Index

Aberrant crypt foci (ACF), 88, 89, 92-93 Absorption, See also Pharmacokinetics anthocyanins, 35 interactions, 82

tocopherols and tocotrienols, 65-67 wine polyphenols, 43, 46 Acidity, 31, 32

Adapto-electroretinograms (AERG), 28 Adhesins, 31, 32-33 Adverse effects, 3, 82 beta-carotene, 165 crucifer isothiocyanates, 89 lectins, 151 polyphenols, 50-51 wine polyphenols, 50-51 Aflatoxin B1, 29 Aging effects age-related macular degeneration

(AMD), 28, 184-185 estrogen loss and cognitive dysfunction, 106-107, 110 neuroprotective effect of phytoestro-

gens, See Soy phytoestrogens oxidative damage, 28, 162 Vaccinium species berries and, 27-28 A/J mouse model, 88-89 Alcoholic beverages, See Ethanol; Wine polyphenols Aldose reductase, 27, 29 Alkaloids, 123 Alkamides, 11, 12, 132

species identification, 14-15

Allergic reactions, 51 Aloe vera, 4 Alzheimer's disease, 27 tocopherols and, 73 estrogen and, 106-107, 110, 114 future projections, 115 neurofibrillary tangles, 106 neuroprotective effect of phytoestrogens, See Soy phytoestrogens Ammonia lyase, 140 Amplified Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP), 10, 16 Amylase inhibitors, 150-150 P-Amyloid, 111 Angina pectoris, 42

Anthocyanins, 20, 21, See also Vaccinium species berries absorption, 35 antioxidant activity, 22 capillary permeability effects, 25 glycemic effects, 26-27 hormonal influences, 28 plant maturity and content, 129 starch enzyme inhibition, 27 urinary tract health and, 29-34 vasorelaxation effects, 23-24 vision effects, 28-29 Antibiotic resistance, 135 Anticancer activity, See Cancer Antidepressants, 82 Antiinflammatory activity curcumin, 81

tocopherols and tocotrienols, 69 Antimicrobial effects, cranberry, 29-34

Antinutritional factors, 151 Antioxidant activity, See also specific antioxidants carotenoids, 185, 186, See also specific carotenoids astaxanthin, 177, 186 ß-cryptoxanthin, 180 depletion studies, 165 lutein and zeaxanthin, 185 lycopene, 160, 161-162 oilseed phenolics, 141-143, 145-146 phospholipids, 148

phytochemical neuroprotective activity and, 115-116 tocopherols and tocotrienols, 67-68 Vaccinium species berries, 20, 21-23 antiaging effects, 27-28 effects on vision, 28 wine, 46-48 ApoB, 70

Apolipoprotein E, 65

Apoptosis, tocopherols and tocotrienols and, 70, 71 Apple, 42, 44, 46 Apricot, 152, 159

Arabidopsis Genome Initiative, 131 Aristolochia species, 82 Arterial relaxation, 23-24 Ascorbic acid, 46 Asiatic bilberry, 20 Astaxanthin, 174, 176-179, 186 Atherosclerosis, 185

soy isoflavones and, 111 wine consumption and, 45, 48 S-Avenasterol, 148

Bacterial adhesins, 31, 32-33 Bamboo, 152 Barley oil, 62, 64 Beer, 48

Benzo(a)pyrene (BAP), 88 Benzoic acid, 21, 32 Benzyl ITC (BITC), 88-92, 94 Berries, See Vaccinium species berries Beta-carotene, 163-164, See also Carotenoids bioconcentration, 186 bioengineering, 132 cancer and, 164-165 clinical trials, 164-165, 166 food sources, 164

BHT, 22

Bilberry, 20, 23, 25, See also Vaccinium species berries capillary effects, 26 diabetes and, 26-27 hormonal influences, 28 platelet effects, 25 urinary tract health and, 29 vision effects, 28-29 Bile, tocopherol metabolism, 65 Bioassays, 16

Bioavailability, tocopherols and tocotrienols, 65-67, See also Pharmacokinetics Bioengineering, 123, 132-135 Bitter almond seed, 152 Bitter melon, 159 Blackberry, 22 Black currant, 23 Bladder cancer, 89

Blueberry, 20, See also Vaccinium species berries antiaging effects, 27-28 anticancer activity, 29 antioxidant activity, 22, 23, 116 phytochemical content and plant maturity, 129 phytochemicals, 21 recommended intake, 35 specified health claims, 21 urinary tract health and, 29-34 vasorelaxation effects, 23 Borage, 145 Brain cancer, 162 Brassica oilseeds, 151 Brassicasterol, 148, 149, 162, 70, See also

Mammary cancer Breast cancer

ß-cryptoxanthin and, 180 soy isoflavones and, 111 Breeding, See Plant breeding Broccoli cooking effects, 97 isothiocyanates and cancer, 88, 92, 100, See also Isothiocyanates lutein, 183 Buckwheat, 22

Butter, tocopherol and tocotrienol content, 64

C3G, 22-23 Cabbage, 100, 88

Caffeic acid, 11, 12

antioxidant activity, 21 oilseed content, 143, 144 pharmacokinetics, 81 Caffeine, 51 Campesterol, 148, 149 Cancer, See also specific types cancer-promoting effects, 51, 82, 165

carotenoids and, 180, 185, See also specific carotenoids beta-carotene, 164-165 ß-cryptoxanthin, 180 lycopene, 157-158, 162-163 curcumin and, 81-82 glucosinolates and, 151 isothiocyanates and, 87-101, See also

Isothiocyanates oilseed phenolics, 143, 145 orange oil components and, 82 phytate and, 150 soy products and, 111, 144, 150 tocopherols and tocotrienols and, 70, 73

Vaccinium species berries and, 29 Candida spp., 12 Candidiasis, 10 Canola, 62, 64

phenolic content, 143 sterols, 149 Capillary permeability, 25 Carbon-14 isotope (14C) studies, 94-95 Cardiovascular health, See also Heart disease flavonoids and, 44-45 phytate and, 150 tocopherol natriuretic effects, 69 tocopherols and tocotrienols and, 72-73

Vaccinium species berries and, 23-26

wine polyphenols and, 43-45 ß-Carotene, See Beta-carotene Carotene pathway genes, 132 Carotenoids, 173-176, See also Beta-

carotene; specific carotenoids antioxidant, 185 astaxanthin, 174, 176-179 cancer and, 180, 185-186 ß-cryptoxanthin, 174, 179-182 depletion studies, 165-166 diabetes and, 181

ethanol effects on blood levels, 181

human functional requirements issues,

174-176 lutein, 174, 182-186 lycopene, 157-167 macular concentration, 183-185 oilseed, 150

photosynthesis and, 173-174 zeaxanthin, 174, 182-186 Carrot, 159, 164 Cassava, 152 Cataracts, 73

Catechins, 47-48, 50, See also

Polyphenols; Wine polyphenols oilseed content, 145 pharmacokinetics, 80-81 plaque formation inhibition, 45 Catechol-O-methyltransferases (COMT), 24

Cell growth, soy isoflavones and TGF-b and, 111-112 Cell-wall derived polysaccharides, 11 Cervical cancer, 162 Cherry seed, 152 Chinese herbs, 4 Chlorogenic acid, 21, 143 antioxidant activity, 21 oilseed content, 144 pharmacokinetics, 81 Cholesterol beta-carotene and, 164 lycopene and, 160, 161 phytate and, 150 saponins and, 150

tocopherols and tocotrienols and, 70,

71-72 wine effects, 45 Choline, 148 Chylomicrons, 65, 67 Cianidanol, 50 Cichoric acid, 11, 14-15 Ciprofibrate, 26 Cirrhosis, 181 Clinical trials, 2

beta-carotene, 164-165 lycopene, 166 Vaccinium fruit effects, 35 Cloudberry, 159 Coconut oil, 64 Coenzyme Q, 146 Coffee beans, 81 Cold sores, 12

isothiocyanates and, 88, 89, 92-93 phytate and, 150 Colorectal cancer, crucifer consumption and, 99 Comet Assay, 180 Condensed tannins, 142, 143 Connexin43, 161-162 Cooking effects, 96-97 Copper, 22, 130 Corn oil, 62, 64, 149 Corpus luteum, 183 Cottonseed oil, 62, 64, 144 O-Coumaric acid, 144, 145 p-Coumaric acid, 143, 144, 145 Coumesterol, 144

Cranberry, 21, See also Vaccinium species berries antioxidant activity, 23 bacterial adhesin inhibition, 32-33 lycopene, 159 phytochemicals, 21 platelet effects, 25 urinary tract health and, 29-34 C reactive protein, 70-71 Crohn's disease, 180 Crop yields, 122

nutrient content and, 130 Cruciferous vegetables, See also specific plants cancer prevention effects, 88-101, See also Isiothiocyanates; specific vegetables cooking effects, 96-97 ß-Cryptoxanthin, 174, 179-182 Curcumin, 81-82

Cyanidins, 22, 35, 143, 152, See also

Anthocyanins Cyanogenic glycosides, 152, See also

Anthocyanins; Cyanidins Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors, 12 Cytochrome P450 3A4 monooxygenase, 82-83

Daidzein, 144 Date palm, 159

Delphinidin, 22, 23, 29, 35, See also

Anthocyanins Dementia, 27, See also Alzheimer's disease intellectual stimulation and, 115 tofu consumption and, 114 Desmethoxycurcumin, 81

Developing countries, population and health, 121-123 Diabetes, 26-27

carotenoid blood levels and, 181 tocopherols and, 73 Diabetic retinopathy, 28 Difrarel, 20, 25 Digitalis, 82 Dihydroquercetin, 144 4,6-Dihydroxy-2-<O>-ß-D-glucosyl-3-

oxo-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran, 23 Dimethylsterols, 148 DMBA-induced tumorigenesis, 88 DNA shuffling, 135 Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 148 Drug-phytochemical interactions, 6, 82-83

Echinacea, 9-16

bioengineering, 132 phytochemical diversity, 11-13 quality control and quality improvement, 13-16 species diversity, 10 uses, 10

wild populations, 16 Echinacea angustifolia (D.C.), 10, 12, 14, 16

Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt., 10, 14 Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench, 10, 14,

See Echinacea Echinacea simulata, 10 Echinacoside, 11, 16 Effectiveness, 2-3 EGCG, 51 Eggplant, 159 Elderberry, 35 Ellagic acid, 143

Endothelial-dependent vasodilation, 50 Enterodiol, 145 Enterolactone, 145 Enzyme inhibitors, 150-151 Ephedra, 3 Epicatechin, 47, 145 Epigastric pain, 178 Erythropoietic protoporphyria, 150 Escherichia coli, 31, 33 Esophageal tumor, 89 17ß-Estradiol, 105, 108, 113 Estrogen aging-related oxidation and, 115-116

cognitive dysfunction and, 106,

110-111, 114 premenopausal treatment, 114 Estrogenic phytoestrogens, neuroprotective activity, 105-116, See Soy phytoestrogens

Ethanol absorption and metabolism, 43 platelet aggregation and, 48 polyphenol absorption and, 46 serum carotenoid levels and, 181 Evening primrose, 64, 145 Evidence-based herbalism, 1-7 Extract standardization, 3 Eyesight, See Vision

Ferulic acid, 143, 144, 145 Feverfew, 4

Flavonoids, See also Anthocyanins;

Carotenoids; Wine polyphenols; specific flavonoids adverse effects, 50-51 antioxidant properties, 48 cardiovascular disease and, 44-45 cholesterol and, 143 structure and antioxidant efficacy, 146

