossypol does complex with iron, and this activity can be used to effectively detoxify the meal. Adding iron at a 1:1 ratio in relation to free gossypol greatly increases the dietary inclusion rate possible in broiler diets and also the level at which free gossypol becomes a problem with laying hens. Because most cottonseed samples contain around 0.1% free gossypol, detoxification can be accomplished by adding 0.5 kg ferrous sulphate/tonne feed. With addition of iron, broilers can withstand up to 200 ppm free gossypol, and layers up to 30 ppm free gossypol without any adverse effects.

If cottonseed meal contains any residual oil, then cyclopropenoid fatty acids may contribute to egg discoloration. These fatty acids are deposited in the vitelline membrane, and alter its permeability to iron that is normally found only in the yolk. This leached iron complexes with conalbumin in the albumen producing a characteristic pink color. Addition of iron salts does not prevent this albumen discoloration, and the only preventative measure is to use cottonseed meals with very low residual fat content.

Potential Problems:

Yolk discoloration is the main concern, and so ideally, cottonseed meal should not be used for laying hens or breeders. The lysine in cottonseed is particularly prone to destruction due to overheating of meals during processing.

Dry Matter

90

Methionine

0.49

Crude Protein

41.0

Methionine + Cystine

1.11

Metabolizable Energy:

Lysine

1.67

(kcal/kg)

2350

Tryptophan

0.50

(MJ/kg)

9.83

Threonine

1.31

Calcium

0.15

Arginine

4.56

Av. Phosphorus

0.45

Sodium

0.05

Dig Methionine

0.35

Chloride

0.03

Dig Meth + Cys

0.75

Potassium

1.10

Dig Lysine

1.18

Selenium (ppm)

0.06

Dig Tryptophan

0.35

Fat

0.50

Dig Threonine

0.90

Linoleic acid

0.21

Dig Arginine

3.68

Crude Fiber

14.50

Pregnancy Diet Plan

Pregnancy Diet Plan

The first trimester is very important for the mother and the baby. For most women it is common to find out about their pregnancy after they have missed their menstrual cycle. Since, not all women note their menstrual cycle and dates of intercourse, it may cause slight confusion about the exact date of conception. That is why most women find out that they are pregnant only after one month of pregnancy.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment