A Mycotoxins

Mycotoxins are now virtually ubiquitous in poultry diets, and with ever increasing sophistication of testing sensitivity, they are routinely isolated as contaminants of most grains and some vegetable protein ingredients. We still do not know the cause of high levels of mold growth occurring in pre-harvest grains. Certainly such aerobic molds are more prevalent in hot humid conditions, and insect damage to the standing crop seems to provide a route of entry for the mold. Unfortunately, visual...

E Near Infra Red Analysis NIRA

NIRA offers the possibility for very rapid analyses of ingredients and feeds. The technique has the potential to assay many organic compounds. The system has the capability to measure metabolizable energy as well as more simple components such as fat, moisture, protein and fiber. Analysis relies on measuring how much light energy is absorbed when the sample is bombarded with light at very specific wavelengths. The basis of NIRA is chemometrics, which is the application of mathematics to...

B Plant toxins

A number of cereals and vegetable protein crops contain natural toxins that can affect bird performance. Cyanides - While there are a number of potential feed ingredients that contain natural cyanides, cassava (manioc), is probably the most common and contains relatively high levels of this toxin. Table 2.25 Effect of minor mycotoxins on poultry Table 2.25 Effect of minor mycotoxins on poultry Cassava meal is derived from the tuberous root of the cassava plant. Ingestion of this material by...

Sources of Calcium Phosphorus and Sodium

Constraints are not usually imposed on these ingredients because there should be fairly stringent constraints imposed on minimum and maximum levels of calcium and phosphorus in a diet. There has been considerable controversy in the past concerning the relative potency of limestone vs oyster shell as sources of calcium, especially for the laying hen. Perhaps of more importance than the source of calcium, is particle size. Usually the larger the particle size, the longer the particle will be...

D Manipulation of body weight at sexual maturity

In the previous section, the main emphasis was on attaining the breeder's recommended weight at time of sexual maturity. Under certain conditions, some tempering of mature body size may be economically advantageous. Because body size has a dramatic effect on egg size, large birds at maturity can be expected to produce large eggs throughout their laying cycle. Depending upon the pricing of various egg grades, a very large egg may be uneconomical to produce, and in most instances tempering of egg...

B Maintaining energy balance

The key to sustaining production in hot climates is to maintain a positive energy balance. i) Changing diet energy level - It is well known that birds consume less feed as the energy level of the feed increases. This is because the bird attempts to maintain a given energy intake each day. However, the mechanism is by no means perfect and as energy level is increased, the actual decline in feed intake is often imperfectly regulated, leading to 'overconsumption' of energy. As environmental...

Diet and egg composition

Tables 4.33 - 4.35 show egg composition indication of the contribution of these nutri-and nutrient content together with an ents to human nutriti n. Table 4.33 Egg components and major nutrients (60 g egg) Table 4.33 Egg components and major nutrients (60 g egg) Table 4.34 Vitamin and mineral composition of contents from a 60 g egg Table 4.34 Vitamin and mineral composition of contents from a 60 g egg Table 4.35 Contribution of eggs to Human DRI for selected nutrients Table 4.35 Contribution of...

Table Molting with feed withdrawal

0 - 7 d 7 - 10 d 10 - 20 d 20 - SS d SS d+ 20 g cereal d 45 g cereal d Pullet developer Layer II_ 25 g cereal d 50 g cereal d Pullet developer Layer II 1st cycle maturity 1.25 End 1st cycle 1.60 End 1st molt 1.35 1 provide 23 - 24 hr light d for 5 d prior to start of molt In reality this is difficult to achieve and a +100 g weight for second vs first cycle 'mature' weight is more realistic. Mortality is usually exceptionally low during the period of feed withdrawal, and in fact less than in the...

Feed and energy intake

Feeding programs for layers cannot be developed without consideration for the rearing program as discussed in Chapter 3. Unfortunately, many egg producers purchase point-of-lay pullets from independent pullet growers, and here the goals of the two producers are not always identical. Too often the egg producer is interested in purchasing mature pullets at the lowest possible cost per bird regardless of their condition. For pullet growers to make a profit they must produce birds at the lowest...

Problems with heat distress

The majority of the world's laying hens are kept in areas where heat stress is likely to be a major management factor at some stage during the production cycle. The major problem relates to birds not consuming enough feed at this time, although there are also some subtle changes in the bird's metabolism that affect both production and shell quality. While all types of poultry thrive in warm environments during the first few weeks of life, normal growth and development of older birds is often...

Fats and oils

Fats provide a concentrated source of energy, and so relatively small changes in inclusion levels can have significant effects on diet ME. Most fats are handled as liquids, and this means heating of most fats and fat blends that contain appreciable quantities of saturated fatty acids. Depending upon the demands for pellet durability, 3 - 4 is the maximum level of fat that can be mixed with the other diet ingredients. To this, up to 2 - 3 can be added as a spray-on coat to the formed pellet....

Synthetic Amino Acids

Synthetic sources of methionine and lysine are now used routinely in poultry diets and tryptophan and threonine will likely be used more frequently as future prices decline. In most situations, the use of synthetic amino acids Table 2.15 is an economic decision, and so their price tends to shadow that of soybean meal, which is the major protein amino acid source used world-wide. By the year 2010, lysine use in North America is estimated to be at 150,000 tonnes while that for methionine will be...

Nutrition and shell quality

Medullary Bone Birds

Nutrition can have a major impact on eggshell quality, and is often the first parameter considered when problems arise. After peak egg production, the layer pro duces a fairly consistent quantity of shell material for each egg, regardless of its size. As the egg gets larger, therefore, the shell necessarily gets thinner, and this becomes more prone to breakage. Even with ideal conditions,4-5 of eggs leaving the farm will be graded as 'cracks', and together with cracked and broken eggs on-farm,...

E Water restriction

Most birds should have continuous access to water. Some breeders recommend water restriction of laying hens as a means of preventing wet manure, especially in hot climates, although serious consideration should be given to other preventative measures prior to this last resort. Production may drop as much as 30 when hens are deprived of water for 24 hours, and it may take as long as 25 to 30 days before production returns to normal. Similar results have been reported for broilers where decreases...

Cottonseed meal

Cottonseed meal is not usually considered in diets for poultry, although for obvious economic reasons it is often used in cottonseed producing areas. A high fiber content and potential contamination with gossypol are the major causes for concern. Gossypol is a yellow polyphenolic pigment found in the cottonseed 'gland'. In most meals, the total gossypol content will be around 1 , although of this, only about 0.1 will be free gossypol. The remaining bound gossypol is fairly inert, although...

Fish meal gizzard erosion factor

In some countries, fish meal is an economical feed ingredient to use in poultry diets. As previously described, some samples of fish meal will cause severe gizzard erosion in young birds. Where fish meal is an integral part of a broiler diet, then it is common to carry out a chick growth test with each shipment of fish meal. About 50 chicks are fed a broiler starter diet, usually without any fish meal, for 5 - 7 days. At this time, the diet is mixed with 40 - 50 of the test fish meal, and this...

Feather meal

Feather meal can be an excellent source of crude protein where this is needed to meet regulatory requirements. However, its use is severely limited by deficiencies of several amino acids, including methionine, lysine and histidine. Feather meal usually contains about 4.5 - 5.0 cystine, and this should be around 60 digestible. The energy value of feather meal is quite high, being around 3300 kcal ME kg, and Dale and co-workers at the University of Georgia suggests TMEn of feather meal is highly...

Diet specifications and formulations

Diet specifications for laying hens are shown in Table 4.1, and are categorized according to age and feed intake. There is no evidence to suggest that the energy level of diets needs to be changed as the birds progress through a laying cycle. The layer's peak energy needs are most likely met at around 35 weeks of age, when production and daily egg mass output are maximized. However, the layer quite precisely adjusts its intake according to needs for energy and so variable energy needs are...

Phase Feeding

Egg Production Curve

Phase feeding refers essentially to reductions in the protein and amino acid level of the diet as the bird progresses through a laying cycle. The concept of phase feeding is based on the fact that as birds get older, their feed intake increases, while egg mass output decreas es. For this reason, it should be economical to reduce the nutrient concentration of the diet. At this time, it is pertinent to consider a conventional egg production curve of a layer, and superimpose both egg weight and...

Diet specifications and feed formulation

Genetic selection for growth rate continues to result in some 30-50 g yearly increase in 42-49 d body weight. There has also been an obvious improvement in feed efficiency and reduction in the incidence of metabolic disorders over the last 5 years, and so these changes have dictated some changes in feed formulation and feed scheduling. The modern broiler chicken is however, able to respond adequately to diets formulated over a vast range of nutrient densities. If there is no concern regarding...

Trace Minerals

Trace minerals are available in a variety of forms, and periodically problems arise due to lack of knowledge of the composition, and or stability of mineral salts. Most research into mineral availability has been conducted with so-called reagent-grade forms of minerals, which are very pure and of known composition and purity. Unfortunately, the feed industry cannot afford the luxury of such purity, and so obviously, feed grade forms are used. One of the most important factors to ascertain prior...