Flaxseed, 144, 149, 152

Food supply, 122

Foreign language literature, 3

Formononetin, 144

Free radicals, 22-23, 142-143

in wine, 51 French paradox, 42 Fruit juice acidity, 31 ß-Fucosidase, 135 Fucosterol, 148 Fungi, 12

Gallic acid, 145

Gap junction, 160, 161, 181, 185 Garlic, 4, 6 Gastric cancer, 51 Gastric inflammation, 178 Genetic databases, 131 Genetic linkage, 129 Genetics bioengineering, See Bioengineering breeding, See Plant breeding

Genistein, 106, 108, 144, See also Soy phytoestrogens cell growth and, 112 Genistic acid, 143, 144 Genomic approaches, 131-132 Genotype-by-environment (G:E)

interaction, 129-130 Germplasm quality improvement, 15-16

Ginger, 4

Ginkgo biloba, 4-5, 6 Ginseng, 5 Gluconasturtiin, 96 <ß>-Glucosidase inhibition, 27 Glucosinolates, 151 Glutathione, 44

Glycemic response, See also Diabetes phytate and, 150 Vaccinium species berries, 26-27 Glycitin, 144 Glycosylation, 140 Gossypol, 144 Gou Zi Qi, 183

Grape, 25, 42, See also Wine polyphenols lycopene, 159 Grapefruit, 42, 159

Grape juice, See also Wine polyphenols antioxidant properties, 46, 48 platelet aggregation and, 49 polyphenolic content, 43 Green algae, 176 Green Revolution, 122 Green tea, 80

adverse effects, 51 Guava, 159 Gut microflora, 151

Haemagglutinins, 151 Heartburn, 178

Heart disease, See also Cardiovascular health beta-carotene and, 164 flavonoids and, 44-45 lycopenes and,157 tocopherols/tocotrienols and, 72-73 wine consumption and, 42 Heavy metals, 130 Helicobacter pylori, 178 Hemicelluloses, 11 Hemolytic properties, 150 Herbal medical products (HMPs), 1-7, See also specific plants, phytochemi-cals, products effectiveness, 2-3 safety, 3,6

systematic reviews, 2-5 Herb-drug interactions, See Drug-phyto-

chemical interactions Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiactasia

(HHT), 112 Herpes simplex, 12 High density lipoproteins (HDLs), 45 tocotrienols or tocopherols and, 65, 71-72

High-performance liquid chromatography

(HPLC), 13-14 Hippuric acid, 32 HMG-CoA reductase, 70, 71, 161 Homocysteine, 25 Hormonal influences, 28 Horse chestnut, 5 Human papilloma virus, 181 Hydrolyzable tannins, 142 p-Hydroxybenzoic acid, 143 Hydroxycinnamates, 22 Hydroxycinnamic acid, 81 2-(3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-)-3,5,6-trimethyl-

1,4-benzoquinone, 66 Hyperforin, 82

Hypericum perforatum, See St. John's wort

Immunostimulant activity, 10, 11 Indole-3-carbinol, 151 Indomethacin, 24 Infantile leukemia, 50 Interactions, See Drug-phytochemical interactions Intestinal bacteria, 151 Isobutylamides, See Alkamides Isochlorogenic acid, 144 Isoflavones, neuroprotective effect of phytoestrogens, See also Soy phytoestrogens Isorhamnetin, 143 Isothiocyanates, 87-101 adverse effects, 89 colon aberrant crypt foci and, 88, 89, 92-93

cooking effects and metabolism, 96-97

glucosinolate metabolites, 151

lung cancer and, 88-89, 100 prostate cancer and, 93-94 structures, 90

tissue distribution and metabolism, 94-97

tumor inhibition mechanism, 91-92 K

Kaempferol, 143 Kale, 183 Kidney cancer, 82

Land use, 122

Lard, tocopherol and tocotrienol content, 64

Lectins, 151 Leukemia, 50 Lignans, 144 Lima bean, 151, 152 Limonene, 82 Linamarin, 152 Lingonberry, 21, 23, 33 Linustatin, 152

