B Manipulating nutrient intake

If one calculates expected energy output in terms of egg mass and increase in body weight, and relates this to feed intake, then it becomes readily apparent that the Leghorn must consume at least 90 g/bird/day and the brown egg bird close to 100 g/bird/day at peak production. Because feeding is ad-libitum, management programs must be geared at stimulating early appetite. The practical long-term solution is to rear birds with optimum body weight and body reserves at maturity. This situation has been aggravated in recent years, with the industry trend of attempting to rear pullets on minimal quantitites of feed. Unfortunately, this move has coincided with genetically smaller body weights and hence smaller appetites, together with earlier sexual maturity.

In order to maximize nutrient intake, one must consider relatively high nutrient dense diets, although these alone do not always ensure optimum growth. Relatively high protein (16-18% CP) with adequate methionine (2% CP) and lysine (5% CP) levels together with high energy levels (2800-3000 kcal/kg) are usually given to Leghorn pullets, especially in hot weather situations. However, there is some evidence to suggest that high energy diets are not always helpful under such warm conditions. (Table 3.26)

Leghorn pullets were heavier at 126 d when fed the high energy diet in the cool environment, but diet had no effect at 30°C. As expected, pullets ate less of the high energy diet, and because

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Pregnancy Diet Plan

Pregnancy Diet Plan

The first trimester is very important for the mother and the baby. For most women it is common to find out about their pregnancy after they have missed their menstrual cycle. Since, not all women note their menstrual cycle and dates of intercourse, it may cause slight confusion about the exact date of conception. That is why most women find out that they are pregnant only after one month of pregnancy.

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