Diet involvement with some general management problems

Although not widespread in commercial flocks, hysteria can be a very serious nuisance and economic cost factor if encountered in a flock. Hysteria is easy to distinguish from an ordinary flighty flock, as the birds seem to lose all normal social behaviour and sense of direction and will mill and fly in every direction making unusual crying and squawking sounds. Birds often go into a molt, and then egg production declines. The condition of hysteria is more difficult to distinguish from...

F Prelay nutrition and management

Urolithiasis Broiler Breeders

I Considerations for calcium metabolism -Prelay diets and prelay management are designed to allow the bird the opportunity to establish adequate medullary bone reserves that are neces sary for calcifying the first egg produced. In practice, there is considerable variation in formulation and time of using prelay diets, and to some extent this confusion relates to defining sexual maturity per se. Historically, prelay diets were fed from about 2 weeks prior to expected maturity, up to the time of...

Blood Meal

Blood meal is very high in crude protein, and while it is an excellent source of lysine, it is very deficient in isoleucine and this imbalance needs correcting if any substantial quantity is used in a diet. Blood meal is essentially the solids of the blood from processing plants, and consists mainly of hemoglobin, cell membranes, cellular electrolytes and a small quantity of lipid. Historically, the level of blood meal used in diets has been severely limited, mainly because of problems of...

A Water intake

Water intake of a bird increases with age, although it decreases per unit of body weight. Drinking behaviour is closely associated with feed intake, and so most factors affecting feed intake will indirectly influence water intake. At moderate temperatures, birds will consume almost twice as much water by weight as they eat as feed. Any nutrients that increase mineral excretion by the kidney will influence water intake. For example, salt, or an ingredient high in sodium, will increase water...

B Anticoccidials

Anticoccidials are used in diets for most meat birds and young breeding stock that are reared on litter floors. Over the past 20 years, the so-called ionophore anticoccidials have predominated and they have proved most efficacious in controlling clinical signs of coccidiosis. From a nutritional viewpoint, some care must be taken in selection of these products as they can influence metabolism of the bird under certain situations. Monensin has been a very successful anticoccidial, and seems to...

Controlling egg size

The main factor dictating the size of an egg is the size of yolk released from the ovary and this in turn is greatly influenced by body weight of the laying hen. The weight of the hen at maturity is therefore the major factor influencing egg size, and so it is expected that a large bird will produce more large grade eggs and vice-versa for a small bird. Assuming a given weight of bird, then nutrition can have some influence on egg size. Within a flock, birds that eat the most feed tend to...

A Vitamin Mineral Premixes

Micro-ingredients should be properly premixed before being added to a feed. It is desirable to have similar physical characteristics among ingredients to be premixed. The diluent suggested for use in the vitamin-mineral premixes is ground yellow corn or wheat middlings, both being of medium grind for best results. If the carrier is too coarse, it is not possible to obtain good distribution of the supplements, while too fine a carrier leads to dustiness and caking. For mineral mixes, limestone...

B Vitamin Stability

Naturally occurring vitamin E is quite unstable, particularly in the presence of fat and trace minerals, however, vitamin E added as a supplement usually is in a highly stable form e.g. gelatin coated beadlet containing an antioxidant . Vitamin A in fish oil and pro-vitamin A compounds in yellow corn are easily destroyed in the typical mixed ration. Most dehydrated green feeds are now treated with an antioxidant that helps prevent the destruction of the pro-vitamin A compounds during storage....

Table Methionine and late cycle egg size g

Daily methionine Exp. 1 Exp. 2 Exp. 3 intake mg d _ 38-62 wk _ 38 - 70 wk _ 78 - 102 wk Fig. 4.14 Feed intake of brown- egg layers hens fed adequate on deficient levels of methionine. g b d This data suggests that we should be very careful in reducing methionine levels much before 60 weeks of age. As stated at the outset of this section, mature body weight is the main determinant of egg size, and this applies particularly to late-cycle per formance. The best way to control late cycle egg size...

Importance Of Animal Nutrition

Enzymes have been added to poultry diets ever since workers at Washington State University showed improvement in digestibility of barley and rye-based diets when various enzymes were used. In the 1950's, corn-soybean diets predominated, and these were assumed to be highly digestible and so there was little interest in feed enzyme application. Over the past few years, this area of nutrition has gained interest and activity due to economics of small grain use and also because of a better...

Suggested Readings

Response of laying hens to dietary saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in the presence of varying dietary calcium levels. Poult. Sci. 64 520-528. Bean, L.D. and S. Leeson, 2002 . Metabolizable energy of layer diets containing regular or heat-treated flaxseed. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 11 424-429. Bean, L.D. and S. Leeson, 2003 . Long-term effects of feeding flaxseed on the performance and egg fatty acid composition of brown and white hens. Poult. Sci. 82 388-394....

Flaxseed

Other Names Linseed Nutritional Characteristics Flax is grown essentially for its oil content, although in Europe there is still some production of special varieties for linen production. Fat-extracted flax, which is commonly called linseed meal, has traditionally been used for ruminant feeds. Over the last few years, there has been interest in feeding full-fat flaxseed to poultry, because of its contribution of linolenic acid. Flax oil contains about 50 linolenic acid 18 3w3 which is the...

Flavoring agents

The chicken is not usually considered to have the ability to select feed based on flavor, or organoleptics per se. The chicken has only about 24 taste buds in comparison to 9,000 in humans and 25,000 in cattle. Relatively few studies have been conducted with flavoring agents for poultry, and for this reason, care must be taken in extrapolating data from other species. For example, sucrose octa-acetate solution is reported to be readily accepted by birds, but universally rejected by humans....

B Proximate analysis

Proximate analysis is still the most widely used system for monitoring the quality of ingredients. At a time when we formulate diets based on digestible or metabolizable nutrients, its value is often questioned, since proximate components are very broad and encompass what can be both digestible and indigestible components. However, proximate analysis is quite rapid and inexpensive, and does give an idea of continuity of composition. Proximate analyses can also be used to predict the content of...

FUrease testing of soybeans and soybean meal

Levels of the enzyme urease are used as an indicator of trypsin inhibitor activity. Urease is much easier to measure than is trypsin inhibitor and both molecules show similar characteristics of heat sensitivity. A rapid qualitative screening test for urease can be carried out using conversion of urea to ammonia in the presence of an indicator. A qualitative test for urease activity can be carried out using a simple colorimetric assay. Urea-phenol-red solution is brought to an amber color by...

Table Effect of methionine source on layer performance

.28 Egg size with methionine vs. choline 23 Adapted from Parsons and Leeper 1984 Adapted from Parsons and Leeper 1984 Table 4.29 Effect of linoleic acid on egg weight g Table 4.29 Effect of linoleic acid on egg weight g Table 4.30 Effect of reducing dietary protein level on egg size of 60wk-old layers Av. for 2, 28-day periods Table 4.30 Effect of reducing dietary protein level on egg size of 60wk-old layers Av. for 2, 28-day periods The other nutrient most often considered when attempting to...

A Birds response to heat stress

Energy Balance Poultry

Figure 4.4 is a schematic representation of a heat stress effect. Minimal body heat production and hence the most efficient situation is seen at around 23 C. Below this temperature, lower critical temperature birds generally have to generate more body heat in order to keep warm. However, there is only a narrow range of temperature 19-27 C over which heat production is minimal. Above 27 C birds start to use more energy in an attempt to stay cool. For example, at 27 C, birds will start to dilate...

Groundnut Peanut Meal

The peanut is an underground legume, and because of warm moist conditions in the soil, is very susceptible to fungal growth with aspergillus contamination being of most concern. Grown essentially for their oil, peanuts yield a solvent extracted meal containing 0.5 - 1 fat with about 47 protein. As with soybeans, peanuts contain a trypsin inhibitor that is destroyed by the heating imposed during oil extraction. Potential aflatoxin contamination is the major problem with groundnut meal. Being a...

Ingredient Evaluation And Diet Formulation

Rice by-products 9. Soybean 10. Soybeans 11. Canola 12. Corn gluten 13. Cottonseed meal 15. Meat meal 16. Poultry by-product 17. Feather meal 18. Fish 19. Fats and oils 24. Dehydrated 25. Full-fat canola seeds f 26. Groundnut peanut m 27. 28. . 29. Sesame 30. Lupins 31. Blood 32. Sources of calcium, phosphorus and 2.2 Ingredient a. Bulk b. Proximate d. Metabolizable energy AME or e. Near infra-red analysis f. Urease testing of soybeans and soybean g. Protein h....

Table Composition of fresh cage layer manure

Gross energy kcal kg 250 Crude Protein 8.0 True Protein 3.0 Nitrogen 1.2 Uric acid 1.7 NSP 10.0 Crude Fiber 4.2 Arginine 0.12 Leucine 0.18 Lysine 0.11 TSAA 0.10 Threonine 0.12 Table 4.47 Nitrogen loss as ammonia for 10,000 layers per year kg Table 4.47 Nitrogen loss as ammonia for 10,000 layers per year kg Total nitrogen excretion into manure Adapted from Van Horne et al. 1998 Adapted from Van Horne et al. 1998 Most of the nitrogen excreted by the bird relates to undigested material and those...

Table Prelay diets for white egg pullets

15 to 19 16 to 18 16 to 18 15 to 17 Protein ME kcal kg Calcium Av Phosphorus Sodium Linoleic acid Methionine Methionine cystine Lysine Tryptophan Threonine Table 3.11 Feed intake for white egg pullets grams Shaver1 Hyline 36 Hyline 98 Lohmann Bovan Table 3.11 Feed intake for white egg pullets grams Shaver1 Hyline 36 Hyline 98 Lohmann Bovan Table 3.12 Body weight of white egg pullets grams Table 3.12 Body weight of white egg pullets grams Shaver while the smaller Lohmann apparently need much...

Fish meal

Other names Herring meal White Fish meal Menhaden meal Nutritional Characteristics Because of the decline in activities of most fisheries directed at human consumption, fish meals are now almost exclusively produced from smaller oily fish caught specifically for meal manufacture. Menhaden and anchovy are the main fish species used for meal manufacture, with lesser quantities of herring meal produced in Europe. Fish meal is usually an excellent source of essential amino acids, while energy level...

Rice byproducts

Other Names Rice bran, rice polishings, rice pollards Nutritional Characteristics Rice by-products are the result of dehulling and cleaning of brown rice, necessary for the production of white rice as a human food. Rice byproducts are one of the most common cereal byproducts available to the feed industry, with world production estimated at around 45 m tonnes. The by-product of preparing white rice, yields a product called rice bran, which itself is composed of about 30 by weight of rice...

Wheat

Wheat is commonly used in many countries as the major energy source in poultry diets. There is often confusion regarding the exact type of wheat being used, because wheats are described in a number of different ways. Traditionally wheats were described as being winter or spring varieties and these were usually grown in different regions because of prevailing climate and soil conditions. Wheats are sometimes also referred to as white or red, depending upon seed coat color, and finally there is...

D Antifungal agents

In many regions of the world, molds and associated mycotoxins are major problems, affecting both growth and reproductive performance. Mycotoxins produced by both aerobic field molds and anaerobic storage molds can accumulate, often undetected, in a range of ingredients. A number of antifungal agents are available, most of which are based on organic acids. By altering the pH of the feed, it is hoped to control mold growth, although it must be remembered that any mycotoxin already present in feed...

Bakery meal

Other Names Cookie meal, bread meal Nutritional Characteristics Bakery meal is a by-product from a range of food processing industries. In order to ensure consistent composition, individual products must be blended or the supplier large enough to provide adequate quantities from a single manufacturing process. The most common by-products come from bread and pasta manufacture, as well as cookies and snack foods. By-products from snack foods can be quite high in salt and fat. Bakery meal is often...

H Pigments

The yellow to orange color in avian fatty tissue is caused by various carotenoid pigments. These pigments control the color of the egg yolk, as well as the shanks and beaks of layers, and also the skin color that may be important in meat birds. The xanthophylls are the most important carotenoids in poultry nutrition, and natural ingredients rich in these compounds are alfalfa meal, corn gluten meal and marigold petal Table 2.23 . Table 2.23 Xanthophyll content of selected ingredients mg kg...

Table Energy balance of leghorn pullets during early egg production

Energy Balance Poultry

Theoretical Daily Energy Requirement Required intake of Age _ kcal ME per bird _ 17 CP, 2850 ME Theoretical Daily Energy Requirement Required intake of Age _ kcal ME per bird _ 17 CP, 2850 ME Table 4.11 Energy balance of brown egg pullets during early egg production Theoretical Daily Energy Requirement Required intake of Table 4.11 Energy balance of brown egg pullets during early egg production Theoretical Daily Energy Requirement Required intake of Fig. 4.1 Egg production 18-66 weeks in...

F Yeasts

Yeast, or single-celled fungi, have been used in animal feed and the human food industry for many years. Brewer's yeast was a common feed ingredient in diets for monogastric animals prior to the identification of all the B-vitamins. Today, some nutritionists still incorporate these inactivated microbes as a source of so-called 'unidentified growth factor'. More recently there has been an interest in the use of live yeast cultures. These cultures most often contain the yeast themselves and the...

Soybean meal

Other Names High protein SBM Nutritional Characteristics Soybean meal has become the worldwide standard against which other protein sources are compared. Its amino acid profile is excellent for most types of poultry, and when combined with corn or sorghum, methionine is usually the only limiting amino acid. The protein level in soybean meal can be variable, and this may be a reflection of seed variety and or processing conditions involved in fat extraction. Traditionally the higher protein...