Lipid metabolism, See Cholesterol; High density lipoproteins; Low density lipoproteins Lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitors, 12 Liver cancer, 88, 89, 162, 185 LLU-a, 66, 69

Low density lipoproteins (LDLs) oilseed phytochemicals and, 143 tocopherols/tocotrienols and, 67-68 tomato products and, 163 Vaccinium antioxidant activity, 22 wine effects, 45, 47-48 Lung cancer carotenoids and, 185 P-cryptoxanthin and, 180 isothiocyanates and, 88-89, 100 Lung tissue, isothiocyanate distribution,

94-95 Lutein, 174, 182-186 Lycium mill berries, 183 Lycopene, 157-163,174

antioxidant activity, 160, 161-162 cancer and, 162-163 carotenoid depletion studies, 165-166 cholesterol synthesis and, 160, 161 clinical trials, 166 diabetes and, 181

food sources, 159-160 potential functions, 160-163 Lysine acetylsalicylate, 24

Macular carotenoids, 183-185 Macular degeneration, 28, 164, 184-185 Ma huang, 3

Maize, cryptoxanthin content, 179 Malvidin, 22, 24, 29, 50, See also Anthocyanins Malvin, 35

Mammary cancer, 162, See also Breast cancer isothiocyanates and, 88, 89 phytate and, 150 Mango, 159, 164, 179 Mannose-specific adhesins, 31 Margarine, tocopherol and tocotrienol content, 64 Marketing trends, Vaccinium species berries, 21 Matairesinol, 144 Memory, 27-28

phospholipids and, 148 Menopause-associated estrogen loss, 106, 108

Methylhydroxychromans, 66, 69 Methyl jasmonate, 14 Micronutrient content, 130 Micronutrient malnutrition, 128 Microtubule-associated protein, 106,

108-109, 113 Molecular markers, 130 Mouth sores, 10, 12 Mustard, 143-144, 149, 151 Mutations, random, 128 Myocardial infarction, 42 Myoinositol, 149 Myosinase, 96, 151 Myrtocyan®, 24, 25

Naphthyl ITC, 88 Natriuretic effects, 69 Natural products, 123 Neolinustatin, 152 Neuroprotective effects, See also Alzheimer's disease phytoestrogens, 105-116, See also Soy phytoestrogens

Vaccinium species berries, 27-28 Nickel, 130 Night vision, 28 Nitric oxide (NO), 50, 68, 69 Nitric oxide synthase, 69 Nitrogen dioxide, 68 Nitrogen reactive species, tocopherol/to-

cotrienol activity, 68 Nitrosamine-induced tumorigenesis, 88,

143, 181, 186 Nuclear factor (NF)-kB, 70

Oat oil, 64 Oenothin B, 145

Oilseed phytochemicals, 139-152, See also specific oilseeds carotenoids, 150 cyanogenic glycosides, 152 enzyme inhibitors, 150-151 glucosinolates, 151 haemagglutinins, 151 lectins, 151 oligosaccharides, 151 other phytochemicals, 147 phenolics and polyphenolics,

140-146, See also Phenolics phospholipids, 148 phytic acid, 149-150 phytosterols, 148-149 saponins, 150

tocopherols and tocotrienols, 62, 146 ubiquinones, 146 Oligosaccharides, 151 Olive oil, 64 Onion, 42, 44 Orange juice, 46 Orange oil, 82 Orange peppers, 183

Oxidative stress, 27-28, 142-143, 162, See

Antioxidant activity Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), 22

Palm oil, 62, 64, 72, 146, 150 Pancreatic cancer, 89, 150 Papaya, 159

Parthenium integrifolium, 10

Peach, 152, 159

Peanut lectins, 151 phenolics, 144 phytic acid, 149

tocopherols and tocotrienols, 64 Pectins, 11, 27 Pelargonidin, 143 Pelargonin, 22 Peppermint, 5 Perillyl alcohol, 82 Peroxides, 22 Persimmon, 159 Petunidin, 29 pH, fruit juices, 31 pH, urinary, 32

Pharmacokinetics, 79-83, See also

Absorption; Bioavailability crucifer isothiocyanates, 94-97 Phenethyl ITC (PEITC), 88-97 Phenolics, 11, 123, See also Chlorogenic acid; Wine polyphenols; specific phenolic compounds antioxidant properties, 141-143,

145-146 biochemistry, 140-143 cancer and, 143

ethanol effects on absorption, 43, 46 oilseed, 143-146 pharmacokinetics, 81-82 plant maturity and content, 129 potential adverse effects, 50-51 Vaccinium phytochemicals, 21 Phenylpropanoids, 140, 143, 145 Phosphatidylcholine, 148 Phosphatidylserine, 148 Phospholipids, 148

Phosphorylation, tau protein, 106, 109, 113 Phytic acid, 149-150 Phytochemicals, 123, See specific activities, properties, substances adverse effects, See Adverse effects definition, 123 drug interactions, 6, 82-83 markers, 14 Phytoene synthase, 132 Phytoestrogens, neuroprotective activity,

105-116 Phytofluene, 163 Phytosterols, 148-149 Pinoresinol, 145 Placenta, 50

Plant breeding, 123, 127-132

genomic and proteomic approaches, 131-132

genotype-by-environment (G:E)

interaction, 129-130 inherent inefficiency, 129-130 marker-assisted selection, 130-131 new technologies and applications, 134-135

Plaque formation, wine effects, 45, 48 Platelet aggregation, 25-26

tocopherols and tocotrienols, 69-70 wine effects, 48-50 Plum, 159

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 143, 151

Polyphenols, See Phenolics; Wine polyphenols; specific substances adverse effects, 50-51 in fruits and vegetables, 52 Polysaccharides, 11 Population growth, 121-123 Pregnancy, 50 Premarin, 107-114

Prescription drug-herb interactions, 6, See also Drug-phytochemical interactions Primary metabolism, 123-125 Primate brain model, neuroprotective effect of soy phytoestrogens, 107-114 Prostate cancer, See also Cancer crucifer isothiocyanates and, 93-94 lycopene and, 158, 162-163 soy isoflavones and, 111 tocopherols and tocotrienols and, 70, 73

Protease inhibitors, 150 Protein database, 131 Protein kinase C, 69 Proteomic approaches, 131-132 Protocatechuic acid, 23, 143 Prunetin, 144 Publication bias, 3 Pumpkin, 159, 164

Quality control, Echinacea products, 13-16 Quercetin, 21, 45, 47, 50, 143 oilseed content, 143, 144 pharmacokinetics, 81 Quinic acid, 32, 144 Quinone oxidase, 29

Rabbiteye blueberry, 20, 22, 28 Radiation protective effects, 25 Radish, 88 Raffinose, 151

Randomized clinical trials (RCTs), 2 Rapeseed, 143, 149

Reactive oxygen species, 21-23, 142-143, See also Antioxidant activity; Oxidative stress Recombinant technology, 132 Red bell pepper, 179 Red raspberry, 22 Red wine antioxidant properties, 46-48 catechin pharmacokinetics, 81 free radicals, 51 platelet aggregation and, 49 polyphenolic content, 23, 43, See also Wine polyphenols Respiratory illness, 10 Resveratrol, 43, 44, 47, 50, 52 Retinal carotenoid concentration, 183-185 Retinal sensitivity, 28-29 Retinol, wine consumption and serum levels, 46 Rice bran oil, 62, 64, 72, 146 Rosmarinic acid, 145 Rutabaga, 159 Rutin, 81, 144 Rye bran oil, 62

Safety issues, 3, 6 Safflower oil, 64 St. John's wort, 5, 82-83 Salicylic acid, 50 Salmon, 176 Saponins, 150 Sea buckthorn, 22

Secoisolericresorsinol diglucoside, 144

Secondary metabolism, 123-125

Seed banks, 128

Selenium toxicity, 152

Septic wounds, 10

Sesame, 145, 149

Sesamol, 145

Signal transduction, tocopherols and tocotrienols and, 69 Simon metabolites, 66 Sinapic acid, 143, 144, 145

P-Sitosterol, 148, 149 Skin cancer, 181 Smokers cancer-promoting effects of beta-carotene supplements, 165 maternal smoking and infant blood levels, 180 Sore throat, 10, 12 South China blueberry, 20 Soybean anti-cancer properties, 144, 150 antioxidant activity, 116 environmental and variety effects on content, 129 isoflavones in germ, 144 lectins, 151 oil phytic acid, 149 oil tocopherols, 62, 64 phenolic content, 144 Soy phytoestrogens, 105-116, 144 cancer protection effects, 111 chronic disease models, 111 epidemiological evidence, 114 future projections, 115 TGF-b role in mechanism of action, 111-112 Spina bifida, 33 Spinach, 27-28, 116, 183 a-Spinasterol, 148 Squash, 164 Stachyose, 151 Standardization of extracts, 3 Starch enzyme inhibition, 27 Sterols, 148 Stigmasterol, 148, 149 Stilbene, 43 Strawberry, 27-28, 116 Sulforaphane (SFN), 88, 92-94, 97 Sunflower, 62, 64, 144 Superoxide anion, 21 Superoxide dismutase (SOD), 68 Sweet cherry, 22 Sweet pepper, 159 Syringic acid, 143, 144, 145 Systematic reviews, 2-5

Tangerine, 179

Tannins, 43, 142, 143

Tau protein, 106, 108-109, 113

Taxifolin, 144

Tea adverse effects, 51

flavonoid intake and cardiovascular health, 42, 44 lycopene, 159 pharmacokinetics, 80-81 Terpenoids, 123 Tetrahydrocurcumin, 81 2,5,7,8-Tetramethyl-2(2'carboxyethyl)-6-

hydroxychroman, 66 Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances

(TBARS), 22-23, 72, 180 Thyroid hormones, 28 Thyroxine (T4), 28 Tissue culture methods, 15 a-Tocopherol, 62

antiinflammatory effects, 69 antioxidant activity, 22, 67-68 bioengineering, 131, 132 C reactive protein and, 70 cancer and, 73

cardiovascular health and, 72 y-tocopherol interactions, 66-67 signal transduction and, 69 Simon metabolites, 66 vitamin C and, 68 S-Tocopherol, cancer and, 70, 73 y-Tocopherol, 62, See also Tocopherols antioxidant activity, 68 cancer and, 70, 73 natriuretic effects, 69 a-tocopherol interactions, 66-67 y-Tocopherol methyltransferase, 131 Tocopherol-binding protein, 66 Tocopherols, 61-73

absorption, transport, and bioavailability, 65-67 antiinflammatory effects, 69 antioxidant activity, 67-68 cancer and, 70, 73 cardiovascular health and, 72-73 cell apoptosis and, 71 chemistry, 62 cholesterol and, 70, 71-72 C reactive protein and, 70-71 interactions, 66-67 natriuretic effects, 69 occurrence in foods, 62, 64, 146 oilseed, 146

platelet adhesion, 69-70 signal transduction, 69 a-Tocotrienol antioxidant activity, 68 cholesterol and, 72

y-Tocotrienol antioxidant activity, 68 nitrogen radicals and, 68 Tocotrienols, 61-73

absorption, transport, and bioavailability, 65-67 antiinflammatory effects, 69 antioxidant activity, 67-68 apoptosis and, 70, 71 C reactive protein and, 70-71 cancer and, 70, 73 cardiovascular health and, 72-73 chemistry, 62 cholesterol and, 70, 71-72 interactions, 66-67 natriuretic effects, 69 occurrence in foods, 62, 64, 146 oilseed, 146

platelet adhesion, 69-70 signal transduction, 69 Tofu, age-associated cognitive impairment and,114

Tomato, lycopene and human health, 157-167

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-b), 111-112 Trihydroxyisoflavone, 144 Triiodothyronine (T3), 28 2,7,8-Trimethyl-2-(b-carboxyethyl)-6-hy-

droxychroman, 66, 69 Tumeric, 81

Tumor inhibitors, See Cancer; specific substances Turnip, 159 Tyrosine, 140

Ubiquinones, 146 Urinary tract health, 29-34 Urine acidification, 32 Urothelial cancer, 82

Vaccinium angustifolium, See Blueberry Vacinnium myrtillus L., See Bilberry Vaccinium species berries, 19-36, See also Anthocyanins; Bilberry; Blueberry; Cranberry aging and memory loss and, 27-28 anticancer activity, 29 antioxidant activity, 20, 21-23

cardiovascular benefits, 23-26 design of clinical studies, 35 glycemic effects, 26-27 issues to be resolved, 34-35 marketing trends, 21 phytochemicals, 21 species, 20-21

urinary tract health and, 29-34 vision benefits, 28-29 Valerian, 5

Vanillic acid, 143, 144, 145 Vasorelaxation effects, 23-24, 50 Verbascose, 151

Very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs), 65-66,71-72

Vision lutein and zeaxanthin and, 183-185 macular degeneration, 28, 164,

184-185 tocopherols and, 73 Vaccinium species products and, 28-29

Vitamin C, tocopherol regeneration and, 68 Vitamin content, 130 Vitamin E activity, 62, 146, See also a-Tocopherol; Tocopherols; Tocotrienols Vitis vinifera, 25

Wassabi, 151

Watercress, 88, 96, 100 Watermelon, 159 Wheat germ oil, 62, 64, 146 White wine antioxidant properties, 46, 47 platelet aggregation and, 49 Wild Echinacea populations, 1 Wine polyphenols, 23, 41-43 antioxidant properties, 45-48 cardiovascular health and, 43-45

content, red vs. white wines, 43 hemostasis effects, 48-50 metabolism, 43-44 nitric oxide-related effects, 50 pharmacokinetics, 81 potential adverse effects, 50-51

World population, 121-123 X

Xanthine oxidase, 22

Yeast aggregation, 33

Zeaxanthin, 174, 182-186 Zinc, 130

FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Are soy ¡soflavones neuroprotective? Just how different is one species of Echinacea from another? Which phytochemicals will be effective os therapeutic agents in vivo? Supported by solid scientific research, Phytochemicals in Nutrition and Health helps provide answers to these and other probing questions concerning the mechanisms of action associated with beneficial phytochemica! groups. It examines new areas such as the efficacy and safety of medicinal herbs, the use of biotechnology to manipulate and enhance the phytochemical profiles of various plants, and the pharmacokinetics of phytochemicals in humans.

The editors also expand discussion presented in their previous books on phytochemicals. They explore new research on phytochemicals in the Vaccinium family (cranberries, blueberries and bilberries), wine, and oilseeds, and the biological octivily of Echinacea in humans. Additional chapters present new information about isothiocyanates, lycopene, carotenoids other than beta carotene, tocotrienols, and phytoestrogens. Highlighting phytochemicals thai have significant potential for promoting health or preventing disease, Phytochemicals in Nutrition and Health expands discussions of appropriate research methodologies and new technologies in this exciting field

Features

  • Presents new directions in research, including the role of isothiocyanates in cancer prevention
  • Provides an overview of the pharmacokinetics of phytochemicals in humans, including digestion, absorption, metabolism and excretion of phytochemicals
  • Offers rigorous scientific coverage of the efficacy and safety of o wide array of medicinal herbs, including Echinacea-based phytomedicines
  • Examines the impact of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates on human health
  • Explores the latest research on lycopene, lutein, cryptoxanthin and zeoxanthin
  • Focuses on the potential role of the entire tocopherol family in human health
  • Discusses the entire class of phytoestrogens and their potential role in neuroprotection
Extreme Health Resolution Secrets

Extreme Health Resolution Secrets

Surefire Ways To Master Your Waistline And Get Your Health Under Control. This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To Getting Serious Results In Getting In Shape.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment