References

Albanes, D., Heinonen, O.P., Taylor, P.R., Virtamo, J., Edwards, B.K., Rautalahti, M., Hartman, A.M., Palmgren, J., Freedman, L.S., Haapakoski, J.,Barrett, M.J., Pietinen, P., Malila, N., Tala, E., Liippo, K., Salomaa, E.R., Tangrea, J.A., Teppo, L., Askin, F.B., Taskinen, E., Erozan, Y., Greenwald, P., and Huttunen, J.K. Alpha-Tocopherol and beta-carotene supplements and lung cancer incidence in the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cancer prevention study: effects of base-line characteristics and study compliance, J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 88, 1560-1570, 1996.

Astley, S.B., Elliott, R.M., Archer, D., Hughes, D.A., and Southon, S. Carotenoids: DNA damage and repair balance, 12th Int. Carotenoid Symp., Cairns, Australia, abstract 6A-3, 1999.

Bauernfeind, J.C., Brubacher, G.B., Klaüi, H.M., and Marusich, W.L. Use of Carotenoids, in Carotenoids (Isler, O., ed.), Birkhauser Verlag, Basel, pp. 743-770, 1971.

Bendich, A. Carotenoids and the immune system, in Carotenoid Chemistry and Biology (Krinsky, N.I., ed.), Plenum Press, New York, 1990.

Bennedsen, M., Wang, X., Willen, R., Wadström, T., and Andersen, L.P. Treatment of H. pylori-infected mice with antioxidant astaxanthin reduces gastic inflammation, bacterial load and modulates cytokine release by splenocytes, Immunol. Letts., 70, 185-189, 1999.

Bernstein, P.S. Purification of xanthophyll-binding proteins from the macula of the human retina, 12th Int. Carotenoid Symp., Cairns, Australia, abstract 3A-3, 1999.

Bernstein, P.S., Balashov, N.A., Tsong, E.D., and Rando, R.R. Retinal tubulin binds macular carotenoids, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 38, 167-175, 1997.

Bone, R.A., Landrum, J.T., Hime, G.W., Cains, A., and Zamor, J. Stereochemistry of the human macular carotenoids, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 14, 2033-2040, 1993.

Bone, R.A., Landrum, J.T., Mayne, S.T., Gomez, C.M., Tibor, S.E., and Twarawska, E.E. Macular pigment in donor eyes with and without AMD: a case-control study, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 42, 235-240, 2001.

Bone, R.A., Landrum, J.T., and Cains, A. Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro, Vision Res., 32, 105-110, 1992.

Bone, R.A., Landrum, J.T., Fernandez, L., and Tarsis, S.L. Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 29, 843-849, 1988.

Britton, G. The Biochemistry of Natural Pigments, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1983.

Britton, G., Liaaen-Jensen, S., and Pfander, H. Carotenoids Today and Challenges for the Future, in Carotenoids (Britton, G., Liaaen-Jensen, S., and Pfander, H., eds.), vol. 1, Birkhauser Verlag, Basel, pp. 13-26, 1995.

Chen, Y., Landrum, J.T., Bone, R.A., Dixon, Z., Bain, R., and Micah, S. Serum response to low-dosage supplementation with lutein, 12th Int. Carotenoid Symp., Cairns, Australia,

1999.

Chew, B.P., Park, J.S., Wong, M.W., and Wong, T.S. A comparison of the anticancer activities of dietary beta-carotene, canthaxanthin, and astaxanthin in mice in vivo, Anticancer Res., 19, 1849-1853, 1999.

Demmig-Adams, B. and Adams, W.W. The role of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids in the protection of photosynthesis, Trends in Plant Sci., 1, 21-26, 1996.

Eye Disease Case Control Study Group. Antioxidant status and neovascular age-related macular degeneration, Arch. Ophthalmol., 111, 104-109, 1993.

Franke, A.A., Harwood, P.J., Shimamoto, T., Lumeng, S., Zhang, L.-X., Bertram, J.S., Wilkens, L.R., Le Marchand, L., and Cooney, R.V. Effects of micronutrients and antioxidants on lipid peroxidation in human plasma and in cell culture, Cancer Lett., 79, 17-26, 1994.

Goodwin, T.W. Functions of Carotenoids, in The Biochemistry of the Carotenoids, Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 77-95, 1980.

Grievink, L., De Waart, F.G., Schouten, E.G., and Kok, F.J. Serum carotenoids, a-tocopherol, and lung function among Dutch elderly, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., 161, 790-795,

2000.

Guiliano, A.R., Papenfuss, M., Mour, M., Canfield, L.M., Schneider, A., and Hatch, K. Antioxidant nutrients: associations with persistent human papilloma virus infection, Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev., 6, 917-923, 1997.

