B Water output

The quantities of water excreted in the feces and urine are dependent on water intake. Broiler chickens produce excreta containing about 60 - 70% moisture, while that produced by the laying hen contains about 80% moisture. For the laying hen at least, the quantity of water excreted in the feces is about four times that excreted as urine. Undoubtedly, this loss is subject to considerable variation with the amount and nature of undigested feed.

Evaporation is one of four physical routes by which poultry can control their body temperature. Due to its molecular structure and bonding, water has an unusually high latent heat of vaporization. Some 0.5 kcals of heat are required to vaporize one gram of water. Evaporative heat loss takes place mainly through the respiratory tract. The fowl has no sweat glands, consequently evaporation via the skin is minimal. Evaporation overwhelmingly occurs via the moist surface layer of the respiratory tract to the inspired air which is 'saturated' with water vapor at body temperature. Evaporation rate is therefore proportional to respiratory rate. Heat loss through evaporation represents only about 12% of total heat loss in the broiler chicken housed at 10°C, but this increases dramatically through 26 - 35°C where it may contribute as much as 50% of total heat loss from the body. At high temperatures, evaporative water loss will approximate water intake and so this obviously imposes major demands on the ventilation systems.

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Pregnancy Diet Plan

Pregnancy Diet Plan

The first trimester is very important for the mother and the baby. For most women it is common to find out about their pregnancy after they have missed their menstrual cycle. Since, not all women note their menstrual cycle and dates of intercourse, it may cause slight confusion about the exact date of conception. That is why most women find out that they are pregnant only after one month of pregnancy.

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