Haegele, A.D., Gillette, C., O'Neill, C., Wolfe, P., Heimendinger, J., Sedlacek, S., and Thompson, H.J. Plasma xanthophyll carotenoid correlate inversely with indices of oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation, Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev., 9, 421-425, 2000.

Herrero, C., Chen, Y., Chi, J., Tibor, S., and Bone, R.A., and Landrum, J.T. Lutein metabolism in human serum and retina, FASEB J., 14, A234, abstract 167.7, 2000.

Iribarren, C., Folsom, A.R., Jacobs, D.R., Jr., Gross, M.D., Belcher, J.D., and Eckfeldt, J.H. Association of serum vitamin levels, LDL susceptibility to oxidation, and autoantibodies against MDA-LDL with carotid atherosclerosis. A case-control study, Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Bio., 17, 1171-1177, 1997.

Ito, Y., Gajalakshmi, K.C., Sasaki, R., Suzuki, K., and Shanta, V. A study on serum carotenoid levels in breast cancer patients of Indian women in Chennai (Madras), India, J. Epidemiol., 9, 306-314, 1999.

Khachik, F., Askin, F.B., and Lai, K. Distribution, bioavailability, and metabolism of carotenoids in humans, in Phytochemicals: A New Paradygm (Bidlack, W.R., Omaye, S.T., Meskin, M.S., Jahner, D., eds.), Technomic Publishing Company, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 1998.

Khachik, F., Beecher, G.R., Goli, M.B., and Lusby, W.R. Separation, identification, and quantification of carotenoids in fruits, vegetables, and human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography, Pure Appl. Chem., 63, 71-80, 1991.

Khachik, F., Beecher, G.R., Goli, M.B., Lusby, W.R., and Smith, J.C., Jr. Separation, identification of carotenoids and their oxidation products in extracts of human plasma, Anal. Chem., 64, 2111-2122, 1992.

Khachik, F., Beecher, G.R., and Smith, J.C., Jr. Lutein, lycopene, and their oxidative metabolites in chemoprevention of cancer, J. Cell. Biochem., 22, 236-246, 1995.

Khachik, F., Bernstein, P.S., and Garland, D.L. Identification of lutein and zeaxanthin oxidation products in human and monkey retinas, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 38, 1802-1811, 1997.

Klaui, H. and Bauernfeind, J.C. Carotenoids as Food Colors, in Carotenoids as Colorants and Vitamin A Precursors (Bauernfeind, J.C., ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 48-317, 1981.

Kirsche, B., Schlenzig, M., Ochrimenko, W.I., and Falchowsky, G. Influence of beta-carotene supplementation on carotene content of ovaries of heifers, Arch. Tierernahr., 37, 995-999, 1987.

Krinsky, N.I. Function, in Carotenoids ( Isler, O., ed.), Birkhauser Verlag, Basel, pp. 669-742, 1971.

Landrum, J.T. and Bone, R.A. Carotenoid nutrition and the human retina, Int. J. Integ. Med., 2, 28-33, 2000.

Landrum, J.T. and Bone, R.A. Lutein, zeaxanthin and the macular pigment, Arch. Biochem. Biophys, 385, 28-40, 2001.

Landrum, J.T., Bone, R.A., Chen, Y., Herrero, C., Llerena, C.M., and Twarowsk, E. Carotenoids in the human retina, Pure Appl. Chem., 71, 2237-2244, 1999.

Landrum, J.T., Bone, R.A., Joa, H., Kilburn, M.D., Moore, L.L., and Spargue, K.E. A one year study of the macular pigment: The effect of 140 days of a lutein supplement, Exp. Eye Res., 64, 57-62, 1997.

Landrum, J.T., Bone, R.A., and Kilburn, M.D. The macular pigment: a possible role in protection from age-related macular degeneration, Adv. Pharmacol., 38, 537-556, 1997.

Le Marchand, L., Hankin, J.H., Bach, F., Kolonel, L.N., Wilkens, L.R., Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, M., Bowen, P.E., Beecher, G.R., Laudon, F., Baque, P., Daniel, R., Seruvatu, L., and Henderson, B.E. An ecological study of diet and lung cancer in the South Pacific, Int. J. Cancer, 63, 18-23, 1995.

Lecomte, E., Grolier, P., Herbeth, B., Pirollet, P., Musse, N., Paille, F., Braesco, V., Siest, G., and Artur, Y. The relation of alcohol consumption to serum carotenoid and retinol levels. Effects of withdrawal, Int. J. Vit. Nutr. Res., 64, 170-175, 1994.

Leo, M.A., Rosman, A.S., and Lieber, C.S. Differential depletion of carotenoids and tocopherol in liver disease, Hepatol., 17, 977-986, 1993.

Lignell, A., Surace, R., Bottiger, P.A., and Borody, T.J. Symptom improvement in Helicobacter pylori-positive nonulcer dyspeptic patients after treatment with the carotenoid astaxanthin, 12th Int. Carotenoid Symp., Cairns, Australia, abstract 4A-3, 1999.

Martin, H.D., Ruck, C., Shcmidt, M., Sell, S., Beutner, S., Mayer, B., and Walsh, R. Chemistry of carotenoid oxidation and free radical reactions, Pure Appl. Chem., 71, 2253-2262,

1999.

Miki, W. Biological functions and activities of animal carotenoids, Pure Appl. Chem., 63, 141-146, 1991.

Moji, H., Murata, T., Morinobu, T., Mango, H., Tami, H., Okamot, R., Mino, M., Fujimura, M., and Takeuchi, T. Plasma levels of retinol, retinol-binding protein, all-trans beta-carotene and cryptoxanthin in low birth weight infants, J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol., 41, 595-606, 1995.

Narisawa, T., Fukaura, Y., Oshima, S., Inakuma, T., Yano, M., Nishino, H. Chemoprevention by the oxygenated carotenoid P-cryptoxanthin of N-methyl-nitrosourea-induced colon carcinogenesis in F344 rats, Jpn. J. Cancer Res., 90, 1061-1065, 1999.

Nebeling, L.C., Forman, M.R., Graubard, B.I., and Snyder, R.A. Changes in carotenoid intake in the United States: The 1987 and 1992 national health interview surveys, J. Am. Diet. Assoc., 97, 991-996, 1997.

Nishino, H., Tokuda, H., Murakoshi, M., Stomi, Y., Matsumoto, H., Masuda, M., Bu, P., Onozuka, M., Yamaguchi, S., Okuda, Y., Takayasu, J., Nishino, A., Tsuruta, J., Okuda, M., Ichiishi, E., Nosaka, K., Konoshima, T., Kato, T., Nir, Z., Khackik, F., Misawa, N., Narisawa, T., and Taksuka, N. Cancer prevention by carotenoids and curcumin, in Phytochemicals as Bioactive Agents (Bidlack, W.R., Omaye, S.T., Meskin, M.S., and Topham, D.K.W., eds.), Technomic Publ. Co., Lancaster, Pennsylvania, pp.161-166,

2000.

Nishino, H., Tokuda, H., Satomi, Y., Masuda, M., Bu, P., Onozuk, M., Yamaguchi, S., Okuda, Y., Takayasu, J., Tsuruta, J., Okuda, M., Ichiishi, E., Murakoshi, M., Kato, T. Misawa, N., Narisawa, T., Takasuka, N., and Yano, M. Cancer prevention by carotenoids, Pure Appl. Chem., 71, 2273-2278, 1999.

0sterlie, M., Bjerkeng, B., and Liaaen-Jensen, S. Blood appearance and distribution of E/Z isomers among plasma lipoproteins in humans administered a single meal with astaxan-thin, 12th Int. Carotenoid Symp., Cairns, Australia, abstract 2A-13, 1999.

Polidori, M.C., Mecocci, P., Stahl, W., Parente, B., Cecchetti, R., Cherubini, A., Cao, P., Sies, H., and Senin, U. Plasma levels of lipophilic antioxidants in very old patients with type 2 diabetes, Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev., 16, 15-19, 2000.

Rapp, L.M., Seema, S.S., and Choi, J.H. Lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in rod outer segment membranes from perifoveal and peripheral human retina, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 41, 2100-2109, 2000.

Redlich, C.A., Chung, J.S., Cullen, M.R., Blaner, W.S., Van Bennekum, A.M., and Berglund, L. Effect of long-term beta-carotene and vitamin A on serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels among participants in the Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), Atherosclerosis, 143, 427-434, 1999.

Rengal, D., Diez-Navajas, A., Serna-Rico, A., Veiga, P., Muga, A., and Milicua, J.C.G. Exogenously incorporated ketocarotenoids in large unilamellar vesicles. Protective activity against peroxidation, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1463, 179-187, 2000.

Rumi, G., Jr., Szabo, I., Vincze, A., Matus, Z., Toth, G., and Mozsik, G. Decrease of serum carotenoid in Crohn's disease, J. Physiol. (Paris), 94, 159-161, 2000.

Schiedt, K. New Aspects of Carotenoid Metabolism in Animals, in Carotenoids: Chemistry and Biology (Krinsky, N.I., ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp 247-268, 1990.

Schut, T.C.B., Puppels, G.J., Kraan, Y.M., Greve, J., van der Maas, L.I.J., and Figdor, C.G. Intracellular carotenoid levels measured by raman microscopy: Comparison of lymphocytes from lung cancer patients and healthy individuals, Int. J. Cancer (Pred. Oncol.), 74, 20-25, 1997.

Scott, K.J. and Hart, D.J. The carotenoid composition of vegetables and fruits commonly consumed in the U.K., Norwich Laboratory, ISBN 0 7084 0549 5, 1994.

Seddon, J.M., Ajani, U.A., Sperduto, R.D., Hiller, R., Blair, N., Burton, T. C., Farber, M.D., Gragoudas, E.S., Haller, J., Miller, D.T., Yannuzzi, L.A., and Willett, W. Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E and advanced age-related macular degeneration, J. Am. Med. Assoc., 272, 1413-1420, 1994.

Snodderly, D.M. Evidence for protection against age-related macular degeneration by carotenoids and antioxidant vitamins, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 26 (suppl.), 1448S-1461S, 1995.

Sommerburg, O.G., Siems, W.G., Hurst, J.S., Lewis, J.W., Kliger, D.S., and van Kuijk, F.J.G. M. Lutein and zeaxanthin are associated with photoreceptors in the human retina, Curr. Eye Res., 19, 491-495, 1999.

Stahl, W. and Sies, H. The role of carotenoids and retinoids in gap-junctional communication, Int. J. Vit. Nutr. Res., 68, 354-359, 1998.

Stahl, W., Heinrich, U., Jungmann, H., Sies, H., and Tronnier, H. Carotenoids in human skin — protective effects against sunburn, 12th Int. Carotenoid Symp., Cairns, Australia, abstract 4A-1, 1999.

Stahl, W., Nicolai, S., Briviba, K., Hanusch, M., Broszeit, G., Peters, M., Martin, H.-D., and Sies, H. Biological activities of natural and synthetic carotenoids: induction of gap-junc-tional communication and singlet oxygen quenching, Carcinogenesis, 18, 89-92, 1997.

Straub, O. Key to Carotenoids, 2nd ed. (Pfander, H., ed.), Birkhauser Verlag, Basel, 1987.

Talwar, D., Ha, T.K., Scott, H.R., Cooney, J., Fell, G.S., O'Reilly, D.S., Lean, M.E., and McMillan, D.C. Effect of inflammation measures of antioxidant status in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer, Am. J. Clin.Nutr, 66, 1283-1285, 1997.

Terao, J. Antioxidant activity of ß-carotene-related carotenoids in solution, Lipids, 24, 659-661, 1989.

Tso, M.O.M. and Lam, T.T. Method of retarding and ameliorating central nervous system and eye damage, U.S. Patent 5,527,533, 1996.

Voorrips, L.E., Goldbohn, R.A., Brants, H.A.M., van Poppel, G.A.F.C., Sturmans, F., Hermus, R.J.J., and van den Brandt, P.A. A prospective cohort study on antioxidant and folate intake and male lung cancer risk, Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev., 9, 357-365, 2000.

Weedon, B.C.L., Occurrence, in Carotenoids (Isler, O., ed.), Birkhauser Verlag, Basel, pp. 29-59, 1971.

Woodall, A.A., Lee, S.W.-M., Weesie, R.J., Jackson, M.J., and Britton, G. Oxidation of carotenoids by free radicals: relationship between structure and reactivity, Biochem. Biophys. Acta, 1336, 33-42, 1997.

Yong, L.-C., Forman, M.R., Beecher, G.R., Graubard, B.I., Campbell, W.S., Reichman, M.E., Taylor, P.R., Lanza, E., Holden, J.M., and Judd, J.T. Relationship between dietary intake and plasma concentrations of carotenoids in premenopausal women: application of the USDA-NCI carotenoid food-composition database, J. Clin. Nutr., 60, 223-230, 1994.

Zhang, L.X., Cooney, R.V., and Bertram, J.S. Carotenoids enhance gap junctional communication and inhibit lipid peroxidation in C3H/10T1/2 cell: relationship to their cancer chemopreventive action, Carcinogenesis, 12, 2109-2114, 1991.

Quick Weight Loss Action

Quick Weight Loss Action

Why Indulge In Self-Pity When You Can Do Something About Your Weight Now. Say Goodbye to Your Weight Problems That Have Only Make Your Life Nothing But Miserable. Have you often felt short-changed because of your weight or physical appearance?

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment